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Rural Veterinary Secrets



BY

a; H. Hartwig, M. D. C.



A farmer's Text Book
for ready reference

and
The secret of success-
fully applying first aid
and home remedies to
ailing farm animals.



Watertown, Wisconsin
1921






Copyright 1921
by A. H. Hartwig
Watertown, Wis.



g)C!,A654506



Advocate Publishing Company

Printers and Publishers

Milwaukee, Wis.



X CONTENTS

r

^_^ CHAPTER PAGE

^ I. Diseases Common to the Respiratory Organs - - 17

II. DiseasesCommonto the Circulatory Organs - - 35

III. Diseases Common to the Digestive Organs - - 39

IV. Diseases Common to the Reproductive Organs - 59
V. Diseases Common to the Liver and Kidneys - - 85

VI. Diseases Common to the Brain and Nervous System 87

VII. Practical Aid in Difficult Parturition - - - 93

VIII. Common Diseases of the Skin 107

IX. Contagious and Infectious Diseases - - - 119

X. Wounds and Fractures 137

XI. Diseases Common to the Muscles and Extremities 145

XII. Common Farm Operations 173

XIII. Diseases Common to Swine and Sheep - - - 185

XIV. Diseases Common to Poultry 209

XV. Practical Application of Medicines and

Home Remedies 213

XVI. Miscellaneous 221

Index — Glossary and Topical Index - - - 233



AUTOBIOGRAPHY

Dr. A. H. Hartwig, the author of "Rural Veterinary Secrets," was
born on a stock and dairy farm in Watertown, Dodge Co., Wisconsin,
where he had a good opportunity to study the natural habits and wants
of ailing farm animals.

He received his preliminary education in the public schools and
Northwestern College of Watertown, Wis. At the age of seventeen he
expressed the desire to study veterinary science and become a veterinary
physician and surgeon. However, as his services could not be spared
on the farm at that time, he was obliged to abandon the idea, at least
for the time being. When twenty years of age he entered the short
course in Agriculture of the University of Wisconsin, under the direc-
tion of Dean Henry, it being the second and third year of the existence
of that course. Dr. V. T. Atkinson, the first State Veterinarian of
Wisconsin, gave a course of lectures and demonstrations in veterinary
science. These lectures and demonstrations proved of particular in-
terest to the young agricultural student, and again he was inspired with
the determination to take up this interesting study, but neither the time
nor the means to further attend college could be spared.

After concluding his university studies he returned home and de-
voted most of his time to breeding draft horses, coach horses, and
dairy cattle. In 1892 he made a tour through Europe. There he vis-
ited the various veterinary colleges in the Old World. On his return
he brought with him an importation of Oldenburg coach horses. His
experience in stock breeding convinced him that a knowledge of vet-
erinary medicine and surgery would be of great benefit to himself and
his community. He again determined to become a veterinarian and
then actually entered the Chicago Veterinary College, from which he
was graduated in the year 1895.

After graduation he entered upon his practice as a veterinarian
in Watertown, Wisconsin, and adjacent community, which he suc-
cessfully continued for twenty-seven years. During this time he held
various important positions in connection with his profession. He was
president of the Wisconsin Society of Veterinary Graduates ; secretary
of the Wisconsin State Veterinary Society; State Veterinarian of Wis-
consin ; Veterinary Editor of "Hoard's Dairyman" ; publisher and pro-
prietor of "The Farmer's Veterinary Advisor," and at the present time
is Veterinary Inspector for the United States Bureau of Animal In-
dustry. While editor of "Hoard's Dairyman" he discovered the Air
Treatment for milk fever, w'hich is now used the world over and is
saving the lives of thousands of valuable farm animals.

The experience thus acquired he is now giving to his fellow
farmers and stock owners in the form of "Rural Veterinary Secrets."




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PREFACE

My purpose in presenting "Rural Veterinary Secrets" to the
farmer and other owners of domesticated animals shall be to educate
them to use home remedies intelligently whenever they are applicable
in case of emergency, and to properly comfort and care for the patient
till medical aid can be summoned; to teach my readers to use the right
remedy in the right place in case of emergency, instead of employing
anything and everything that might be suggested by the casual ob-
server; to avoid the misapplication of drugs, which so often leads to
the destruction of valuable farm animals ; and to give professional ad-
vice to those who are in need, as well as those who seek professional
knowledge on those subjects.

In order that my readers may readily understand what I am to
present to them, I will employ common farmer language, avoiding
technical expressions as much as possible. I shall prescribe the most
practical and effective remedies for each particular case, regardless of
who might be the manufacturer thereof. The remedies prescribed
shall be those which I have found the most successful and practical
during my twenty-seven years of practice.

I have decided to place the knowledge and experience obtained in
these twenty-seven years of continued and uninterrupted practice as
a veterinarian before my readers in concise form, boiled down for quick
and ready reference, in this, my first edition of "Rural Veterinary
Secrets."

A. H. HARTWIG, M. D. C.
Watertown, Wisconsin, July 1st, 1921.



TO
THE AMERICAN SOCIETY OF EQUITY

In testimony of the author's high esteem and appreciation of the
principles and service to the public of the society, lending me inspira-
tion and initiative in my profession and this undertaking, I dedicate
this work.

A. H. HARTWIG, M. D. C.



CHAPTER I.

Diseases Common to the Respiratory

Organs

ACUTE NASAL CATARRH

(Rhinitis, Acute Coryza).

An acute catarrh of the air passages of the head. It may occur
as a primary afifection or may be secondary to another disease.

The common predisposing cause is cold. Catarrh is most fre-
quent during the changeable weather of the late fall and early
spring. The exciting cause is undoubtedly infection.

Nearly all of the diseases of the respiratory tract are accom-
panied by catarrh, as are specific infectious diseases, such as
strangles, influenza, hog-cholera, glanders.

SYMPTOMS

The general condition of the patient is usually somewhat dis-
turbed ; it seems stupid, languid, and shows slight fever. The mu-
cous membrane of the nose is swollen and reddened and at first
drier than normal ; later an irritant, watery discharge appears,
which in a day or two becomes turbid and more profuse. In the
earlier stages the patient sneezes frequently and rubs its nose
against objects. The nasal discharge dries and forms crusts at the
openings of the nostrils. In exceptional cases small, round, super-
ficial erosions are noted on the mucous membrane, which usually
heal in a few days. In severe cases there is conjunctivitis present.
If the larynx is involved there is cough ; if the pharynx, difficulty
in swallowing. The submaxillary lymph glands in the horse are
slightly swollen.

The course is usually rapid and the termination favorable. The
condition in ordinary cases disappears in seven to ten days.

TREATMENT

The acute catarrh seldom requires treatment. Protecting the
patient from draughts and dust is all that is necessary in the aver-



18 RURAL VETERINARY SECRETS



age case. When, however, the discharge is profuse or the patient
shows fever, a douche consisting of a solution of one tablespoonful
of common salt dissolved in two quarts of tepid water may be
injected into the nostrils and allowed to flush the anterior air cham-
bers once or twice daily. Inhalations of volatile substances are of
value. Turpentine or benzoin (1 to 5 per cent in form of steam)
may be tried. The crust on the nostrils may be greased with lard
or vaseline.



BLEEDING FROM THE NOSE, HEMORRHAGES

(Epistaxis)



In some families of horses hemorrhages are an inherited pre-
disposition. In such cases the bleeding occurs without apparent
cause. It may follow over-exertion as in the case of the race horse.
It may also be caused by passing tubes, sponges, and other instru-
ments up into the nostrils. In forcibly ejecting dust and foreign
matter from the nose, horses sometimes induce hemorrhage. Frac-
tures of the facial, nasal and maxillary bones and tumors in the
nose may be followed by nose bleeding.



SYMPTOMS

It is usually not dif^cult to determine the origin of the hem-
orrhage, but to find the cause may require a most careful examina-
tion of the patient. Pulmonary hemorrhages are characterized by
a bright red, foani}^ nasal discharge emitted from both nostrils and
accomplished by cough, dyspnea, and weak pulse. When placing
your ear to the chest, however, you will hear a rattling sound with
each breath of the patient. If, however, the hemorrhage is from the
nose, these rattling sounds will not be noticed, although some of
the blood may be inspirated into the lungs and confuse the layman
as to the proper location of the hemorrhage. In hemorrhages from
the stomach the blood is also discharged through the nose in the
case of the horse and ox, but is more or less clotted, brown in
color, of acid reaction, and mixed with food particles. In the case
of the hog and dog the blood from stomach hemorrhages is vomited
through the mouth.



RLRAL VETERINARY SECRETS



19



TREATMENT

The patient should be kept in a cool and quiet place. If
hemorrhages are from the nose or anterior air chambers, inject
up into the nostrils the juice of several lemons. This, with rest and
quiet, will arrest the hemorrhage temporarily. Then give a tea-
spoonful of Ferritone (Elk's) for an adult in moist food three times
daily. This will increase the fibrin and red corpuscles of the blood,
which makes a firm clot and heals completely the ruptured vessel,
besides strengthening the walls of the blood vessels. If the
hemorrhage is in the lungs or stomach, the injections of lemon
juice are not so effective and may be omitted, but the Ferritone
should be given regularly as above directed and the treatment
continued for a week or two after the hemorrhage has stopped.



NASAL POLYPI




Polypus in the Nostril.

These are wart-like tumors growing in the nostril as shown in
the accompanying illustration. The only remedy is to remove them
with a small wire ecraseur, which is especially designed for this
purpose. The operation is simple and usually has no dangerous
after effects.



20 RURAL VETERINARY SECRETS



CATARRHAL LARYNGITIS

Catarrhal laryngitis is one of the commonest diseases of horses
and cattle. It frequently assumes an enzootic form, being very
prevalent during the changeable weather of spring and fall. The
disease may be primary or secondary.

The causes of primary laryngitis are : Chilling, inhalation of
irritant dust, gases, ingestion of fermenting foods (brewer's grains,
distillery slops, potato residue), continued bellowing of cattle,
throat latch of bridle too tight, and primary infections.

Secondary laryngitis accompanies many of the infectious dis-
eases, especially influenza and strangles of the horse, tuberculosis
of the ox, cholera of swine, and verminous bronchitis of sheep. A
spread of inflammation from neighboring organs (pharynx, trachea)
may induce laryngitis. The causes of chronic catarrhal laryngitis
are the same as those of the acute form, the irritant acting mildly
but repeatedly or persistently.



SYMPTOMS

A dominant symptom of laryngitis is a dry, harsh cough which
the patient seeks to suppress. It is especially noticeable when the
animal is brought out into cold air or given a cold drink of water.
Excitement also induces cough. The larynx is sensitive to pressure,
which may bring about a spell of coughing. In some patients
hoarseness is evident. On listening to the larynx rough and some-
times whistling tones are heard, which tend to diminish in intensity
toward the chest. Nasal discharge is usually present. If the
pharynx is also involved there will be difficulty in swallowing. The
lymph glands of the submaxillary region are swollen and sensitive.
Except in secondary laryngitis the pulse and temperature remain
about normal. There is difficulty in breathing only when there is
marked swelling of the mucosa.



DIAGNOSIS

The diagnosis depends upon the presence of cough, sensitive-
ness of the larynx, mild fever, and the negative evidence adduced
from a thorough examination of the lungs. Secondary laryngitis
may be distinguished from primary forms by the high temperature,
general depression of the patient and symptoms of the primary
disease.



RURAL VETERINARY SECRETS 21



In acute catarrhal laryngitis the course is usually six to ten
days, ending in complete recovery. Neglected cases may become
chronic and last for months, causing persistent, obstinate cough,
but usually no further symptoms.

TREATMENT

The patient should be allowed fresh air (not too cold) free
from drafts, dust and stable gases. If the weather permits, exer-
cise in the open should be allowed. In mild attacks horses may be
employed at light work, provided they are protected against high
wind or drenching rains. The food should be laxative (roots,
grass) and free from dust.

Hot applications to the throat are valuable. During the early
stages inhalations of medicated steam are of service. See directions
for steaming in acute nasal catarrh and give the same medical treat-
ment. If you suspect the cause to be of an infectious nature, separate
the well from the sick and thoroughly disinfect the stable.



CROUPOUS LARYNGITIS

A disease of the larynx and laryngeal mucosa in which the
pharynx and trachea arc also involved. This is rather rare, occur-
ring mostly in sheep and cattle and more rarely in horses and swine.
It is caused usually by inhaling irritating gases, smoke, strong
fumes of disinfectant, and sometimes from driving through dust
to increase the weight of wool.



SYMPTOMS

In the beginning the symptoms are the same as in catarrhal
laryngitis, except that the patient becomes more rapidly emaciated
and loses appetite. There is also a swelling and sensitiveness of
the throat.

TREATMENT

The treatment consists of the same medicinal agents and in-
halations of medicated steam as in catarrhal laryngitis, except that
a tracheotomy tube might be used in addition in the early stages
of the disease.



22



RURAL VETERINARY SECRETS




Horse with chronic Oezena that was operated at the Fort Atkinson
Veterinary Hospital, June 11, 1910.



RURAL VETERINARY SECRETS 23



NASAL CATARRH (Oezena)

This form almost invariably follows some other disease involv-
ing the respiratory tract, such as bad teeth with filling of the
frontal or maxillary sinuses of the head with pus. It may also
accompany glanders, tumors of the nostrils, animal parasites,
chronic or verminous bronchitis.



SYMPTOMS

The principal symptom is a nasal discharge, which varies
greatly in quantity and character. The quantity of discharge is not
always the same, being more profuse at times owing to environ-
ments, weather conditions, etc. In character the discharge may be
mucous, purulent, blood-streaked, or contain caseated lumps. If
due to decayed teeth or bones of the head, it will have a very
offensive odor. The maxillary lymph glands may become enlarged,
but usually do not adhere to the jaw. If the sinuses of the head
become filled with pus there is usually a marked swelling of the
parts affected.



TREATMENT

Before resorting to treatment of this ailment we must ascertain
the cause and remove it. A careful examination of the teeth must
first be made and if any decayed ones are found they must be
extracted. Then the nostrils should be carefully examined in search
of nasal tumors. If neither is found, explore the frontal and maxil-
lary sinuses by sounding with gentle taps of one or two fingers on
the suspected parts. If the sinuses are not filled there will be a
hollow sound, while if filled with pus they will appear solid. If
one or more of these sinuses be filled it will be necessary to cut
a hole through the bone and remove the pus surgically.

If neither of the above is found, a nasal douche, with a table-
spoonful of salt to a gallon of warm water, may be resorted to once
daily. If the discharge from the nostrils has a fetid odor, five grains
of permanganate of potash may be dissolved in a gallon of warm
water and used as a douche instead of the salt solution. Iron
tonics, such as tincture chloride of iron or dried sulphate of iron,
should be given in food twice daily in connection with some bitter
stomachic. For this purpose there is nothing more effective than
a large teaspoonful of Ferritone, in moist food three times daily.



24 RURAL VETERINARY SECRETS



It acts directly upon the blood and lessens the discharge from the
nasal membrances. Ferritone is a new and almost specific remedy
for all nasal discharges now sold by all first class druggists.



CATARRHAL BRONCHITIS

Bronchitis means, or is understood to be an inflammation of the
large bronchi (air tubes). Bronchiolitis is used to express an
inflammation of the capillary bronchi.

Bronchitis occurs either as a primary or secondary disease.
It is very common among all {iomesticated animals, particularly
during the spring and fall, when it may become enzootic among
horses and cattle. It may occur alone, but is usually associated
with tracheitis and laryngitis (catarrh of the air passages), or on
the other hand it may attend pneumonia (bronchopneumonia).

Several different forms of catarrhal bronchitis are recognized.
When the exudate is fluid and abundant, moist bronchitis or blen-
orrhea of the bronchi is spoken of. If the exudate is rather limited
and not so fluid a dry bronchitis exists. A fetid bronchitis develops
from a bacterial decomposition of the exudate. From the stand-
point of course, catarrhal bronchitis may be either acute or chronic)
and from the causes a verminous and a mycotic bronchitis may
be distinguished.

The causes are usually refrigeration (changeable weather),
inhalation of mechanical and chemical irritants (dust, smoke, chemical
fumes), aspiration of fluids, such as liquid medicines unskillfully ad-
ministered, blood, pus ,or solid matter, such as food which gains access
to the windpipe, especially when the pharynx is paralyzed. Certain
animal parasites and bacteria are also causes.

Secondary bronchitis occurs with most of the infectious diseases
affecting the respiratory tract (influenza, strangles, tuberculosis,
hog-cholera).

SYMPTOMS

The characteristic symptoms of acute catarrhal bronchitis are
cough, which at first is short, dry and painful, but later with the
accumulation of liquid exudate becomes looser and less painful.
Nasal discharge is present and during the act of coughing bronchial



RURAL VETERINARY SECRETS 25



slimc is ejected through the mouth and nose. In the early stages
especially the respirations are increased. Percussion is normal and
on listening rales are heard. Rales may be absent in the early
stages, but will appear gradually about the second or third day.
The character of the rale will depend upon the size of the bronchus
involved and the consistency of the exudate. In the larger bronchi,
provided the exudate is rather fluid, the rale is of the character of
bursting large bubbles, while in the smaller bronchi the rales are
much finer and of a crackling character. If the bronchial mucosa
is much swollen, narrowing the lumen of the bronchi, whistling,
piping or hissing tones may be heard. As a rule the animal shows
fever in the early stages (104 to 106 degrees F.), but usually within
two or three days the temperature drops. With the continuance of
the fever the pulse frequency increases.

CHRONIC CATARRHAL BRONCHITIS usually develops
from the acute form. It may occur, however, as a symptom of
chronic heart and lung disease. It is frequently associated with
chronic pulmonary emphysema or seen to accompany such chronic
infectious diseases as tuberculosis, glanders, or verminous pneu-
monia. Generally speaking, chronic bronchitis leads to irreparable
injury, not only of the walls of the bronchi, but also of the neighbor-
ing lung tissue. The symptoms of chronic bronchitis are much the
same as those of the acute, except that the condition is feverless
and suffers many periodical increases of violence. The general
condition of the patient may not be much disturbed, and the only
evidences of the disorder are chronic cough, difficulty in breathing,
and nasal discharge, which is often foamy and white in appearance.
Obviously, if chronic bronchitis is a symptom of an infectious dis-
ease like tuberculosis or glanders, the symptoms which typify
these conditions will be associated with those of bronchitis. In
practice chronic bronchitis is most commonly met with in horses
suftering from "heaves." It also occurs frequently in dairy cows
in the Eastern States, especially during raw, damp weather. The
principal symptoms are a persistent cough and slight nasal dis-
charge, which is usually wiped off with the tongue. There are no
constitutional symptoms. The course is benign except in neglected
cases.

In healing, the acute form usually terminates in two to three
weeks. When the smaller bronchi become involved, the course is
more prolonged and is apt to lead to bronchopneumonia and death.
Death may also result from pulmonary edema.

Chronic bronchitis may last for months or years, depending



26 RURAL VETERINARY SECRETS



upon the cause. As a rule the patient becomes anemic, cachectic,
and finally death results from lack of nutrition.

DIAGNOSIS

The diagnosis of bronchial catarrh is, as a rule, not difficult.
The presence of the characteristic rales are evidence enough, espe-
cially when taken into consideration with the other symptoms and
course of the disease. It is sometimes impossible to determine
whether the bronchitis is primary or secondary. Generally, how-
ever, when bronchitis is secondary to some acute infectious disease
the high temperature which the patient shows is indicative. When
associated with a chronic infection a thorough clinical examination
of the patient will usually reveal the presence of a primary disease
(tuberculosis, tuberculin test; glanders, various tests).

TREATMENT

The patient should be kept in a light, clean, well ventilated
place and every attention given to the hygiene of the skin. A
horse should be covered with a light blanket, and the legs, if cold,
wrapped in soft bandages. If labored breathing is very marked,
the chest should be rubbed freely with Elk's Electric Cream. The
food should be laxative (bran, oats, grass, carrots, turnips, etc.).
The bowels should be kept open by giving two tablespoonfuls or
Bovolax in moist food twice daily. If the cough is dry, inhalations
of medicated steam (see steaming) may be resorted to. The follow-
ing prescription has proven very successful.

Take of : Syrup of white pine — 1 pint.

Fluid extract belladonna — 1 dram.
Febris powders (National) — 2 ounces.

Mix and give one ounce every two hours. Febris powders
might be given alone in the absence of the other two, provided they
cannot be obtained. These should be given in teaspoonful doses
three times daily.



RURAL VETERINARY SECRETS 27



PLEURITIS

Pleuritis is an inflammation of the pleura. It is nearly always
a secondary condition in animals.

Pleuritis affects all animals, but principally the horse. In the
horse it is usually a symptom of infectious fibrinous pneumonia ;
in the ox of tuberculosis, contagious pleuropneumonia and hem-
orrhagic septicemia, and in swine most frequently of so-called swine
plague. Pleuritis, however, may occur unattended by pneumonia,
as is frequently observed in horses.

Pleuritis in animals is always due to infection. Cold, which
was believed to be the most potent etiological factor, is now con-
sidered merely predisposing (pleuritis in sheep following shearing;
exposure of horses to cold wind and rain). The micro-organisms


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