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See p. 306.
Uigurische Sprachmonumente und das Kudatku Bilik. Innsbruck,

1870. — See p. 306.
Venier, Maffeo. Relazione, 1579, 1587. In Alberi's Relazione, 3d

series, i. 437-468, ii. 295-307. Florence, 1840-1844.
ViAGGi fatti da Vinetia, alia tana ... in Costantinopoli. Venice, 1543.

— Contains Libri Tre, etc., of Ramberti, q. v.
YoussouF Fehmi. Histoire de la Turquie. Paris, 1909.
YusuF Khass Hajil. Kudatku Bilik (Art of Government) . See Vambery,

Uigurische Sprachmonumente, etc.
Zane, Matteo. Relazione, 1594. In Alberi's Relazione, 3d series, iii.

381-444. Florence, 1855.
Zen (or Zeno), Pietro. Itinerario, 1523. In Fulin's Diarii, 104-136.

Venice, 1881.
Relazione, 1524, 1530. In Alberi's Relazione, 3d series, iii. 93-97,

119-122. Florence, 1855.
Zinkeisen, J. W. Geschichte des osmanischen Reiches in Europa. 7 vols.

and Index, Hamburg and Gotha, 1840-1863. — See p. 321.



GLOSSARY OF TURKISH WORDS



The pronunciation of the words defined should be approximately
phonetic, the vowels by the continental system, the consonants as
usually in English. Forms not defined are variant Western spel-
lings. Gh is silent except at the beginning of a word. Plurals of
nouns originally Turkish are formed by affixing -ler or -lar. The
plurals in -s used in the foregoing pages are Anglicized.



Achiar, or Aconiziae, see Akinji.
Adet, established custom, 152, 161.
Agha, a general officer.
Aghiar, see Akinji.
Agiamoglani, see Ajem-oghlan.
Ajem-oghlan (untrained youth), a cadet

or apprentice Janissary, 79 ff.
Akinji, the irregular cavalry, 105.
Alai Bey, a colonel of the feudal cavalry,

103.
Alcangi, Alcanzi, or Alengi, see Akinji.
Allophase, see Ulufagi.
Ameji, a receiver of petitions, etc., 183.
Aquangi, see Akinji.
Arpa-emini, intendant of forage, 132.
Ashji-bashi, a chief cook, 245.
Azab, the irregular infantry, 105.

Bailo (Italian), a Venetian minister resi-
dent at Constantinople.

Bairam, the name of two great Moslem
festivals, 136.

Balucasi, see Boluk-bashi.

Bascia, see Pasha.

Bash, a head, a chief.

Bassa, see Pasha.

Berat, an ordinance, or document con-
ferring a dignity or privilege.

Berat-emini, a distributor of ordinances,

253-
Beylerbey (lord of lords), a general of
feudal cavalry and governor of a prov-
ince or group of provinces, 103.



Beylikji, a director of the three chancery
bureaus, 183.

Beylik Kalemi, a bureau of the Chancery,
183.

Bezestan, a market house in Constanti-
nople, built by Mohammed II.

Bin(m)bashi (chief of a thousand), a
colonel.

Boluk-bashi, a captain of the Janissaries,
249.

Bostanji, a gardener.

Bostanji-bashi, the head gardener of the
Sultan's palace — a high official, 130.

Cacaia, see Kiaya.
Cadilescher, see Kaziasker.
Cahaia, or Caia, see Kiaya.
Calvalgibassi, see Helvaji-bashi.
Capagasi, see Kapu-aghasi.
Capiagabasi, see Kapuji-bashi.
Capi (oglan), see Ghureba (oghlan).
Caragi, see Kharaji.
Caripicus, see Ghureba.
Caripp (oglan), see Ghureba (oghlan).
Caripy, see Ghureba.
Carmandari (Italianized), muleteers, 251.
Carzeri, see KJiaraji.
Casnandarbasi, see Khazinchdar-bashi.
Cavriliji (Italianized), a herdsman, 251.
Ceyssi, see Seis.
Chakirji, a vulturer, 252.
Chasnejir, a taster, 245.
Chasnejir-bashi, a chief taster, 245.
331



332



GLOSSARY OF TURKISH WORDS



Chaush, an usher, 130.

Chaush-bashi, chief of the Chaushes —

a high official, 183.
Checaya, or Chechessi, see Kiaya.
Chelebi, a gentleman.
Cheri-bashi (chief of soldiery), a petty

officer of feudal cavalry.
Chiccaia, or Chietcudasci, see Kiaya.
Chokadar, a page of high rank, 127.
Ciarcagi, see Ghureba.
Ciaus, see Chaush.
Cogia, see Hoja.
Coureyschs, see Koreish.

Danishmend, a master of arts, 205.
Dar ul-harb, home or land of war, 29.
Dar ul-Islam, home or land of Islam, 64.
Defterdar, a treasurer, 167 ff., 174.
Defter-emini (intendant of account-
books), a recorder of fiefs, 172.
Deli, crazy (appellation of a scout or a

captain of the Akinji).
Dervish, a member of a Moslem rehgious

order, 207.
Deveji, a camel-driver, 251.
Devshurmeh, a gathering or collecting

(of the tribute boys), 51.
Divan, the Ottoman council of state,

187 ff.; a council of a great officer,

216, note 3.
Dulbend, or Dulipante (Italianized), a

turban.

Emin (plural Umena), an intendant, 132.
Emir, a descendant of the prophet

Mohammed, 206 ff.; a commander, a

governor.
Emir-al-.\khor, a grand equerr>', 131.
Ersi kharajiyeh, tribute lands, 31.
Ersi memleket, state lands, 31.
Ersi 'ushriyeh, tithe lands, 31.
Eski, old.

Fetva, a response from a Mufti, 208, 223.
Fetva-khaneh, the drafting bureau of the

Sheik ul-Islam, 208.
Fikh, the practical regulations of the

Sacred Law, 153.



Firman, an administrative ordinance'
157.

Gachaia, see Kiaya.

Gharib(oglan), see Ghureba (oghlan).

Ghureba (foreigner), a member of the

lowest corps of the standing cavalry,

98 and note 5.
Gonnullu, a volimteer soldier or sailor,

102.
Gul-behar, rose of spring (a feminine

proper name), 57 note 3.

Hebegibassi, see Jebeji-bashl.
Hekim-bashi, a chief physician, 129.
Helvaji-bashi, a chief confectioner, 245.
Hoja, a teacher; the Sultan's adviser,

128.
Holofagi, see Ulufagi.
Humayim, imperial.

laching, see Akinji.

lanicerotti (Italianized), the Ajem-ogh-

lans.
laxagi, see Yaziji.
Ikinji Kapu-oghlan, a white eunuch in

charge of the second gate of the plac^

128.
Imam, the Caliph or lawful successor of

Mohammed, 28, 150, 235; a leader of

daily prayers, 206.
Imbrahor, Imbroor, Imrakhor, or Imror,

see Emir-al-Akhor.
Iskemleji, a page of high rank, 244.
Itch-oghlan (inside j'outh), a page in one

of the Sultan's palaces, 73 ff.

Jebeji-bashi, a chief armorer, 252.
Jerrah-bashi, a chief surgeon, 129.
Jizyeh, a poll or capitation tax on non-
Moslems, 175.

Kadi, see Kazi.

Kadi al asker, or Kadi 1' esker, see Ka-

ziasker.
Kaim, a caretaker of a mosque, 206.
Kalem, a bureau of the Treasury, 168 ff.
Kanun, an imperial decree, 152, 158.



GLOSSARY OF TURKISH WORDS



333



Kanuni, legislator, 27.

Kanun-nameh, a book or collection of
laws, 158 ff.

Kapu Aghasi (general of the gate), the
white eunuch in charge of the principal
palace, 126.

Kapudan Pasha, an admiral, 189.

Kapuji, a gatekeeper, 130.

Kapuji-bashi, a head gatekeeper, 126.

Kapujilar-kiayasi, a grand chamberlain,
190.

Kazi, a judge, 215 fl.

Kaziasker (judge of the army) , one of the
two chief judges of the Ottoman Em-
pire, 220 S.

Ketkhuda, see Kiaya.

Kharaj, a tax or tribute in money or
kind on lands belonging to non-Mos-
lems, 175.

Kharaji, a non-Moslem who pays the
kharij, 41.

Khass Oda (private chamber), the high-
est chamber of pages, 75, 126.

Khass, a very large fief, 100.

Khatib, a leader of Friday prayers, 206.

Khazinehdar-bashi, a treasurer-in-chief,
127.

Khazineh-odassi (chamber of the treas-
ury), the second chamber of pages,
127.

Khojagan, a chief of a treasury bureau,
168.

Khurrem, happy, joyful (a feminine
proper name), 57.

Kiaya (common form of ketkhuda), a
steward or lieutenant, 96 note 4, 125.

Kiaya-bey, the lieutenant of the grand
vizier, 182 fT.

Kiaya Katibi, a private secretary of the
Kiaya-bey, 184.

Kilerji-bashi, a chief of the sultan's
pantry, 127.

Kiler-odassi (chamber of the pantry),
the third chamber of pages, 127.

Kizlar Aghasi (general of the girls), the
black eunuch in charge of the palace
of the harem, 125.

Koreish, the Arabian tribe of which



Mohammed the prophet was a mem-
ber, 150, 235.
Kul, a slave; one of the sultan's slave-
family, 47 ff.

Masraf-shehriyari (imperial steward),
substitute for the intendant of kitchen,
132.

Mawuna, or Maone (Italianized), a
sailing vessel.

Mecter, see Mihter.

Medresseh, a secondary school or college,
203 ff.

Mekteb, a school, 203.

Mektubji, a private secretary of the
grand vizier, 184.

Mihter, a tent-pitcher; a musician.

Mihter-bashi, the chief tent-pitcher, 132.

Mir Alem, the imperial standard bearer,
131, 206.

Miri-akhor, see Emir-al-Akhor.

MoUa, a judge of high rank, 217.

Mosellem, a fief holder by ancient tenure,
105.

Muderis, a professor in a Medresseh, 205.

Muezzin, one who calls Moslems to
prayer, 206.

Mufettish, a special judge dealing with
endowments, 201, 218.

Mufti, a Moslem legal authority; in
particular, the Sheik ul-Islam, 207 ff.

Muhtesib, a lieutenant of police, 219.

Mujtahid, a doctor of the Sacred Law.

Mulazim (candidate), a graduate of the
higher Medressehs, 205.

Mulk, land held in fee simple, 31.

Munejim-bashi, a chief astrologer, 129.

Muste emin, a resident foreigner, 34.

Mutbakh-emini, intendant of the kitch-
en, 132.

Muteferrika, the Noble Guard, 129.

Muteveli, an administrator of an en-
dowment, 201.

Naib, an inferior judge, 218.

Nakib oI-Eshraf, the chief of the Seids or
descendants of the prophet Moham-
med, 206.



334



GLOSSARY OF TURKISH WORDS



Nazir, an inspector of an endowment,

20I.

Nishanji, a chancellor, 182 ff.

Nizam al-mulk, basis of the order of the

kingdom (title of a vizier of Melek

Shah), 306.

Oda (a room), a chamber of the pages
or of the harem recruits; a company
of the Janissaries.

Oda-bashi (head of chamber), the page
of highest rank, 244; a corporal of the
Janissaries, 249.

Oghlan, a youth.

Okumak-yerleri (reading-places), prim-
ary schools, 203.

Orta, a company of the Janissaries.
{See also Oda.)

Ouloufedgis, see Ulufaji.

Papuji, a page of high rank, 244.

Pasha, a very high official.

Peik, a member of the body-guard of

halbardiers, 130.
Podesta (Italian), a municipal judge.

Quaia, or Queaya, see Kiaya.

Ramazan, the Moslem month of fasting.
Rayah, non-Moslem Ottoman subjects,

159-

Reis Effendi, or Reis ul-Khuttab, a re-
cording secretary, 174; a recording
secretary of the Divan, later an im-
portant minister of state, 182 ff.

Reis ul-Ulema (head of the Ulema), an
early title of the Sheik ul-Islam, 208
note 3.

Rekiab-Aghalari (generals of the stirrup) ,
a group of high officers of the outside
ser\ice of the palace, 131.

Rusnamehji, a chief book-keeper of the
Treasury, 168.

Ruus Kalemi, a bureau of the Chancery,
183.

Sakka, a water-carrier.

Sanjak, a flag or standard, a district.



Sanjak Bey, a high officer of feudal,
cavalry and governor of a Sanjak, 103.

Saremin, see Shehr-emini.

Sarraf, a banker.

Scheni, see Iskemleji.

Seferli-odassi (chamber of campaign),
the fourth chamber of pages, 128 note
I.

Segban-bashi (master of the hounds),
the second officer of the corps of Janis-
saries, 96, 132 note 3.

Seid, a descendant of the prophet Mo-
hammed, 206.

Seis, a groom, 251.

Selicter, see Silihdar,

Seracter, see Sharabdar.

Serai, a palace.

Seraskier, a commander-in-chief.

Serraj, saddlers, 251.

Seymen-bashi, a popular form of Segban-
bashi, q. V.

Shahinji, a falconer, 252.

Sharabdar (drink-bearer), a page of high
rank, 127.

Shehr-emini, intendant of imperial build-
ings, 132.

Sheik, a preacher; a head of a religious
community, 206.

Sheik ul-Islam, the Mufti of Constanti-
nople and head of the Moslem Institu-
tion, 208 flf.

Sheri (or Sheriat), the Moslem Sacred
Law, 152 ff.

Sherif, a descendant of the prophet
Mohammed, 206.

Sihhdar (sword-bearer), a member of
the second corps of standing cavalry,
98 and note 5; the page who carried
the sultan's arms, 127.

Sillictar, see Silihdar.

Sipah, or Sipahi, see Spahi.

Sofi, woolen; a dervish (an appella-
tion of the Shah of Persia).

Softa, an undergraduate in a Medresseh,
205.

Solak (left-handed) , a janissary bowman
of the sultan's personal guard, 129.

Spachi, see Spahi.



GLOSSARY OF TURKISH WORDS



335



Spacoillain, see Spahi-oghlan.

Spahi, a cavalry soldier; a member of

the standing or feudal cavalry, 47,

q8 flf., 100 ff.
Spahi-oghlan (cavalry youth), a member

of the highest corps of the standing

cavalr>', 98 and note 5.
Spai, see Spahi.
Subashi, a captain of the feudal cavalry

and governor of a town, 103.
Sukhta (inflamed), see Softa.
Suiastrus, see Silihdar.
Sultana, a princess or queen mother,

125; (the true Turkish form uses a

proper name or the word Valideh,

followed by Sultan).
Suluphtar, see Silihdar.

Tahvil Kalemi, a bureau of the Chancery,
183.

Talisman, see Danishmend.

Tapu, a tenant's lease or title deed, 31.

Terjuman, an interpreter (dragoman).

Terjuman Divani Humayun, a chief in-
terpreter of the sultan, 183.

Teshrifat, ceremony, 134.

Teshrifatji, a master of ceremonies, 184.

Teskereh, a document.

Teskereji, a master of petitions, 184.

Teskereji-bashi (chief of document-
writers), the Nishanji, 184, 185.

Tim.ar, a fief of small income, 100; feudal
income.

Timarji, the holder of a Timar.

Tughra, the sultan's monogram, 185.

Ulema (plural of dlim, a learned man),
the whole body of Moslems learned in
the Sacred Law, 203 ff.

Ulufaji (paid troops), a member of the



third corps of the sultan's standing

cavalry, q8 and note 5.
Umena, plural of Emin.
Urf, the sovereign will of the reigning

sultan, 152, 162.
'Ushr, a tithe on lands belonging to

Moslems, 175.

Vakf, a religious endowment, 31, 201 ff.

Valideh, a mother.

Veznedar, an official weigher of money,

132.
Vizier (burden-bearer), a minister of

state, 163 ff.
Voivode (Slavic), an oflScer, a governor.

Yachinji, see Akinji.

Yaya, a fief holder by ancient tenure,
owing infantry service, 105.

Yaziji, a scribe or secretary.

Yedi-kiileh (seven towers), a strong
castle against the land wall of Con-
stantinople, 172.

Yeni-cheri (new soldiery), the corps of
the Janissaries, 91 ff.

Yeni Oda (new chamber), the lowest
chamber of pages in the principal
palace, 75, 127.

Zagarji-bashi (master of the harriers),

a high ofiQcer of the Janissaries, 132

note 5.
Zanijiler (Italianized), lancers or Voi-

naks (?), 252.
Zarabkhane-emini, intendant of mints

and mines, 132.
Ziam, the holder of a Ziamet.
Ziamct, a large fief, 100.
Zimmi, a tributary non-Moslem subject,

34.



INDEX



INDEX



AcHMET I, 126 note i, 160 and note 5.

Advancement based on merit, 82-86;
in Mogul Empire, 283.

Adviser of sullan {Iloja), 128, 218, 225.

Afghans, in Mogul Empire, 280, 282.

Agra, 287.

Agricultural conditions, 144 and note 2,
163, 177; under Moguls in India, 297,
298.

Akbar, Mogul emperor, 278, 281; re-
moved poll-tax on non-Moslems, 284;
army of, 295; presents made to, 188;
harem of, 290; revenue system of,
293, 294; amount of revenue of, 195;
policy of, toward cultivators of soil,
297; removed internal tolls, 298; tol-
erated Hindus, 298; relation to Mo-
hammedanism of, 302; " divine faith "
of, 302.

Albania, status of, 30, 33, 258, 297;
furnished tribute boys, 52, 74.

Ali Pasha, grand vizier of Suleiman,
steps in promotion of, 87, 88; great
authority, 164.

Anatolia, 77, 79 note 4, 102, 104, 168,
169, 220; Beylerbey of, 103-105, 189.

Arabia, status of, 6, 30; rendering of
justice in, 37; taxation in, 175, 176.

Arabic language, 21, 77.

Arabs, influence on Ottoman Empire,
4, 20, 23; in Foreign Legion, 50; re-
lation of, to Ottoman government,
227, 258, 297; service of, to Mogul
emperors, 281.

Arbitrary taxes, 175, 176.

Architecture, in Ottoman Empire, 23,
24, 239-241; in Mogul Empire, 287,
295-

Armenian subjects, a separate organiza-
tion, 34, 37; not liable to tribute of
boys, 34.



Arms, of Spahis of the Porte and Janis-
saries, 138, 139; of Mogul infantry,
285.

Army —
Of Ottoman Empire, 90-113, 194;
principal subdivisions of, 91; the
territorial army, 104, 105; numbers
in, 106, 107 and note i; the supreme
command of, 109-111; indivisibil-
ity of, 111-113.
Of Mogul emperors, 279, 285-287;
compared with Ottoman army, 285.

Artillery of Mogul emperors, 286.

Asia Minor, Occidental influence in, 7;
occupation of, by Turks, 5, 14 £f., 35,
227; defined, 14 note i; teachers
from, 77; Janissary apprentices sent
to, 79; heretics in, 210. See Anatolia.

Astrologer of sultan, 129.

Audiences, of Suleiman, loi; of Aurang-
zeb, 289, 296; of Humayun, 296.

Aurangzeb, Mogul emperor, compared
with Suleiman, 278, 302; a zealous
^Moslem, 284, 298, 302; army of, 286,
287; audiences of, 289, 296; sisters
of, 291; views on government of, 292;
in civil wars, 293; revenue of, 295;
reimposed capitation tax on non-Mos-
lems, 295; education of, 300, 301.

Austria, raided, 29, 50; paid tribute
to Suleiman, 30, 177; wars of, with
Ottoman Empire, 112, 113.

Baber, founder of Mogul Empire, house
of, compared with house of Osman,
278, 292, 293, 299 {see Timur, house
of); followers of, 279; character of,
280; family life of, 281; treatment of
Moslem subjects by, 298.

Babylon, 4.

Bairam, feast of, 135, 136, 140.



339



340



INDEX



Balkan peninsula, 6, 51, 103. See Al-
banians, Bulgarians, Rumelia, Ser-
\nans,

Bangash tribe of Afghans, 281, 282.

Battle, order of, 100, 104.

Bayezid II, circumstances of deposition
of, 94; gave kiillar their own justice,
116; honor shown the Mufti by, 209.

Bayezid, son of Suleiman, execution of,
94, 95, 142, 143; war against, 136.

Bedchamber, gentlemen of the, 75-78,
126, 127.

Body-guards, 129.

Bondage, American colonial, compared
with Ottoman slavery, 60 note 7.

Booty, 176, 178.

Bosra, 31.

Brahmins, 282, 298.

Buddhist influence on Mogul Empire,
279.

Bulgarians, 16, Z2>, 35, 74-

Bureaucratic tendencies, 19, 32, 186,
187.

Bureaus, of the Treasur>^, 168 ff.; of
the Chancery, 183; of the Mufti, 208.

Busbecq, opinion of, on Ottoman educa-
tion, 74, 86; dealings with Janissaries,
96; witnessed ceremonies, 136-141; on
execution of Mustapha, 213.

Byzantine Empire, disintegration of, in
13th century, 6; bequest of, to Otto-
man Turks, 4, 21, 24, 227.

Caliph, as Imam, 28, 157, 163 note i;

the sultan as, 150; Suleiman as, 234.
Canon law, of Roman Catholic Church,

157; of Moslems, see Sacred Law.
Capitation tax, 21, 170, 175, 284.
Caucasus, slaves from, 16, 34, 50, 57,

281 . See Circassia, Georgia, ]Mingrelia.
Cavalry —

Of Ottoman Empire, regular, see
Spahis of the Porte; feudal, 100-
105; irregiilar, 105-107.

Of Mogul Empire, regular, 285; feudal,
285, 286.
Ceremonies of the Court, 133-141; law

of, 134, 158.



Chancellor, 182-187, 189, 248.
Chancery, bureaus of, 183; personnel

of, 186, 187.
Charles V, Emperor, relations of, with

Suleiman, 112, 113 and note 4.
China, influence of, on Turks and Mon-
gols, 5, 19, 118.
Christians, converted and incorporated
as Turks, 8, 14-17, 63-68; not entrusted
with great power, 62; right to practise
their religion, 211, 212. See Renegade
Christians.
Christian subjects of Ottoman Empire,
protected by Sacred Law, 26, 212;
position of, 34; subject to levy of
male children, 51-55; relation of, to
Sultan, 151; legislation regarding,
159, 160 note i; taxation of, 170, 175;
church lands of, 172; Selim I's attempt
to convert forcibly, 211, 212; treat-
ment of, in courts, 222.
Circassia, slaves from, :^2> i^ote 2, 57, 74,

290.
Civil war, in Ottoman Empire, 94; in

Mogul Empire, 293, 301.
Clerg}', Moslem, 206.
Codifications, of ^Moslem Sacred Law,
152, 153, 292; of sultans' legislation,
158-161.
Colleges, of pages, 73-79; of education,

203-205.
Comparison of the Ruling Institution
and the Moslem Institution, 227-236;
likenesses, 227-230; differences, 230-
232; relative power, 232-236.
Confiscations, 55, 172, 178, 179.
Conservatism, in regard to taxation,
177; in education, 204; of the two
great institutions compared, 230, 232,
233. See Custom.
Constantinople described, 239-241.
Constitution, the Sacred Law a form of,
27, 28, 150, 156, 157, 175, 193, 209,
214.
Conversion to Mohammedanism, in Asia
Minor, 15 ff.; by Ottoman Turks, 33,
67; by the Ruling Institution, 62-71;
meaning of, 62, 63; why encouraged,



INDEX



341



63-66; not usually forcible, 63 and note
2, 66 and note 3, 67; sincerity of, un-
certain, 68-69; in India, 284.

Corruption, official, 32, 39, 86, 144, 161,
177; judicial, 222.

Costumes, 134, 135.

Counsellors-at-law, see Jurists.

Court —
Of the sultan, 120-145; separation of
men and women, 121; organization j
of household, 123; the harem, 124-
126; the inside service, 126-128;
the outside service, 128-133; cere-
monies of, 133-141; influence of,
141-145.
Of Mogul emperors, 287-291.

Courts of justice, the Divan, 187-193,
221; of the Grand Vizier, 166, 221;
of the Kaziaskcrs, 220; of present-day
Turkey, 154 note 2; procedure of,
219-221; venality of, discussed, 222,
223; the law administered by, 223.

Crimean Tartary, status, 30; rendering
of justice in, 37, 216; slaves sent from,
50; Selim I married princess from,
58 note 2; contingent furnished by,
106; Khan of, pensioned, 171.

Croatians, 34.

Crusades, 6-9, 227.

Cursus honortitn, of Ruling Institution
illustrated, 87, 88; of Moslem Insti-
tution, 212 and note i, 235.

Custom, power of, 19, 21, 27, 230.

Customary law, 152, 161, 162, 223.

Decentralization, tendency toward,

32,38, 174.
Delhi, Moslem capital of India, 280,

285, 287, 299, 300.
Dem.ocracy, 84, 198, 225.
Dervishes, 37, 207, 300.
Descendants of Mohammed the Prophet

(Seids), 37, 206, 207, 225, 300.
Despotism, in Ottoman Empire, 25-27,

46,48,55,151,159,174,193; in Mogul

Empire, 279, 292.
Dil-Dar, wife of Baber, 290..
Discipline, of Janissaries, 96, 97 and



note i; of army generally, 108, 109;
of Ruling Institution, 196.

Divan, 135, 166, 187-193; membership
of, 188-190; sessions of, 189-191;
general character of, 191-193; com-
parison with audiences of Aurangzeb,
296; of the Grand Vizier, 166; of
lesser officials, 216 note 3.

Domain lands, 31, 169, 171, 172, 176.

Donatives to Janissaries, 92 and note 5.

Ebu su'ud, the Mufti, 120, 212 and
note 2, 213; table of contents of his
collection of Suleiman's laws, 276,
277.

Education —
Of members of Ruling Institution,
71-88, 196, 197; comprehensiveness
of, 71, 72; classification of, 73.
Of members of ^Moslem Institution,
203-206, 225; comparison of above
systems, 228, 229, 234, 235.
Of Moslems in India, 300.

Egypt, unable to unify Levant, 10;
status of, 30; inhabitants of, 33; Janis-
saries of, 95; legislation for, 159, 160;
taxation of, 176; Mamelukes of, 280.

Emancipation of slaves, 48, 60.

Endowments, religious and charitable,
31, 32, 200-203, 234 and note i, 235,
300.

Equerries, 131.

Equity in Turkey, 223.

Eugene, Prince, 287.

Eunuchs, 57, 125-128.

Execution, grounds of, 88; of Mustapha,
89, 94, 95, 142, 213; of Bayezid and
Ibrahim, 89, 94, in, 141, 142; of
grand viziers, 167; process of, 210,
221; policy of, 222. 5ec Fratricide.

Expenditures of government, 178, 179.

E.xtortion, 32, 86, 144, 163, 182.

Fatehpcr-Sikri, 287, 302.

Ferdinand I, Archduke and Emperor,

30, 1X2.

Feudal cavalry —
Of Ottoman Empire, 100-105; rights



342



INDEX



of, loo; obligations of, loi; officers
of, 103-105.
Of Mogul Empire, 280, 285, 286.

Feudal system of Ottomans, 21, 24, 100-
105, 176, 181 and note 2; law of, 152,
159-161; of Mogul Empire, 285, 286.

Fiefs, origin of, 21, 24, 31, 32; reorgan-
ized by Suleiman, 102; vacancies, 178.

Fleet, 171, 178, 179.

Foreign affairs, minister of, 183-185.

Foreign Legion, 50, q8, 99 note i.

Foreigners in Ottoman Empire, privi-
leges of, 35, 37, 38; relation of, to sul-
tan, 151; taxation of , 176, 177.

Foundations, see Endowments.

Fratricide of Ottoman sultans, 27 and
note 2, 94 and note 2; not authorized
in Mogul Empire, 293.

Gardener, the head, 81, 130, 131.

Generals {Aghas), of the Janissaries,
96; of the Spahis, 99; of the army,
no; of the sultan's harem, 125; of
the imperial stirrup, 131 ; in the Divan,
189, 191.

Genghis Khan, 280.

Georgia, status of, 30; ?'aves furnished

by, 33-

Ghazali, 221.
Government —
Of Ottoman Empire, described, 146-
198; rested on old political ideas, 4;
functions of, 147, 148; limitation
to its own affairs, 149, 174, 175;
compared with Mogul govenmient,
278 ff.
Of Mogul Empire, of inferior strength
and durabiUty, 278-279; described,
292-298. See Local government.
Governors of provinces, in Ottoman
Empire (Beylerbeys), 103, 174, 187,
189, 191, 207, 216, 219, 220; in Mogul
Empire (Naibs), 296, 297.
Grand vizier, 164-167, 189-191, 220,
221, 229; none in Mogul Empire, 296.
Greek Orthodox subjects, a separate
organization, 34, 37; the sultan their
temporal head, 151.



Gritti, Alvise (or Luigi), household of,
58 note 4; given command in Hun-
gary, 62; testimony of, as to Sulei-
man's income, 179; pamphlet of (with
Junis Bey), 262-275.

Gul-Badan, daughter of Baber, 281, 290.



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