Life and Works of Abraham Lincoln
Edited by Marion Mills Miller, Litt. D.
In Nine Volumes: Volume VIII
AUGUSTUS ST. GAUDENS
BRONZE STATUE OF ABRAHAM EIXCOLN
In Lincoln Park, Chicago
Gasparin to Meade
Including Messages to Congress,
Military Orders, Memoran-
da, etc., Relating to
The Current Literature Publishing Co.
LIBRARY of CONGRESS
CLASS A XXo. No.
Copyright, 1907, Current Literature Publishing Company
THE QUINN & BODEN CO. PRESS
RAHWAY, N. J.
Letters and Telegrams :
Gasparin, Count, i. Geary, J. W., 3. Gentry, M.
P., 3. Gere, I. A., and Others, 4. Giddings, J. R., 4.
Gillespie, Joseph, 5. Gillmore, Quincy A., 11. Gil-
mer, John A., 12. Glenn, Lieutenant-Colonel, 14.
Glover, S. T., 14. Goldsborough, Louis M., 15.
Goodrich, J. Z., 17. Gordon, Nathaniel, 17. Goss,
G. G., and Others, 18. Grant, Ulysses S., 19. Gray,
John P., 41. Greeley, Horace, 43. Green, Duff,
48. Grimes, James W., 50. Grimes, William, 50.
Grimsley, Mrs. Elizabeth J., 52. Gurney, Mrs.
Eliza P., 52. Guthrie, James, 53.
Hackett, James H., 54. Hahn, Michael, 55. Hale,
J. T., 56. Halleck, Henry W., 57. Hamlin, Hanni-
bal, 83. Hancock, Winfield S., 88. Hardin, John
J., 88. Harney, W. S., 92. Harvey, J. E., 93. Hay,
John, 94. Haycraft, Samuel, 95. Helm, Mrs. Emily
T., 98. Henderson, T. J., 09. Henry, A. G., 101.
Henry, Alexander, 104. Herndon, Rowan, 104.
Herndon, William H., 105. Herron, F. J., 118.
Hewett, Josephus, 118. Hicks, G. Montague, 120.
Hicks, Thomas, 120. Hicks, Thomas H., 121.
Hodges, A. G., 124. Hoffman, H. W., 127. Hoff-
man, Ogden, 127. Holt, Joseph, 128. Hooker,
Joseph, 128. Hough, R. M., and Others, 142. How-
ard, O. O., 143. Hoyt, Charles, 143. Hunt, Ward,
144. Hunt, Mrs., 145. Hunter, David, 146. Hurl-
but, S. A., 153. Hurlbut, Mrs. S. A., 158. Hughes,
John, 158. Huidekoper, H. C, 159.
Ide, Dr., and Others, 160. Ingalls, R., 161. Irwin,
James S., 161.
Jacob, R. T., 162. James, B. F., 162. Jameson,
E. H. and E., 168. Jayne, William, 168. Johnson,
Andrew, 169. Johnson, Reverdy, 178. Johnston,
John D., 180. Johnston, William, 186. Jonas, A.,
192. Jordan, Warren, 193. Judd, N. B., 194.
Kapp, Frederick, and Others, 199. Kelley, Wil-
liam D., 199. Kellogg, William, 200. Key, John
J., 201. Kirkland, C. P., 204. Knox, Thomas W.,
205. Koppel, Herman, 205.
Lamon, Ward H., 206. Lane, J. H., 207. Lard-
ner, John L., and Others, 208. Lee, J. C, 209.
Lee, S. P., 209. Lewis, Alpheus, 210. Lincoln,
Abraham [Autobiographies and Memorandum], 211.
Lincoln, Mrs. Abraham, 224. Lincoln, David, 227.
Lincoln, Jesse, 229. Lincoln, Robert T., 231. Lin-
coln, Thomas, 232. Lincoln, Mrs. Thomas, 232.
Linder, Daniel, 233. Linder, U. F., 233. Logan,
John A., 234. Loomis, F. B., 235. Lowe, F. F.,
235. Lucas, J. M., 237. Lusk, Edward, 239.
Mackay, Alfred, 240. Maclean, John, 240. Ma-
goffin, Beriah, 241. Malhiot, E. E., and Others,
242. Maltby, Harrison, 243. Mann, Mrs. Horace,
245. Mansfield, J. K. F., 245. Marcy, R. B., 245.
Mathers, John, 246. Matteson, Joel A., 247. May-
nard, Horace, 247. McCall, G. A., 248. McClellan,
George B., 248. McClernand, John A., 288. Mc-
Clernand, John, 293. McClure, A. K, 294. McCul-
lough, Miss Fanny, 294. McDougall, J. A., 295.
McDowell, Irvin, 297. McLean, John, 303. Mc-
Michael, Morton, 304. McNeil, C. F., 305. Mc-
Pheeters, Samuel S., 306. Meade, George G., 307.
Meagher, T. Francis, 313. Meconkey, Mrs. Sarah
B., 313. Mercer, Samuel, 314.
Washington, August 4, 1862.
To Count A. de Gasparin.
Dear Sir: Your very acceptable letter, dated
Orbe, Canton de Vaud, Switzerland, 18th of July,
1862, is received. The moral effect was the
worst of the affair before Richmond, and that
has run its course downward. We are now at
a stand, and shall soon be rising again, as we
hope. I believe it is true that, in men and ma-
terial, the enemy suffered more than we in that
series of conflicts, while it is certain he is less
able to bear it.
With us every soldier is a man of character,
and must be treated with more consideration
than is customary in Europe. Hence our great
army, for slighter causes than could have pre-
vailed there, has dwindled rapidly, bringing the
necessity for a new call earlier than was antici-
pated. We shall easily obtain the new levy, how-
ever. Be not alarmed if you shall learn that
we shall have resorted to a draft for part of this.
It seems strange even to me, but it is true, that
the government is now pressed to this course
by a popular demand. Thousands who wish not
to personally enter the service, are nevertheless
anxious to pay and send substitutes, provided
they can have assurance that unwilling per-
sons, similarly situated, will be compelled to do
likewise. Besides this, volunteers mostly choose
to enter newly forming regiments, while drafted
men can be sent to fill up the old ones, wherein
man for man they are quite doubly as valuable.
You ask. "Why is it that the North with her
great armies so often is found with inferiority
of numbers face to face with the armies of the
South?" While I painfully know the fact, a
military man â€” which I am not â€” would better
answer the question. The fact, I know, has not
been overlooked; and I suppose the cause of
its continuance lies mainly in the other facts that
the enemy holds the interior and we the ex-
terior lines; and that we operate where the peo-
ple convey information to the enemy, while he
operates where they convey none to us.
I have received the volume and letter which
you did me the honor of addressing to me, and
for which please accept my sincere thanks. You
are much admired in America for the ability of
your writings, and much loved for your gen-
erosity to us and your devotion to liberal prin-
You are quite right as to the importance to
us, for its bearing upon Europe, that we should
achieve military successes, and the same is true
for us at home as well as abroad. Yet it seems
unreasonable that a series of successes, extending
through half a year, and clearing more than
100,000 square miles of country, should help us
so little, while a single half defeat should hurt
us so much. But let us be patient.
GENTRY, M. P. 3
I am very happy to know that my course has
not conflicted with your judgment of propriety
and policy. I can only say that I have acted
upon my best convictions, without selfishness or
malice, and that by the help of God I shall con-
tinue to do so.
Please be assured of my highest respect and
Geary, J. W.
Washington, D. C., May 25, 1862. 4.15 p. m.
General Geary, White Plains: Please give us
your best present impression as to the number of
the enemy's forces north of Strasburg and Front
Royal. Are the forces still moving north through
the gap at Front Royal and between you and
Gentry, M. P.
Washington, March 13, 1864.
Hon. M. P. Gentry.
My dear Sir: Yours by the hand of General
Grant is received. Of course I have not for-
gotten you. General Grant is hereby authorized,
in his discretion, to send you South; and it is
rather my wish that he may find it not incon-
sistent with his view of the public interest to
Gere, I. A., and Others.
[About May 15, 1862.]
Revs. I. A. Gere, A. A. Reese, D. D., G. D.
Gentlemen: Allow me to tender to you, and
through you to the East Baltimore Conference
of the Methodist Episcopal Church, my grateful
thanks for the preamble and resolutions of that
body, copies of which you did me the honor to
present yesterday. These kind words of ap-
proval, coming from so numerous a body of
intelligent Christian people, and so free from
all suspicion of sinister motives, are indeed en-
couraging to me. By the help of an all-wise
Providence, I shall endeavor to do my duty, and
I shall expect the continuance of your prayers
for a right solution of our national difficulties
and the restoration of our country to peace and
Your obliged and humble servant,
Giddings, J. R.
Springfield, Illinois, May 21, i860.
Hon. J. R. Giddings.
My good Friend : Your very kind and accept-
able letter of the 19th was duly handed me by
Mr. Tuck. It is indeed most grateful to my
feelings that the responsible position assigned
me comes without conditions, save only such
honorable ones as are fairly implied. I am not
wanting in the purpose, though I may fail in the
strength, to maintain my freedom from bad in-
fluences. Your letter comes to my aid in this
GILLESPIE, JOSEPH 5
point most opportunely. May the Almighty grant
that the cause of truth, justice, and humanity
shall in no wise suffer at my hands.
Mrs. Lincoln joins me in sincere wishes for
your health, happiness, and long life.
Springfield, 111., May 19, 1849.
Dear Gillespie :
Butterfield will be Commissioner of the Gen'l
Land Office, unless prevented by strong and
speedy effort. Ewing is for him, and he is only
not appointed yet because Old Zach. hangs fire.
I have reliable information of this. Now, if
you agree with me that his appointment would
dissatisfy rather than gratify the Whigs of this
State, that it would slacken their energies in
future contests, that his appointment in '41 is
an old sore with them which they will not pa-
tiently have reopened, â€” in a word that his ap-
pointment now would be a fatal blunder to the
administration and our political men, here in
Illinois, write Mr. Crittenden to that effect. He
can control the matter. Were you to write
Ewing I fear the President would never hear of
your letter. This may be mere suspicion. You
might write directly to Old Zach. You will be
the best judge of the propriety of that. Not a
moment's time is to be lost.
Let this be confidential except with Mr. Ed-
wards and a few others whom you know I would
trust just as I do you.
Yours as ever,
Springfield, July 13, 1849.
Mr. Edwards is unquestionably offended with
me in connection with the matter of the General
Land Office. He wrote a letter against me which
was filed at the Department.
The better part of one's life consists of his
friendships; and, of them, mine with Mr. Ed-
wards was one of the most cherished. I have
not been false to it. At a word I could have
had the office any time before the Department
was committed to Mr. Butterfield, â€” at least Mr.
Ewing and the President say as much. That
word I forbore to speak, partly for other rea-
sons, but chiefly for Mr. Edwards' sake, â€” losing
the office that he might gain it, I was always for ;
but to lose his friendship, by the effort for him,
would oppress me very much, were I not sus-
tained by the utmost consciousness of rectitude.
I first determined to be an applicant, uncondition-
ally, on the 2nd of June ; and I did so then upon
being informed by a Telegraphic despatch that
the question was narrowed down to Mr. B
and myself, and that the Cabinet had postponed
the appointment three weeks, for my benefit.
Not doubting that Mr. Edwards was wholly out
of the question I, nevertheless, would not then
have become an applicant had I supposed he
would thereby be brought to suspect me of
treachery to him. Two or three days afterwards
a conversation with Levi Davis convinced me
Mr. Edwards was dissatisfied ; but I was then
too far in to get out. His own letter, written
on the 25th of April, after I had fully informed
him of all that had passed, up to within a few
days of that time, gave assurance I had that entire
GILLESPIE, JOSEPH 7
confidence from him, which I felt my uniform
and strong friendship for him entitled me to.
Among other things it says ' 'whatever course
your judgment may dictate as proper to be pur-
sued, shall never be excepted to by me." I also
had had a letter from Washington, saying Cham-
bers, of the Republic, had brought a rumor
then, that Mr. E had declined in my favor,
which rumor I judged came from Mr. E
himself, as I had not then breathed of his letter
to any living creature. In saying I had never,
before the 22nd of June, determined to be an
applicant, unconditionally, I mean to admit that,
before then, I had said substantially I would
take the office rather than it should be lost to
the State, or given to one in the State whom
the Whigs did not want ; but I aver that in every
instance in which I spoke of myself, I in-
tended to keep, and now believe I did keep, Mr.
E above myself. Mr. Edwards' first sus-
picion was that I had allowed Baker to overreach
me, as his friend in behalf of Don Morrison.
I knew this was a mistake; and the result has
proved it. I understand his view now is, that
if I had gone to open war with Baker I could
have ridden him down, and had the thing all
my own way. I believe no such thing. With
Baker and some strong man from the Military
tract & elsewhere for Morrison ; and we and
some strong man from the Wabash & elsewhere
for Mr. E , it was not possible for either
to succeed. I believed this in March, and I knozu
it now. The only thing which gave either any
chance was the very thing Baker & I proposed, â€”
an adjustment with themselves.
You may wish to know how Butterfield finally
beat me. I can not tell you particulars, now,
but will, when I see you. In the meantime let
it be understood I am not greatly dissatis-
fied, â€” I wish the offer had been so bestowed as
to encourage our friends in future contests, and
I regret exceedingly Mr. Edwards' feelings
towards me. These two things away, I should
have no regrets, â€” at least I think I would not.
Write me soon.
Your friend, as ever,
Springfield, December I, 1854.
J. Gillespie, Esq. :
My Dear Sir: I have really got it into my
head to try to be United States Senator, and,
if I could have your support, my chances would
be reasonably good. But I know, and acknowl-
edge, that you have as just claims to the place
as I have; and therefore I cannot ask you to
yield to me, if you are thinking of becoming a
candidate yourself. If, however, you are not,
then I should like to be remembered affectionately
by you ; and also to have you make a mark for
me with the Anti-Nebraska members, down your
If you know, and have no objection to tell,
let me know whether Trumbull intends to make
a push. If he does, I suppose the two men in
St. Clair, and one, or both, in Madicon, will be
for him. We have the legislature, clearly enough,
on joint ballot, but the Senate is very close, and
Cullom told me to-day that the Nebraska men
will stave off the election, if they can. Even if
we get into joint vote, we shall have difficulty to
GILLESPIE, JOSEPH 9
unite our forces. Please write me, and let this
Your friend, as ever,
Springfield, July 16, 1858.
Hon. Joseph Gillespie :
My dear Sir: I write this to say that from
the specimens of Douglas Democracy we occa-
sionally see here from Madison, we learn that
they are making very confident calculation of
beating you, and your friends for the lower
house, in that county. They offer to bet upon
it. Billings and Job, respectively, have been
up here, and were each, as I learn, talking largely
about it. If they do so, it can only be done by
carrying the Fillmore men of 1856 very differ-
ently from what they seem to be doing in the other
party. Below is the vote of 1856, in your district.
Counties. Buchanan. Fremont. Fillmore.
Bond 607 153 659
Madison 1451 mi 1658
Montgomery 992 162 686
3050 1426 3003
By this you will see, if you go through the
calculation, that if they get one-quarter of the
Fillmore votes, and you three-quarters, they will
beat you 125 votes. If they get one-fifth, and
you four-fifths, you beat them 179. In Madison,
alone, if our friends get 1000 of the Fillmore
votes and their opponents the remainder, 658,
we win by just two votes.
This shows the whole field, on the basis of
the election of 1856.
Whether, since then, any Buchanan, or Fre-
monters, have shifted ground, and how the ma-
jority of new votes will go, you can judge better
Of course you, on the ground, can better deter-
mine your line of tactics than any one off the
ground ; but it behooves you to be wide awake,
and actively working.
Don't neglect it ; and write me at your first
Yours as ever,
Springfield, July 25, 1858.
Hon. J. Gillespie.
My dear Sir: Your doleful letter of the 18th
was received on my return from Chicago last
night. I do hope you are worse scared than
hurt, though you ought to know best. We must
not lose the district. We must make a job of
it, and save it. Lay hold of the proper agencies,
and secure all the Americans you can, at once.
I do hope, on closer inspection, you will find
they are not half gone. Make a little test. Run
down one of the poll-books of the Edwardsville
precinct, and take the first hundred known
American names. Then quietly ascertain how
many of them are actually going for Douglas.
I think you will find less than fifty. But even
if you find fifty, make sure of the other fifty, â€”
that is, make sure of all you can, at all events.
We will set other agencies to work which shall
compensate for the loss of a good many Ameri-
cans. Don't fail to check the stampede at once.
Trumbull, I think, will be with you before
GILLMORE, QUINCY A. n
There is much he cannot do, and some he can.
I have reason to hope there will be other help
of an appropriate kind. Write me again.
Yours as ever,
GlLLMORE, QUINCY A.
[See Welles, Gideon, Dec. 20, 1863.]
Washington, January 13, 1864. '
I understand an effort is being made by some
worthy gentlemen to reconstruct a loyal State
government in Florida. Florida is in your de-
partment, and it is not unlikely that you may be
there in person. I have given Mr. Hay a com-
mission of major, and sent him to you, with
some blank-books and other blanks, to aid in the
reconstruction. He will explain as to the manner
of using the blanks, and also my general views
on the subject. It is desirable for all to coop-
erate, but if irreconcilable differences of opinion
shall arise, you are master. I wish the thing
done in the most speedy way possible, so that
when done, it lie within the range of the late
proclamation on the subject. The detail labor,
of course, will have to be done by others ; but
I shall be greatly obliged if you will give it
such general supervision as you can find con-
sistent with your more strictly military duties.
Yours very truly,
Gilmer, John A.
Springfield, Illinois, December 15, i860.
Hon. John A.. Gilmer.
My dear Sir: Yours of the 10th is received.
I am greatly disinclined to write a letter on the
subject embraced in yours; and I would not
do so, even privately as I do, were it not that
I fear you might misconstrue my silence. Is
it desired that I shall shift the ground upon
which I have been elected ? I cannot do it. You
need only to acquaint yourself with that ground,
and press it on the attention of the South. It
is all in print and easy of access. May I be
pardoned if I ask whether even you have ever
attempted to procure the reading of the Repub-
lican platform, or my speeches, by the Southern
people? If not, what reason have I to expect
that any additional production of mine would
meet a better fate? It would make me appear
as if I repented for the crime of having been
elected, and was anxious to apologize and beg
forgiveness. To so represent me would be the
principal use made of any letter I might now
thrust upon the public. My old record cannot
be so used; and that is precisely the reason that
some new declaration is so much sought.
Now, my dear sir, be assured that I am not
questioning your candor; I am only pointing
out that while a new letter would hurt the cause
which I think a just one, you can quite as well
effect every patriotic object with the old record.
Carefully read pages 18, 19, 74, 75, 88, 89, and
267 of the volume of joint debates between
Senator Douglas and myself, with the Republican
GILMER, JOHN A. 13
platform adopted at Chicago, and all your ques-
tions will be substantially answered. I have no
thought of recommending the abolition of slavery
in the District of Columbia, nor the slave-trade
among the slave States, even on the conditions
indicated ; and if I were to make such recommen-
dation, it is quite clear Congress would not fol-
As to employing slaves in arsenals and dock-
yards, it is a thing I never thought of in my
life, to my recollection, till I saw your letter;
and I may say of it precisely as I have said of
the two points above.
As to the use of patronage in the slave States,
where there are few or no Republicans, I do
not expect to inquire for the politics of the ap-
pointee, or whether he does or not own slaves.
I intend in that matter to accommodate the peo-
ple in the several localities, if they themselves
will allow me to accommodate them. In one
word, I never have been, am not now, and prob-
ably never shall be in a mood of harassing the
people either North or South.
On the territorial question I am inflexible, as
you see my position in the book. On that there
is a difference between you and us; and it is
the only substantial difference. You think
slavery is right and ought to be extended; we
think it is wrong and ought to be restricted. For
this neither has any just occasion to be angry
with the other.
As to the State laws, mentioned in your sixth
question, I really know very little of them. I
never have read one. If any of them are in
conflict with the fugitive-slave clause, or any
other part of the Constitution, I certainly shall
i 4 LETTERS
be glad of their repeal ; but I could hardly be
justified, as a citizen of Illinois, or as President
of the United States, to recommend the repeal
of a statute of Vermont or South Carolina.
With the assurance of my highest regards, I
Your obedient servant,
P. S. The documents referred to I suppose
you will readily find in Washington.
Washington, February 7, 1865.
Lieutenant-Colonel Glenn, Commanding Post at
Complaint is made to me that you are forcing
negroes into the military service, and even tor-
turing them â€” riding them on rails and the like â€”
to extort their consent. I hope this may be a
mistake. The like must not be done by you, or
any one under you. You must not force negroes
any more than white men. Answer me on this.
Glover, S. T.
Washington, D. C, January 20, 1863.
Hon. S. T. Glover.
My dear Sir: Yours of January 12, stating
the distressed condition of the people in south-
west Missouri, and urging the completion of the
railroad to Springfield, is just received. Of
course I deplore the distress of the people in
GOLDSBOROUGH, LOUIS M. 15
that section and elsewhere. Nor is the thought
of extending the railroad new to me. But the
military necessity for it is not so patent but that
Congress would try to restrain me in some way,
were I to attempt it. I am very glad to believe
that the late military operations in Missouri and
Arkansas are at least promising of repose to
Yours very truly,
GOLDSBOROUGH, LOUIS M.
Fort Monroe, Virginia, May 7, 1862.
Sir: Major-General McClellan telegraphs that
he has ascertained by a reconnaissance that the
battery at Jamestown has been abandoned, and
he again requests that gunboats may be sent up
the James River.
If you have tolerable confidence that you can
successfully contend with the Merrimac without
the help of the Galena and two accompanying
gunboats, send the Galena and two gunboats
up the James River at once. Please report your
action on this to me at once. I shall be found
either at General Wool's headquarters or on
board the Miami.
Your obedient servant,