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1027_




Southern Branch
of the

University of California

Los Angeles



Form L I



\oS7



This book is DUE on the last date stamped below



NOV 2 4 192r



tC"



^^^ 1 5 f929
JAN 1 7 iSSu



^,32



JAN 5 V1933
'FEB B ■1933



-5m-5.'24



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" Where the world-end steamers wait "

Kipling, " The Seven Seas '



COMMERCIAL AND
INDUSTRIAL GEOGRAPHY



BY

ALBERT GALLOWAY JvELLER

PROFESSOR OF THE SfllENOE OF SOCIETY IN' VALE UNIVERSITV



AVARD LONC^LEY BISHOP

ASSISTANT PROFESSOR OF GEOGUAl'IIV AND <M)M >1 KRCK IN THE
SHEFFIELD SCIENTIFIC SCUOOL OF VALE UNIVERSITV

:i3 ^ 9 a



GINN AND COMPANY

BOSTON • NEW YORK • CHICAGO • LONDON



( DI'VIMCIIT, 1912, BY ALBERT GALLOWAY KK.LLKl! AND

AVAUI) LONGLKY BISHOP

ALL BIGHTS RESERVED

912.4



241



Cfae gtf)enaeuin l^ttse

GINN AND COMPANY • PRO-
PRIETORS • BOSTON • U.S.A.



K 7^%



PREFACE

In this volume the authors have tried to present a simple, prac-
tical study of the representative facts of commerce and industry,
as interpreted in the light of scientific principles.

The leading aspects of commerce and industry are treated under
three natural divisions, corresponding to the three great needs of
man : Food, Clothing, and Shelter. The facts of the commercial
and industrial organization are constandy referred to the physical,
human, and social factors which give them meaning. The con-
ditions of human life are brought into relation with those of nature^
thus affording to the boy or girl some principles about which to'^
group and hold together a knowledge of facts.

l^ecause of the reasoning required, this study is redeemed from
becoming, as it too often has been, a mere series of unrelated acts
of memory. It is also intended that the child shall constandy uti-
lize knowledge which has been gained in the studies of preceding
grades. What has been previously learned in geography, physi-
ology, and science and nature studies in general is here converged
upon a simple survey and explanation of the economic and social
life of the present day. Thus the student is shown the use of what
he has been studying.

The authors wish to acknowledge courtesies extended from sev-
eral sources in the preparation of the manuscript and in securing the
maps and illustrations. Mr. George H. Martin, of Lynn, Massachu-
setts, has made many valuable suggestions as to content and treatment.
Thanks are due also to Professor Albert P. Brigham for permis-
sion to use several maps in his "Commercial Geography"; and to
the Bureau of American Ethnology, from whose unrivaled collec-
tions of photographs many of our illustrations have been derived.

Vale University THE AUTHORS

New Haven, Connecticut



CONTENTS

PART I. THE INDUSTRIES OF THE WORLD



llAi'TKR



rAc;E

I. The Chief Needs of Max and how they are suti-lied i

II. The Industrial Regions of the World 31

III. The Industrial Regions of the United States ... 46

A SAMPI.E IXDUSTRY

W . The Manufacture of Ruuuer Boots and Shoes ... 85

PART II. FOOD AND FOOD MATERIALS

V. Distribution of Food Materials in the L'nited States 10 [

VL Distribution of Food Materials in Other Countries . 115

.-/ SAMPLE FOOD INDUSTRY
VIl. T]iF. Production, Manufacture, and Distribution of

Wheat .13''^

\III. The Manufacture of Flour 167

PART III. CLOTHING AND CLOTHING MATERIALS

IX. Uses and A'arieties of Clothing 183

X. Materi.als used in .makinc; Clothing 211

A SAMPLE CLOTHING INDUSTRY

.\T. Cotton — its Distribution and Culture .... 224

XII. Cotton — its Transporjatkjn and Manufacture . . . 248

.\III. The Factory System in the Manufacture of Clothinc; 266

PART IV. SHELTER

XIV. Houses and House Materials 291

XV. Modern Dwellings in Country and City 314

QUESTIONS FOR REVIEW 34 1

INDEX 353



COMMERCIAL AND
INDUSTRIAL GEOCRAPHY

PART I. THE INDUSTRIES OF
THE WORLD

CHAPTER I

2. 3 ^ 3 ^

THE CHIEF NEEDS OF MAN AND HOW THEY ARE SUPPLIED

Food. If a person were shipwrecked on an uninhabited island,
without any of the necessaries of hfe, he would want to know first
of all where to get food. In his anxiety about that he would not
e\'en think of his lack of a watch or a purse — articles which he
had once regarded as necessary to his comfort. He would not even
care for a chest of gold pieces if he should find one on the shore,
but would trade it in a moment for a small quantity of food. One
is never so hard pressed as when he does not know where his
next meal is coming from.

The first qaestion about food which we might ask is, "Why do
we need it .-* " The answer is, "Because we are hungry" ; but that
is really no answer if we want to know the real causes of things.
What does it mean when we say we are hungry^ ? To understand
the cause of hunger we must realize that it is produced by some
need of the body. It is a sign that the body is not satisfied. In
the same way extreme cold and heat cause a discomfort which is
also a sign that the body is not satisfied.

To understand this, we must know something about how our
bodies are made and how they act. This belongs to physiology,



COMMERCIAL AND INDUSTRIAL GEOGRAPHY



and the knowledge we get from that subject we must use here.
The body is composed of milHons of tiny cells, which unite to form
its various parts, such as the bones, muscles, nerves, and brain.
Every time we move a muscle or exercise our brains, some of these
cells are used up and are then carried away by the blood or otherwise

removed. But we cannot
prevent this even by lying
perfectly still and not think-
ing, for there are organs,
such as the heart, which act
all the time without our be-
ing able to have any control
over them, and the cells of
these are constantly wasting
away and disappearing. This
occurs even during sleep. If
these cells are not in some
way replaced, the organ must
gradually dwindle in size and
in strength.

The way in which these
cells are restored is by the
formation of new ones to
take their places, and this
is possible only when the
organ is properly nourished by the blood. The blood flows as a
liquid through every part of the body, bringing nourishment and
distributing it to the various organs. This nourishment is poured
into the blood from the lymphatic system, which takes it from the
intestines. In the intestines the nourishment is taken out of the
fluid called chyle; and the chyle, as we learn in physiology, is
really the food after it has been chewed and swallowed, and finally
digested ; that is, acted upon chemically by the various fluids of the
mouth, stomach, and intestines. Thus the course of the food is
from the mouth to the stomach, to the intestines, into the lymphatic
system, into the blood, and finally to the various organs. Here




Eating is a Pleasure as well as a
Necessity



CHIEF NEEDS OF MAN AND HOW SUPPLIED



the cells are fed and kept healthy and ready to produce new cells
to take the place of worn-out ones.

Hence the replacement of the cells in any organ is dependent
upon the eating of food, so that food is the most important need
of the body. We can see what lack of food does in the case of
a person starving to death. The weight of the body decreases.
First the fat cells disappear, leaving the body, as we say, nothing
but skin and bone. Then the muscles and the various organs suffer.
The starving person
becomes very weak
and presently dies.
This shows that the
need of food is, for
the human being,
greater than any
other need.

If there were no
such thing as hun-
ger, and if food did
not taste good, per-
haps a person might
not eat until he was near death. Nature causes each one of us, if
we go too long without food, to feel this painful sensation of hun-
ger, which forces us to eat. If a person becomes extremely hungry,
he gets to be ravenous ; that is, he forgets his manners and every-
thing else in his eagerness to secure food. Shipwrecked sailors
have been led to eat all manner of disagreeable foods in the effort
to preserve life. It is plain, then, that hunger is only a danger
signal which shows that the body is not properly nourished.

Drink. In speaking of food we should not forget that water is
also a prime necessity of the body — is really a food. Over one
half of the body is water, and bodily well-being demands that this
proportion shall be kept up. If we exercise violently and perspire
a great deal, the moisture which we lose must be restored ; and
there is a sensation, thirst, which drives us to restore it. The dis-
tress caused by thirst is even greater than that due to hunger ; it




) Detroit Publishing Co.

Modern Distriiu'ting Reservoir, Brooklyn



4 COMMERCIAL AND INDUSTRIAL GEOGRAPHY

becomes so violent that men may be crazed by thirst long before
they are ready to perish of hunger. Any one who has seen the
immense and costly waterworks built by large cities will realize
how important a plentiful supply of water is considered to be.
And when we see how carefully water is protected and saved by
peoples who dwell in very dry regions, as in the North African
countries, we get a still clearer idea of its value to man.




L. L uiIliuouU i^ Underwood

In EoYrr Water is not Plentiful, and the Women carry it in Jars

Clothing and shelter. When the hunger and thirst of our ship-
wrecked person have been satisfied, he will still be conscious of.
other needs. He will want clothing and shelter, for these protect
him against cold, heat, and storms. Shelter is really like clothing
except that it does not fit the body so closely. He will also need
a fire and fuel in order to cook his food and to keep himself
warm and dry.

Clothing. Clothing, as has been said, is a protection against
both cold and heat. This is true also of shelter. The tent and the



CHIEF NEEDS OF MAN AND HOW SUPPLIED



turban of the Arab shield him from the blazing sun of his native
land. Even in very warm countries there may be sudden changes
in temperature against which the body must be protected. In some
deserts the change from heat to cold is so rapid at sundown that
rocks have been known to fly to pieces like a hot lamp chimney
sprinkled with cold water. The feeling of extreme heat or cold is
an indication that the body is under a strain which, if prolonged,
may result in the rapid destruction of cells and even in death.




*,T1'Mj



T - X




Dressed for a Warm Climate



Photogiapli by Brown Bros.



Thus, in a way, the discomfort of extreme cold and heat is, like
hunger, a clanger signal.

In fact, clothing, by protecting the body against waste, may even
be regarded as a substitute for food. The food does for the body what
coal does for the furnace. Not only will hot food and drink warm the
body, but any food will enable the body to keep up its heat. For
this reason more food is required in winter than in summer. Now,
as a well-clothed body does not lose its heat very fast, it naturally
does not need so much food as an ill-clothed one. On the other
hand, a fat man really has his overcoat on under his skin, and does
not need the same amount of clothing that a thin man might.



COMMERCIAL AND INDUSTRIAL GEOGRAPHY




Clothing, in the form of
shoes and gloves, protects
the feet and hands from
various hardships.

Shelter. Shelter is like
clothing in the protection it
gives against heat and cold,
rain, and other conditions
which produce bodily dis-
comfort. In the tropical
lands the savages, and even
the animals, retire into shel-
ter during the hot hours.
The siesta, or midday nap,
is a regular custom in hot
countries. Business is sus-
pended and few people are
seen on the streets. When
we come to think of the
cold regions, we see all the
more clearly the importance of shelter. Probably none of us, no
matter how well fed and warmly clothed, could go through a winter
without shelter ; and
in the frozen north
it is necessary to life
that the inhabitants
shall have weather-
tight houses.

Fire. One fur-
ther protection which
human beings have
is fire. The uses of
fire are so many
that it would be
hard to name them
all ; probably the



Australian Savage making Fjke hy
Friction




) Underwood &• I'ndenvood

Starting Fire without Matches



CHIEF NEEDS OF MAN AND HOW SUPPLIED



discovery of fire was the greatest ever made by man. Fire enables
us to protect our bodies by keeping them warm. It has been found
that the ordinary winter temperature of the American house is about



For Food


For

rLOTHING


For
Shelter





TOTAL INCOME
How a Workman spends his Income

that of an Arizona desert in summer. This means that we five
during the winter within a small volume of climate very different
from that outside our houses. In order to keep fire going we must
have fuel ; and fuel, as we shall
see, is one of the important arti-
cles of commerce.

Universal character of these
needs. We must not think that
the need of food, clothing, and
shelter stops with the shipwrecked
man or the savage. Such needs
continue through all stages of
civilization, and are present
among us at all times, lliis we
can see by noticing how much is
spent in order to secure them.
It has been found that out of a
workman's wages, one half or
more is spent for food, about one
sixth for clothing, and about one
sixth for shelter, in the form of
rent and fuel. If a man has to spend so large a portion of his income
upon these three things, it is clear that they are real necessities.

What we spend for food, clothing, and shelter is not spent so
much with the idea of preserving life as of living more comfortably ;




I TJnderwood & Underwood

Interior of a Ri'de Peasant Hut



8



COMMERCIAL AND INDUSTRIAL GEOGRAPHY



that is, \vc have a higher standard of living, and we are always
trying to secure better food, clothing, and shelter. Upon our tables
there appear kinds of food which we call luxuries. And we wish
even the simpler sorts of food to be of good quality and well
prepared.

The same is true of clothing ; we are not content with clothing
which simply protects us, but we wish to have it look well. For
this reason we may use silk when we could live comfortably if our

clothes were made of
cotton. We are equally
exacting as to our
houses. A hut of mud
might do to keep out
the cold and afford
protection, but we in-
sist upon having what
we call "conveniences"
in our homes. We
spend a great deal of
money, too, on furni-
ture, wall paper, and
pictures, for the sake
of the extra satisfaction and pleasure which these give. And not
only for our comfort but for our health do we insist upon having
running water and good sewers.

So we see that man in all ages has needed for his well-being
and happiness some of the various articles which are included in
our studies of food, clothing, and shelter.

The Influence of Environment

Kinds of materials. The materials from which man supplies
his needs are not the same in all parts of the earth. They may be
divided into two classes : (i) mineral substances ; (2) those derived
from plants and animals. Examples of the first would be iron, coal,
clay, petroleum ; of the second, vegetable and meat foods, fruits,
spices, hay, hides, wood, plant and animal fibers like cotton and wool.




L\



Modern Home



CHIEF NEEDS OF MAN AND HOW SUPPLIED 9

Mineral substances. Mineral substances useful to man have been
located in different parts of the earth, once and for all, by nature.
Salt, for instance, is to be found wherever salt can be evaporated,
or where deposits of rock salt exist. Coal occurs in underground
deposits, where, ages ago, trees and other vegetable matter were re-
duced to beds of carbon. Of course, coal could never be mined on a
coral island. The metals and coal are seldom found except in moun-
tainous regions, for here the layers in which they occur have been
squeezed and tilted up nearer the surface (see figure on page 36).




Dkaimnc S\i.i, S\'k\('rsi:, Xiw \..i;i:

These forces which have determined the distribution of min-
erals are entirely beyond our control — in fact, their activity took
place many ages before man appeared on earth. Man, therefore,
has no power to move these deposits or to locate them over again.
So a country either has these materials or is without them, and if
they are not in the ground already, there is no way in which they
can be made to exist. It has been of great importance to several
countries that they have had within their boundaries mines of gold,
or coal, or iron. This we shall see later ; but for the present it is
enough to say that supplies of minerals arc where nature placed
them, and are a source of wealth to the country possessing them.



lO COMMERCIAL AND INDUSTRIAL GEOGRAPHY

Organic substances. The other set of materials useful to man
are those derixed from plant or animal life. Such life is called
"organic." The same sort of organic life does not exist in all
regions. In one country there are limitless forests, in another
scarcely any trees at all. One region will be like a great menagerie,
while in another a traveler can journey for days and see scarcely
a living creature. Plants and animals, like minerals, have been dis-
tril)uted by natural forces over which we have no control. Oranges
will not grow in Greenland, nor groves of pine trees on a tropical
shore. The polar bear would die at the equator, and a monkey would
soon perish of exposure if suddenly transported to Spitzbergen.

The effects of . environment. We know little about the natural
forces which caused the distribution of minerals ; but concerning
plants and animals we know more. Both plant life and animal life
are determined by natural or geographical conditions, such as cli-
mate, altitude, and the presence of water. There can be no fish in
the desert, and we have seen that the polar bear cannot live in the
tropics. What we find is that the plant or animal fits the natural
conditions in which it lives. All these natural conditions, — at-
mosphere, rocks, rivers, trees, and the rest, — taken together, arc
called the " environment " ; and so we say that all living beings
must be fitted or adapted to their environment.

The polar bear. Nature is full of examples of this. The polar
bear is a good illustration. In the first place, his fur is thick and
long, which enables him to live comfortably in a cold land, thougli
it is a source of great discomfort if he happens to be brought into a
warm country. This we can see when polar bears are carried about
in captivity ; on a hot day they are evidently very uncomfortable
in their cages. Unless they are taken good care of, they will soon
die. The fur of the polar bear is white, and this is a great advan-
tage to him in a land of snow and ice. Not only does he escape
pursuit himself because he is not easily to be distinguished from
his snowy environment, but he can creep upon his prey without
being discovered. Thus the thickness and color of his coat are a
great advantage to him, and cause him to be well adapted to the
environment in which he lives.



CHIEF NEEDS OF MAN AND HOW SUPPLIED



1 1



The camel. The camel is an example of adaptation to an entirely
different kind of environment. This animal lives in the desert and
leads a life very different from that of the polar bear. The feet of
the camel are broad and spong)', and enable him to walk over the
shifting sand without sinking in, as a horse would. They serve the
same purpose as snowshoes, and save him a great deal of effort.
Again, he is able to close his nostrils, and so can live through the
sand storms with ease. He can go without water for a long time,




PliI.AK llKAR C.KTTINO HIS Ft)On



and when he gets a chance to drink, he is able to store up water
in his body for future use. Furthermore, he can travel a long dis-
tance without food, for the hump on his back is only a mass of fat
and is gradually taken into the blood as food becomes scarce.

Plants. Not only animals are adapted to the regions in which
they live ; plants show the same adjustment. The plant which
grows in the desert is able to exist on a small quantity of moisture ;
its stalk and leaves are glazed and shiny, which means that they
are so constructed as to lose by evajDoration very little of the mois-
ture which they contain. On the other hand, there are plants, such
as mushrooms and swamp plants, which can onl\- grow where there



12



COMMERCIAL AND INDUSTRIAL GEOCRAl'HV




VKGETAIIO.N IX THK AkIZUXA DhsKKX



is a great deal of water in the soil. Some grow in the water, like
pond lilies. Most of them need a great deal of sunshine, but

there are a number of kinds
which grow best in the shade
of heavy forests.

Variations in the necessaries
of life. We see from these few
examples, to which might be
added thousands and thousands
of others, that organic life dif-
fers in different environments ;
and as there are not many
places on earth which are pre-
cisely alike in climate, rainfall,
and other conditions, we must
not expect to find many regions which have, by nature, exactly the
same kind of plant and animal life. For this reason the food,
clothing, and shelter of
human beings in differ-
ent regions, when ob-
tained from the plant or
animal life of the region,
are not likely to be the
same.

The Eskimos. This
may be shown most
clearly if we compare
two peoples who live in
very different environ-
ments. The Eskimos
inhabit the polar regions,
and their food, clothing,
and shelter are derived
almost entirely from the animals and plants of the arctic zone.
There are but few plants in this region, and it is only in the
short summer that these are to be found ; consequently the




WtiMAX's 1m '\1



Eskimo



CHIEF NEEDS OF MAN AND HOW SUPPLIED




Man's Boat or Hinting Boat of the Eskimo



Eskimos are obliged to get along almost entirely with materials
taken from the animal world. Let us see how this affects their

method of living.

The food of the
Eskimos is largely
the flesh of animals
and fish. They kill
the walrus, seal, bear,
and other animals,
and are able to get
only a little vegeta-
ble food from the
mosses and berries
collected in the sum-
mer. Their meat food contains a great deal of fat, or blubber, for
the animals of the far north are protected from the cold by having
beneath the skin thick masses of fat. The Eskimos, like the ani-
mals, need this same sort of protection, and they grow fat upon
the fat food they eat. It would be very difficult to find a lean
Eskimo ; they are fat and oily-skinned, and the\- like the blubber
as well as we like our
lean meat and vege-
tables. Anything that
is greasy or oily seems
to please them, for
this is the kind of
food which the body,
in that environment,
calls for.

The clothing of the
Eskimos is made from
the only materials they
know ; that is, from the
skins and other parts of animals and birds. The undergarment is
sometimes of a softer skin, but the outer clothing is of fur. As it
is necessary' that their clothing shall be water-tight, the trousers




Eskimo Dog and Harness



14



COMMKRC:iAL AND INDUSTRIAL GEOGRAPHY



and boots may be of one piece, with the seams carefully packed
with grease ; the coat, hood, and gloves may also be made in one
piece. Babies are carried in a warm pouch, or hood, lined with
down and soft fur, on the back of the mother's coat.

It would be interesting to notice how the other possessions of
the Eskimos show their dependence upon their environment. For
instance, since there is often no wood, except occasionally drift-
wood, the Eskimo boats are made of hide stretched over frameworks

of bone ; the Eskimo
sledge is made with-
out nails or metal,
is tied together with
rawhide, and is some-
times shod by freez-
ing small fish in a
row along the run-
ners. Practically
everything used by
the Eskimos in hunt-
ing is made of bone,
horn, skin, glue, or
other substances de-
rived from animals.
When it comes to
shelter, we find the Eskimo building his winter house of the only
material at hand which will keep out the intense cold. The house
is made of blocks of hard-packed snow, cut out with a knife and
built into the form of a dome. The entrance to the house is a
low passage just high enough for a man to crawl through on his
hands and knees, and the door is a block of snow. Inside this
house the temperature can be raised to a very high degree b\- the
use of an oil lamp.

The furniture of the house is mosdy of snow. The beds are
snow benches covered with furs, and if there is a table, it is a
square block of snow. Light is let in through blocks of ice, which


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