thenes (De Coron., 130) gives a very different account
of the father of J^schines from that here given. &*??]
Supply the object from the context (" gave me an account
of these things"). cwai OJJLOIOV TO 6vop.a KOI TO fpyov] " pari
culpa eos habitos fuisse, qui contra leges locuti
sint et egerint." Bremi.
192. Ti)v aKpoaa-iv] "the hearing of the cause." avtno-
difrv TOV ypaniLdTcd] " called back the clerk," " stopped the
193. *H8;;] "at length," "finally." The appropriate
meaning of rj^. See 24, note.
194. 'E$' w, K. T. X.] The speech of Ctesiphon has not
been preserved, but Demosthenes makes use of this argu-
ment (^ 223-225). What is here said, I think, implies,
as already remarked in another case ( 35, note), that usage
was against law on this point. Ke^aXo?] A renowned
Athenian orator, who flourished during the Peloponnesian
war. See the reply of Demosthenes to this case of Ce-
phalus, 251. 01 StaTroXtrevo/ievot] "those belonging to
opposite parties in politics." The ypa^rj irapavo^v was
often abused, undoubtedly, by being employed as an instru-
ment for silencing a troublesome opponent. See Herm.
elseif (getClientWidth() > 430)
Polit. Antiq., 132.
195. KOI efX<- .... eve/>yecriG)z>] " and convicted him,
these good deeds having been recently performed by him."
ptvovrai\ That is, in the city. Opposed to favyovras,
196. Kal T&V .... TrpvTaveiw] That is, " those citizens
who, either from personal or ancestral services to the state,
were honored with the privilege of taking their meals at
the Prytaneum at the public expense." Some of these, he
says, and their honored generals, were in the habit of beg-
ging off from (egairovvrai) trials for illegal measures. av
v7roAa/*/3ai/oire] " you should." A mild expression of a
command. K. 260. 2, (4), b.
197. Tis ovv .... a-dxfrpovi ;] "qusenam oratio con-
venit homini justo et sobrio, qui patroni partes
SUScipit ? " Bremi. clariij .... diKao-rrjpiov] Here ypcuprj
is nom. to the verb; but in 191 the person is expressed,
and is put in the nom. TO pev Trp&rov vdcop] "the first
measure of water." Referring to their method of measur-
ing time by the clepsydra or water-clock. In most causes,
a certain time was allotted to the speakers on each side, and
a certain time for fixing the penalty. rrj ivp^rrj i/^w] " at
the first vote," i. e. the vote as to his guilt or innocence.
After one was convicted, the question of the penalty still
remained to be discussed and determined upon. The ypcuprj
7rapav6fj,(ov belonged to the dy&ves Tip,r)Toi, or causes without a
specific penalty affixed. The accuser fixed the fine at a
certain sum (see the ypa^ of ^Eschines, Dem. de Coron.,
55), but the defendant, if convicted, had the right of
naming a counter penalty (di/rm/icu>, ajrm/^tns 1 ), and ot
discussing the question before the court. Herm. Polit. An-
tiq., 143. 10. TW peyetici .... i>fj.Tpas] " the measure
of your indignation," i. e. at the crime, which would be
expressed by the penalty they affixed to it.
198. rrjv -^YI^OV airet] " demands the vote," i. e. in his
favor. TrapaireTrcu] See eaiTovvrai t 196. rw 7rpu>rco
That is, on the question of his guilt or innocence.
alrel] " Flagitat, ut sua causa perjuriam adrnittatis ;
v6fj.ov cure!, flagitat, ut negligatis legem ; ftrjuoKpaTiav airet,
flagitat, ut a rationibus democratise deficiatis." Bremi.
aTravrav els rijv Tip.r)(riv] " to come to the question of fixing the
199. p,fi eeu>ai .... (j)evyovrt] This he says, as will
be seen from what follows, to suggest to the judges the pro-
priety of refusing Demosthenes the opportunity of replying
to him as the awrjyopos of Ctesiphon. It is to this attempt
to prevent his speaking in self-defence that Demosthenes
refers in his reply, 13.
200. TO o-avtfiov] " this little tablet." Containing (see
201) the decree of Ctesiphon (^i}0i<r/uz) and the laws
violated by it written opposite (01 irapaycypanfievoi i/o/ioi), just
as the conflicting laws to be revised by the Nomothetse were
to be inscribed upon o-avifes (of which o-avifaov is the diminu-
tive), and exposed before the statues of the E pony mi (see
39). The tablet itself is specially mentioned, and then
its contents, because he is speaking of a rule of judgment,
which he had illustrated by the rule of the mechanic. Sin-
gularly enough, we have no account of o-avidiov, nor of o-tu/t-
Sey (except in the sense of doors], in Smith's Diet. Antiq.
Nor have I been able to find a good account of them in any
of the common books which treat of such matters. wrep-
Tr^Sjjo-ay] " 'YTrepTTTjSai/, levi pede aliquid prseterire et
migrare quasi rem parvi momenti." Bremi. *a-
Kovpyov civdponrov] That is, Demosthenes.
201. Tt'y .... Ao'ycoz/;] " What now is the preventive of
such speeches ? " i. e. such as he had said Ctesiphon would
make, i. e. a mere sham speech, neglecting the whole merits
of the case, and then calling on Demosthenes. We see
how much ^Eschines feared the reply of Demosthenes.
7rapavayv)vai~\ " to read in connection, or in comparison
with." In order that he might be brought back to consider
the true merits of the case, namely, how these could be
shown to be consistent. p) Trpoo-Trot^rat] The negative is
with the principal verb (as it often is in Greek, especially
with (frdvat and other words which imply speaking or think-
ing), instead of being with the infin. K. 318, R. 4.
202. iiaXia-Ta /LteV] " especially," " above all things," " if
possible." It is responded to by Av 8', below.
pfvov] "inquiring," i. e. of the court. KaXet,
" Perspicitur hinc, quantum fuerit populi Atheniensis stu-
dium Demosthenis audiendi, quum, simul ac quis ejus men-
tionem fecerat, solerent alta voce clamare, ut vocetur et
progrediatur orator." Bremi.
203. aTropwraros] " inertissimus, stolidissimus.
"Anopos interdum is dicitur, qui propter ingenii tarditatem nil
expedire queat." Bremi.
205. OVTCO 8rj, K. r. X.] Demosthenes, in his reply, fol-
lows the order of the charges in the indictment, in which,
by an oversight, ^Eschines had placed the denial of his
merits as a public man first, which was just the topic
Demosthenes wished to treat first, and refer all the others to.
See Dem. de Coron., 56 - 60. ercpw .... irpay^d-
T<OV] " by an introduction of other things." It cannot be
denied that this is the general character of the reply of
Demosthenes. The written laws were certainly against
him, and hence on the law points he could only plead a
certain extenuating usage. See 35.
206. irfpl TTJS orao-ecos] " about their relative position,"
i. e. for instance, which should have his face turned towards
the sun and which from it, or which towards the wind and
which from it, &c. So, he goes on to say, they should
insist upon a certain arrangement (ragtas) in the reply of
Demosthenes. vnep .... ircpt] A fine illustration of
the difference between these prepositions. See 9, note.
Trcpu'oTGur&u] " to go around," " turn aside." eyKadq/Lte-
voi KOL evebpevovTcs] " His verbis indicatur diligentissime
ipsis a dolis et callidis fallaciis hominis fraudulent! cavendum
esse." Bremi. Compare Pop. Orat, II. 18.
207. 'Eireurdgci .... TroAtreiV] " Well, then, he (i. e.
Ctesiphon) will introduce this juggler cutpurse and sun-
derer of the constitution." These terms are not used in
their literal sense, but with reference to his wizard-like
power as a speaker. See Dem. de Coron., 276, seq.
yap is explicative, as often. K. 324. 2, b. /zerajSaAAo'/ie-
vos] " changing," i. e. from tears and protestations to re-
proaches and maledictions. \m avTrjs .... Sir/pifyirj/neVovs']
" distinguished by the truth," i. e. by the true distinction,
" taken in the most comprehensive sense."
208. K Traifcias] " from their liberal culture," " from
their generous nature." iirlopKos u>i/] " being a perjured
man." irpbs TOVS avrovs] " before the same persons."
The principle here stated, about the effect of frequent
oaths or protestations upon one's credibility, is a sound
209. Ufpiypd-^are .... TroAireias] "exclude me from
civil privileges." Bremi remarks upon this : " ^Eschines
affectare videtur orationem flebilis hominis et timidi, qui
ipse perspicit civibus non solum jus esse, sed officium eum
puniendi, sed ita eos flagitat hoc jure uti, ut deminuto honore
ipse tamen salvus evadat." 7rpopd\\6}j.vos] " throwing
before it," " in the way of protection." These interroga-
tories are designed as a taunt upon Demosthenes in failing
to protect the city against Philip. *EKAITTG>I/ /MI/ .... TTO-
Aeojy] " Sensus est : urbe relicta non in Pirreo domicilium,
ut videtur, constituisti, sed opportunum locum elegisti, unde,
quando tibi placet, peregre abeas." Bremi.
210. OVK dTip.r)Tos] The influence of Oi>x in the previous
clause extends to this as well as the following ("is not
the action not one with a definite penalty affixed ? "). See
211. p,av\s] " having become mad," i. e. having lost all
sense of propriety. eVl roiavTrjs dicaipias] "so unreason-
ably," " on so unfitting an occasion." The preposition
with its case has the force of an adverb, as often. Kaipbv\
Referring to the unhappy condition of the country brought
about by his policy. eWparo] Lit, " cut off the hair,"
and hence, as cutting off the hair was a sign of grief, " griev-
ed," " mourned." Kadappa T]\OTVTTOVV dpfrrjv] " wretch
hating virtue." See the same epithet applied to ^Eschines
by Demosthenes, De Coron., 128.
212. favTov diaxpr]o-r]Tat] Lit., " will use himself up,"
i. e. " will kill himself," "commit suicide." rrjs irpbs v^as
(j)i\oTifjLias] " honor in your eyes." Observe that 777)6$- u/zas,
by being placed between the article and its noun, acquires
an attributive meaning (lit., " the lefore-you honor "). K.
244. 10. OVTOS] Ctesiphon. KarareY/^Ke] " has cut in
pieces," " hacked." Alluding to the blows on the head
which he says Demosthenes had received at different times,
and had been satisfied with merely the pecuniary satisfac-
tion obtained by an appeal to law. See 51. These re-
peated allusions to the brutal assaults of Meidias and others
upon Demosthenes are exceedingly ungentlemanly, not to
say mean. There is nothing in the reply of Demosthenes
which approaches them in scurrility. ov Kf<pa\f)v, aXXa
irp6croov\ " not a head, but a revenue," i. e. it served him
as a revenue rather than as a head.
214. c[jL7r\r)giav] " Dicitur de iis, qui tonitru tanguntur.
Hinc tropice de iis, qui non sunt sana3 mentis." Bremi.
Ka.TfyvwK.6ras dXX^Xcoj/ aSiKeiv] " having condemned each other
215. dvoio-eiv eV e/ie] That is, will make use of his con-
nection with them against him.
216. aXXa KOI .... Sta/3aXXei] See Dem. de Coron.,
^ 307, seq. Iv^eiKvv^vos .... e'x^pai/] " displaying my-
self to Alexander on account of his (Alexander's) enmity to
him (Demosthenes)." Demosthenes does not, as I recol-
lect, formally make this charge in any place.
217. TO Ke(f)d\aiov] "summam et scopum rationis
civil is." Bremi. Much stress, and with great justice, is
laid upon this point by Demosthenes. He asks why, now
that the evil is all done, he comes with his sweeping
charges, and did not object to his measures when they were
proposed. This thought, besides being alluded to in sev-
eral other places, runs through all that portion (perhaps the
most masterly part) of the speech from 188 to 210.
218. 2i> 8* . . . . KfKpayas] " Whereas you, I opine, are
silent when you have received, but clamor having spent,"
i. e. his public speaking was prompted, not by love of his
country, but by the hope of securing a bribe by it. See
the turn which Demosthenes gives this, De Coron., 82.
219. en fciXtWov, K. r. X.] See 12, note. OUTTCO o-ov,
K. T. X.] See 77, note.
220. /cat rfv d&uo-iv .... SrjjjiOKpaTias] " and taking this
maxim, not from a democracy, but from a different civil
polity (i. e. an oligarchy), you think to escape our observa-
tion." How this principle belongs to oligarchies, he pro-
ceeds to show in what follows. Karrjyopfl] " brings accu-
sations." I retain the MS. reading in preference to the
conjecture of Becker, Sq/^yo/jei, because, although speaking
of harangues before the people, still it is rather as accusa-
tions than in a general sense that they are referred to.
dia xpovov] " after a length of time," i. e. " occasionally."
o-Tjfjiflov ea-Tiv .... TToXircvofiei/ov] " is a sign of a man
engaging in public duties out of regard to the occasions and
advantage of his country"
221. 'YTrep fie, AC. r. X.] Demosthenes often alludes to
the fact, that ^Eschines had never brought him to trial for
any of the misdeeds which he now charges upon him. See
De Coron., 15, 251, et al. Ta /zeV yap irepl TOVS 'A/i^icro-e'df
.... KOI ra Trepi, K. T. X.] The charges here referred to
have been discussed at length in the previous parts of the
oration, but I am not aware that there is any account of
^schines having brought Demosthenes to trial for them in
any other author.
222. TO de nepl ras r/nqpei?, K. r. X.] Reference is here
made to the reform of the Trierarchy by Demosthenes,
while superintendent of the navy, which he (De Coron.,
102109) boasts of as a great improvement, and as
having been carried through with integrity, when he might
have received any sum as a bribe for desisting ; while
^Eschines here claims to have convicted him of having by
his arrangement, in collusion with the trierarchs, diminished
their number sixty-five, and taken hush-money (dpTrdypzra)
for it. Demosthenes (De Coron., 103) alludes to a prose-
cution which grew out of the case, and ( 4 312) accuses Ms-
chines of having received a talent from those interested in
defeating his measure for his services in the cause. In
alluding to these conflicting representations of the case,
Boeckh (Pub. Econ. Ath., p. 574) says, " Which shall
posterity believe, when it wishes to form a judgment from
the accounts of deceitful orators? It appears to me that
the statement of Demosthenes is defended by the fact itself,
and the general opinion concerning his whole public life."
rr)v ev .... eviKrjcrav] " De re vide Diodor. Sic. XV.
223. Ouro) 8e TOIS alriais eV</>paay, K. r. X.] " Sensus
est : Quum tibi poena metuenda sit, tu partibus mutatis,
accusas eos, qui te in judicium produxerunt, ita ut, quamvis
ipsi sint insontes, ob calliditatem tuam et perfidiam in maxi-
mo discrimine ve'rsentur, tu autem quasi innoxius evades."
224. rrjv 'Avagivov .... KaTfovcevacra?] "did you not get
up the seizure of Anaxinus ? " That is, in order to escape
the etVayyeXia with which he was threatened. This Anaxi-
nus was taken as a spy in concert with JEschines (see Dem.
de Coron., 137), and, as it would seem, was condemned
to death for the offence. What is here said about his hav-
ing been brought to trial by Demosthenes, who had pre-
viously been his friend, is nothing to the discredit of Demos-
thenes, if he was now in the service of the enemies of his
country. Anaxinus seems to have visited Macedonia under
the pretence of carrying wares to Olympias, the wife of
Philip, where he entered into arrangements with Philip to
act as a spy at Athens. rovs TTJS noXews a\as] Lit. " the
salt of the city," i. e., as to have eaten salt together was the
sign of friendship and of sacred obligations to each other,
" the duty owed to the city," " fidelity to the city."
225. *E7TiTa eTrcpmTav /ze, AC. r. X.] The language here is
so entirely like that employed by Demosthenes (De Coron.,
243), that there can be little doubt that this, with many
other passages, especially in this latter part of the ora-
tion, were added by ^Eschines after the reply of Demos-
thenes had been made. evara] " offerings made to the
dead on the ninth day after the funeral." For the funeral
services among the Greeks, see Becker's Charicles, p. 286.
226. rovs <rvKo(j)avTr)6evTas fK rrjs TroXireiay] "qui per
calumnias a rerum publicarum administratione
depulsi sunt. Demosthenes irfpi 2rec/>., p. 273, jungit
eadem, ni fallor, significatione vTroo-KeXifcw *ai o-vKoc/xu/reii/."
227. eVrautf' eWon^v, K. T. X.] This defence of himself
in allowing Demosthenes to go on in a course of pernicious
acts, which, years afterwards, he called him to account for,
(viz., that he and others were driven from a participation
in public affairs by his quarrelsome habits,) is certainly a
very lame one, but shows the reluctance which was felt at
228. &v eyw .... /idXtora] " Hsec verba, ob duplicem
attractionem obscuriora, in hunc modum resolvas : TOVTUV
a eyu> 7rvvddvofj.ai A^/zocr^eV^i/ Xeeii>, eVt rovro> dyavaKra> p.d\ terra.
V. C. F. R." Bremi. rrjs yhp alrlas] Governed by TO
epyov (" not to be able to prove the reality of the accusa-
229. KOI TTjv .... <l>v<nv\ " and envying the nature of
his opponents on this account," i. e. because they could
speak so much better than he could. o>s fow^/cei/] " as if
he had done them." e ovopdrtav .... 7repie/>ya>i>] " a
man made up of words, and these bitter and over- wrought."
" Contra has ^Eschinis criminationes defendit Demosthenem
Dionysius Halicarn. Trepl rrjs XeKTt/cf^ A^fioa^eVov? SfivoTTjTos
c. 55." Bremi. Ou rr]v y\S>TTav, K. r. X.] " Demadis hie
fertur jocus fuisse in Athenienses : Aq/jadq? TOVS 'AfywuW
e'lKa^ev av\dis t &>i> ei ris d<pe\oi TTJV yXoarrai/j TO \oiirbv ovdev fan.
Faceta sane comparatio ! Quod si enim hoc tempore Athe-
nienses erant satis loquentes diserti, plerumque etiam glo-
riosi, in agendo tamen inertissimi et languore suo et desidia
nimium quantum verborum vanitatem testabantur." Bremi.
By y\3rrrav here is meant the mouth-piece of the flute, which
was usually taken off when the instrument was not in use.
230. yvmpr)] Meaning the same as ^fao-pa, as often.
See 3, note. eVm^etos] " fit," " deserving." For the
infin. following, see K. 306. 1, c. evdvvai /3/ov] " cen-
sura morum." Reisk. If he was acquitted, all offenders
must be. 8ia TO geviKots .... rrjv fjptpav] " because this
day has been devoted to foreign crowns," i. e. the day of
the great Dionysiac festival. See 47, 48.
231. T&V /Liera .... eVeio-ayoi/rwy] " those immediately
after this introducing their plays," i. e. after the proclama-
tion of the crown of Demosthenes, dpa^ara is to be under-
stood as the object of eVeio-ay6Vra>i>. Trocfjcrfiev] " should
make," " represent." For the character of Thersites, see
Horn. II., II. 212, seq. eV raw .... 8o'aiy] "in the
thoughts or opinions of the Greeks," i. e. if not in words.
dvcTiGeo-av] " attributed to." irepiQeivai] " to confer it upon,"
" devolve it upon." dSoglav is to be supplied from the pre-
232. /caXojy TTotowres] Lit. " doing well," but it does not
necessarily imply any merit of one's own, but the favor of
fortune ; hence, " by the favor of fortune," " by the blessing
of God." See Dem. de Coron., 231 ; Olynth. II., 27.
Demosthenes (De Coron., 207) reasons just the reverse
of ^Eschines here, that by condemning him they would
condemn themselves. TO iravrav droTrooraroi'] A pre-
paratory ace. explained by what follows. See 161, note.
rovs pfv .... aKio-Kopeitovs] " those convicted in the
actions for bribery." The more common construction of
a\icrKeo-dai is either with the gen. or part., and I do not find
the construction with the ace. referred to in any of the
grammars in common use, though it occurs, 50, and is
recognized in the Lexicon of Liddell and Scott. TOVS ^v
.... Aioi/vo-iW] " Eosdem intelligit, quos Demosthenes
in Mid., p. 520, appellat TOVS K/HTOS r<5 dy&vi T&V avbp&v :
qui judices sedebant certaminis, eumque coronabant, qui
praBstantissimus judicatus erat." Bremi. KVK\IOVS] Com-
monly interpreted like eyxv/eXtot, " cyclic," " appointed for
a regular period," "annual," but in Smith's Diet. Anliq.,
41 circular," from the original practice of dancing around a
blazing altar as they sang.
233. avTos] That is, the judge who has given his vote
for one wrongfully. o~vp.irapaKo\ov6>v OVTOV XuTreT] " Juris-
jurandi violatio perpetua memoria, furiarum instar, con-
scientiam terret et vexat." Bremi.
234. dp.(f)6T(pa] A preparatory ace. governed by the
general idea of doing contained in the two following verbs.
See 232, note. KaTopOovv .... els TTJV sFoXirctay] " to
be fortunate and yet to be in danger with regard to our
civil polity." How this is he explains in what follows.
fopa <ad' rjfjias prjTopw] " a harvest of orators in our time,"
i. e. a great number. See <opa in this sense, Dem. de
Coron., 61. TO di^oo-top] " the democracy," " the dem-
ocratic form of government." <o\aK(v6fjivos] Agrees with
235. evioi fie .... eyeVovro] " and these very ones were
some of the Thirty," i. e. the Thirty Tyrants, who were estab-
lished in power at Athens by Lacedsemon, at the close of
the Peloponnesian war, and who ruled as with a rod of iron.
cTreticTo] " set himself to," " undertook."
236. Toi) yap .... e^et] " for to have been the cause
of our needing these repairs conveys a greater censure
than the credit of their having been well made." This ap-
pears to be the meaning of the passage, expressed some-
what more fully than in the text. ovde .... ai/eAoVra]
" nor even in violating the public sepulchres." When the
walls of Athens were built, under Themistocles, such was
the urgency, for fear of the interference of the Lacedemo-
nians to prevent their being reared, that all the inhabitants,
of all classes, were set to work upon them, and directed to
urge them forward without regard to any place, whether
sacred or profane ; so that they were said to be built of
altars and sepulchres. See Cornel. Nepos, Themist., c.
VI. In repairing the walls, therefore, there would neces-
sarily be a disturbance of the public sepulchres.
237. a^ai TO>V fpyow] " seize upon (come to) the realities
or facts." See 101. ras alrias] " the causes." See
137. TO rrjs TToXews .... TrepiriGfls] " ascribing the
dignity of the city to Demosthenes," i. e. the dignity and
authority which he had as an ambassador of the city to
Thebes, and which enabled him to succeed in his mission.
He seems determined to strip Demosthenes of the honor
universally accorded to him for his success on this mission.
239. OVTOS] That is, the king of Persia, when pressed
by Alexander. His situation, he says, led him, even against
his declaration, to make the offer, for the sake of secur-
ing allies, just as the situation of the Thebans led them
to accept the alliance of Athens. ra 5* cjSdo/zqKoira ....
vn-oo-tttTTOff] " Hsec omnia nonnisi ex adversariis Demosthe-
nis cognita habemus, ut incertum sit, num fidem ullam me-
reantur. Ipsa certe narratio est tenebricosa." Bremi.
240. eveKa Trevre .... irapeSo<rav ;] " did not the mer-
cenary soldiers deliver up the citadel to the Thebans for
five talents ? " That is, as Wolf supposes, the Cadmeia,
probably upon the occasion referred to below, when they
were to be assisted by the Arcadians in throwing off the
Macedonian yoke. The idea intended to be conveyed both
by this and the following case is, that they required a much
smaller bribe than Demosthenes did. KOI rais fjdovats ....
Xopyyets] " and you gratify your appetites." For this sense
of f]8ovai, see Xen. Mem., I. 2. 23, Kuhner's note.
241. ftapvTfpov .... yiyverai] " what is heard becomes
more intolerable than the actual evils which you have suf-
fered." Demosthenes was aware of the diffipulty and deli-
cacy of the task of defending himself, and anticipates the
objection on this score in the introduction to his speech.
242. TTJS avaia-xvvTov TrpaypaTfias] " the shameless busi-
ness," i. e. of calling on Demosthenes to assist him in the de-
fence. He thinks it would be altogether better forCtesiphon
to make his own defence. See 200, seq. vTre'/mi/as ....
reAeurj/] " having allowed yourself as an ambassador
.... to be chosen to express sympathy," &c. This
daughter of Philip had married Alexander, king of the
Molossians, in Epirus, who was slain in Italy (B. C. 331),
in assisting the Tarentines against the Brutti. /uo-dov]
" for pay," i. e. from Demosthenes. It is gen. of price.
243. oio? /XT) .... TreTTovBoTwv] " such as not to be
known by those who have been benefited by him." For
the infin. after ofos, see K. 306. 1, c. The negative is />;,
and not ov, because it is merely a supposed case. K. 318.