Albert Leighton Rawson.

What the world believes, the false and the true, embracing the people of all races and nations, their peculiar teachings, rites, ceremonies, from the earliest pagan times to the present, to which is added an account of what the world believes today, by countries online

. (page 1 of 62)
Online LibraryAlbert Leighton RawsonWhat the world believes, the false and the true, embracing the people of all races and nations, their peculiar teachings, rites, ceremonies, from the earliest pagan times to the present, to which is added an account of what the world believes today, by countries → online text (page 1 of 62)
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WALK >!< CT.NTKAL INDIA.



WHAT



THE



WORLD BELIEVES,

THE FALSE AND THE TRUE,

EMBRACING THE PEOPLE OF

ALL RACKS AND NATIONS,

THEIR

PECULIAR TEACHINGS, RITES, CEREMONIES, TRADITIONS, AND CUSTOMS,

PUBLIC AND PRIVATE; WITH A FULL ACCOUNT OF THE ORIGIN,

RISE AND PROGRESS OF THEIR VARIOUS SECTS, HISTORICAL,

DOCTRINAL, STATISTICAL, AND BIOGRAPHICAL,

FROM THE EARLIEST PAGAN TIMES TO THE PRESENT,

TO WHICH IS ADDED AN ACCOUNT OF

wrjerf frje, world. pDelie^es ^To-dey, W (^our)i>ies.

ILLUSTRATED WITH NUMEROUS ENGRAVINGS, ' " '

COMPRISING

i - -

PICTURES OF HEATHEN GODS, TEMPLES, SYMBOLS, CEREMONIALS AND HIT E6, V/ITP Ml'MEflCUS
PORTRAITS OF IMPORTANT CHARACTERS.



A COMPLETE LIBRARY OF CEREMONIAL INFORMATION.



WRITTEN AND PRFPARED BY

ALBERT L. RAWSON, ESQ., REV. S. MORAIS,

JOHN GILMARY SHEA, LL.D., W. CHANNING NEVIN, ESQ.,

REV. C. M. BUTLER, D.D., REV. ALFRED NEVIN, D.D.,

REV. W. H. H. MARSH, WILLIAM BURDER, B.A.,

REV. EDWIN H. NEVINS, D D., REV. JOSEPH OSGOOD,

REV. J. L. GRACEY, REV. DR. E. G. BROOKS,

REV. L. M. STURDEVANT, JK., REV. WILLARD H. HINKLEY.

GEORGE J. HAGAR, EDITOR.
1 1

NEW YORK:

GAY BROTHERS & COMPANY,

3O, 32, 34 READE STREET.
(COPYRIGHT BY GAY BROTHERS & Co., 1886.)



PREFACE.



WHAT THE WOKLD BELIEVES always lias been, and
always will be, a subject of universal and perma-
nent interest, and the ever increasing tendency of the age
to multiply the number and variety of the world's beliefs
intensifies this interest in a remarkable degree at the pres-
ent time, as do also the extraordinary facilities afforded in
this age for communication with all parts of the globe, and
the coming among us of representatives of every nation and
creed. By the active operation of these and other causes
a keen desire for the fullest knowledge is now awakened
respecting the peculiarities of thought and life prevailing
among the adherents of every sect and the people of every
clime.

For the purpose of giving this knowledge in concise and
convenient form the present volume has been prepared.

The prime elements of acceptability in a book, designed
either for general information or for systematic reference,
are desirability, accuracy, and freshness. These essentials
have been scrupulously observed in the preparation of the
present volume.

On the ground of desirability it is not presumptuous to
assert, knowing the difficulties involved in gathering the
information, that such a work as this is needed. It is not a
class book, as it contains an infinite variety of knowledge,
not only relating to the peculiar forms and tenets of the
various sects throughout the world, but also to the manners
and customs of the people, and the social and political
phases of the nations of the earth, Christian and pagan,
civilized and uncivilized, both ancient and modern. These
different forms stand in very marked contrast to each other,
and when we consider the great diversity of thought and
habit inculcated by them, the study becomes intensely inter-
esting. One might expect among those great sects which

(iii)

M5927



if PREFACE.

have gained adherents with such wonderful rapidity, and
which now count their followers by hundreds of millions,
that the elements of success alone would require some simi-
larity in their doctrines or morals, but apparently such is
not the case. If we look at the Eastern nations, where the
ivligion of the Hindoos and the teachings of Confucius,
Buddha, and Mohammed are embraced by more than half a
billion of human souls, we find that the belief of each has
but few features similar to any of the others, and this fact
makes it most difficult to find a satisfactory answer to the
evT recurring question : " What are the elements of success
embodied in each ? " For it seems the doctrines of one God
or many gods, one wife or many wives, succeed almost
equally in gaining and holding converts.

What Christians would abhor as a great crime, pagan na-
tions regard as a commendable duty, as, for instance, when
the widow burns herself on the funeral pile of her husband,
or when the mother throws her child in the river Ganges, or
the populace prostrate themselves before the death wheels
of the car of Juggernaut. That it is possible for human
beings to sacredly hold to such opposing views of belief and
duty, demands some explanation that will aid us to a better
knowledge of human nature and its diverse phases, and the
desirability of having these forms grouped in a single, con-
venient volume must be apparent.

The consistent member of a church, experienced in all the
rites and ceremonies of his own communion, will in these
ti learn wherein and how far his own belief differs from
that of relatives and acquaintances who hold fellowship in
other denominations. He whose mind has been attracted .to
the study of the merits and demerits of the various religious
systems, whether to strengthen his convictions or enlighten
his judgment, will find here, in greater profusion than in any
other single volume, the desired information concerning
the beliefs and ceremonies that have had followers from the
<>arli'-i paL'/aii times to our own day. The faint-hearted
worshi] >]><], who, appalled at the irreligious practices of the
lit day, is apt to charge the ministry with having lost



PREFACE. v

its power for good, will here find a monumental refutation
to such an inconsiderate opinion. And they who may have
grown weary in their well-doing, from inability to see the
anticipated fruitfulness of their labors, will obtain abundant
incentives to take courage, in the narratives of the struggles,
the persecutions, the tortures of those grand patriarchs and
fathers who, under God and through these vicissitudes, estab-
lished the forms of worship which are now enjoyed.

On the ground of accuracy it may be stated that many
authors, distinguished in the ecclesiastical world, have co-
operated by contribution and review, in the preparation of
the present volume, each being assigned to a denomination
"he was peculiarly competent to treat. The strictest impar-
tiality has been observed in describing the denominational
differences, and whether the pen was wielded by orthodox or
heterodox, Roman Catholic or Jew, the one aim has been to
present facts, truthfully and without prejudice. From be-
, ginning to end the volume is free from sectarian bias, as
well as anything that could wound the religious convictions
of any reader. Each denomination is treated from the
stand-point of its own historical records.

Lastly : On the ground of freshness, a paramount desid-
eratum in a work of reference, it may be observed that
neither labor nor expense have been spared in the effort to
bring the condition of each denomination, spiritual and
statistical, up to the latest practical moment. The history
of each sect exhibits abundant proof of this claim. To add
to the otherwise full exposition of the religious condition
of the world, chapters have been prepared on the religious
Interests of the Australian Colonies and the Dominion of
Canada ; while another feature, " What the World Believes
To - day by Countries," will give the reader at a single
glance an idea of the general religious systems prevailing
throughout the great nations.

Therefore, in offering to the public a volume that is
needed, that is accurate, that is brought up to date, we con-
fidently claim that "WHAT THE WOKLD BELIEVES" cannot
fail to be acceptable to all classes of readers.



ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS.



THE Editor desires to testify to the cordial and liberal man-
ner in which the Publishers have cooperated with him in the
preparation of

"WHAT THE WORLD BELIEVES."

From the beginning to the close of the work they ably seconded
all his efforts, sparing no expense to secure the utmost imparti-
ality of statements and accuracy of statistics.

The Editor also desires to acknowledge the deep obligations-
under which he has been placed by many distinguished gentle-
men of the clergy and laity of the various denominations,,
through the invaluable services rendered by them while the
work was in progress, either in furnishing material difficult of
access, or in revising proof-sheets to guard against any possible
inaccuracy of statement or unfair reflection. He is anxious,
especially, to acknowledge. the eminent courtesies extended by
the following gentlemen :

REV. WILLIAM H. ROBERTS, D.D.,

Stated Clerk and Treasurer of the General Assembly, Presbyterian Church in the

U. S. of America,

THE PRESBYTERIAN CHURCHES.

RT. REV. HENRY C. POTTER, D.D.,

Assistant Bishop, Diocese of New York.
REV. WILLIAM JONES SEABURY, D.D.,

Ludlow Professor of Ecclesiastical Polity, General Theological Seminary..
THE PROTESTANT EPISCOPAL CHURCH.

BISHOP WILLIAM H. NICHOLSON,

THE REFORMED EPISCOPAL CHURCH.

REV. HENRY A. HAZEN,

Secretary National Council of the Congregational Churches of the United 6/a'cj-,
THK CONGREGATIONAL CHURCHES.

REV. WILLIAM J. R. TAYLOR, D.D.,

THK RKF<:;MI.I> CHCKCHES.

Ri:v. WILLIAM HULL,
Tin CHURCH.



ACKNO IILEDGMENTS.

DR. HENRY HARTSHORNE,

Editor of "The Friends' Review"

THE SOCIETY OF FRIENDS.

REV. EDWIN C. SWEETSER, D.D..

President of the Universalist General Convention,
THE UNIVERSALIST CHURCH.

JAMES FREEMAN CLARKE,

THE UNITARIAN CONGREGATIONALISTS.

ELDER F. W. EVANS,
"THE SHAKERS."

REV. EDMUND DE SCHWEINITZ, D.D.,

THE UNITED BRETHREN.

REV. CHAUNCEY GILES,

THE NEW JERUSALEM CHURCH.

REV. JOSEPH LEUCHT,

HEBREW CONGREGATIONS.

ELIAS AND MORITZ BERLA,

HEBREW BENEVOLENT SOCIETIES AND CHARITABLE INSTITUTIONS.

FRANKLIN D. RICHARDS,

One of the Twelve Apostles, and Assistant Historian of the Church of 'jfes
Christ of Latter-Day Saints.

REV. CHARLES F. DEEMS, D.D., LL.D.

RIGHT REV. BISHOP H. N. McTYEIRE.

RIGHT REV. BISHOP L. H. HOLSY,

JAMES N. FITZGERALD, D.D.,

Recording Secretary,

THE METHODIST CHURCHES.

REV. G. W. SAMSON, D.D.,

THE BAPTIST CHURCH.



CONTENTS.



STATISTICAL TABLES 17

PRELIMINARY CHAPTER.
WHAT THE WORLD BELIEVES TO-DAY, BY COUNTRIES 21

CHAPTER I.

THE PAGAN NATIONS.

The Ancient Greeks and Romans Greek and Roman Deities Priests
and Sacrifices Ancient Greek Marriages Ancient Roman Marriages
Ancient Greek Funerals Ancient Roman Funerals 41

CHAPTER II.

THE PAGAN NATIONS.

The Ancient Egyptians Funeral Ceremonies The Carthaginians and
Tyrians The Assyrians The Babylonians The Medes and Persians
The Scythians The Scandinavians The Celts and Druids 70

CHAPTER III.

THE PAGAN NATIONS.

The Chinese The Creeds of Lao-tse and Fo Confucius Chinese Festi-
valsChinese Temples and Pagodas Chinese Marriages and Funerals
Modern China 94

CHAPTER IV.

THE PAGAN NATIONS.

The Japanese Buddhism Shintoism Divinities and Festivals Marriage
and Funeral Ceremonies The Introduction and Suppression of Chris-
tianityThe " New Japan " 118

CHAPTER V.

THE PAGAN NATIONS.

The Hindoos Brahma Vishnu and Siva Objects of Worship Relig-
ious Festivals The Incarnations of Vishnu The Modern Hindoos. . 133

CHAPTER VI.

THE PAGAN NATIONS.

The Thibetians and Tartars The Grand Lama Disposition of the Dead
Idols of Scattered Tartar Tribes Marriage and Funeral Ceremo-
nies 146

(9)



10 CONTENTS.

CHAPTER VII.

THE PAGAN NATIONS.

The Polynesians Features of Worship Ceremonies after Death The
Tahitians The Fiji Islanders The Introduction of Christianity
The Ancient Mexicans Idols and Temples The Progress of Chris-
tianity 157

CHAPTER VIII.

THE PAGAN NATIONS.

African Tribes The Fetich The Ashantees The Malagasy Christian-
ity on "The Dark Continent" Religious Persecutions and Triumphs
in Madagascar 171

CHAPTER IX.

THE MOHAMMEDANS.

Arabia before Mohammed's Birth His Birth and Early Life First Con-
versionsThe Hejira His famous Pilgrimages to Mecca His Last
Days and Death 181

CHAPTER X.

THE MOHAMMEDANS.

The Tomb of Mohammed The Caaba The Koran Articles of Faith
Mohammedan Liturgy Marriage and Divorce Funeral Ceremo-
nies 195

CHAPTER XI.

THE JEWS.

Early History of the Jews The Cry for Deliverance Solomon's Temple
at Jerusalem The Accession of King Ahab Invasion of the King-
dom under Ahaz The last King of Judah 210

CHAPTER XII.

THE JEWS.

The Maccabees Resist the Syrians Siege and Destruction of Jerusalem

Articles of the Jewish Creed Prayers in the Synagogue 227

CHAPTER XIII.

THE JEWS.

Slavery undr-r the Mosaic Law Laws Hi-sporting Marriage Betrothals
ami Murriu'jv Funeral (.Vivnioiiirs The Sanhedrin Worship in the
lagogue 239



CONTENTS. 11

CHAPTER XIV.

THE JEWS.

The Jewish Sabbath Jewish Festivals The New Moon New- Year's
Day Day of Expiation Feast of Tabernacles Purim The Pass-
over Homer-Days Pentecost Modern History of the Jews 252

CHAPTER XV.

THE JEWS.

The Jews of the United States The Reform Movement of 1885 Benevo-
lent Societies Charitable Institutions Estimated Jewish Population,
January 1, 1886 The Proposed Jewish Seminary 264

CHAPTER XVI.

THE ROMAN CATHOLIC CHURCH.

The Government of the Church Its Form and Administrators The Doc-
trinal Code of the Church Explanation of the Tenets What the
Councils of Trent and the Vatican Enjoin 272

CHAPTER XVII.

THE ROMAN CATHOLIC CHURCH.

The Seven Sacraments : Baptism ; Confirmation ; Penance ; The Holy

Eucharist ; Extreme Unction ; Holy Orders ; Matrimony 281

CHAPTER XVIII.

THE ROMAN CATHOLIC CHURCH.

The Sacramentals of the Church The Devotion Paid to the Cross The
Rosary and Scapular The Sacred Utensils Vestments of the Priest
at Mass The Funeral Service 290

CHAPTER XIX.

THE ROMAN CATHOLIC CHURCH.

The Office and Dignity of Bishops The Archiepiscopate The Papacy -
Methods of Electing a Pope The Last (Ecumenical Council The
Dogma of Infallibility , 298

CHAPTER XX.

THE ROMAN CATHOLIC CHURCH.

The Church in the United States First Catholic Worship in the Country
The Settlement of Maryland Jesuit Missionaries Archbishop Car-
roll and his Vast Work Introduction of Religious Orders The
Growth of the Church Distinguished Members The Plenary Coun-
cils.. 306



CONTENTS.
CHAPTER XXI.

THE GREEK, OB EASTERN, CHURCH.

The Separation of the Greek from the Latin Church Differences between
tin- two Chun-Ins The Greek Priesthood Liturgies and Services of
the Church Solemn Festivals The Mass and Holy Sacraments ..... 319

CHAPTER XXII.

THE GREEK, OR EASTERN, CHURCH. BRANCHES.

Georgian and Min-rdian Churches Nestorian Churches The Christians
3t Thomas The Monophysites of the Levant The Copts The
Armenians ...................................................... "36

CHAPTER XXIII.

THE RUSSIAN (GREEK) CHURCH.

Parly Ecclesiastical History of Russia The Russian Mass Reverence of
Relics, Images, and Pictures The Benediction of the Waters Ob-
ances of Lent Baptism Matrimony Funeral Ceremonies The
Sect of Raskolniki ............................................... 351

CHAPTER XXIV.

THE EPISCOPAL CHURCH.

The Church of England The Thirty-nine Articles The Hierarchy of
the Church Ceremonies of Ordinations Sacrament of the Lord's
per The Sacrament of Baptism Confirmation Marriage Cere-
ninnies .......................................................... 366

CHAPTER XXV.

TTIR EPISCOPAL CHURCH.

1 Church of the United States Organization of

church aficr tin- I f<- volution Efforts to Unite the Separate

Chu ibsequenl History of the Church " The Mission Ser-

1885-'86 ................................................ 890

CII.M'TKK XXVI.

OPAL CHURCH.



( 'Imivh < (pjani/.atiou of the new Church The
"f tlii- cinir.ii Ill-duration nf Principles Missionary and

................... 403



CONTENTS. 13

CHAPTER XXVII.

THE PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH.

Doctrines of Presbyterians Meaning of the Name The Government of
the Church The Session, Presbytery, Synod, and General Assembly
Duties of Members and Ceremonies of the Church The Ordination
of Church Officers 408

CHAPTER XXVIII.

THE PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH.

The Kirk of Scotland Ecclesiastical Judicatories The Sacraments The
Sect of Seceders The Free Church of Scotland The Presbyterian
Church in England 432

CHAPTER XXIX.

THE PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH.

The Presbyterian Church in the United States The "Old School" and
"New School " Rupture Withdrawal of Southern and Western Syn-
ods Re-union of the Old and New School Churches Statistics of
the Church for 1885-'86 429

CHAPTER XXX.

THE PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH.

The Associate Presbyterian Church Its Origin in Scotland and Estab-
lishment in the United States The Associate Reformed Church
Founding of the United Presbyterian Church The Articles of " The
Testimony " 438

CHAPTER XXXI.

THE PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH.

The Reformed Presbyterian Church in the United States The Two
Branches and Synods The Cumberland Presbyterian Church Out-
growth of a Revival in Kentucky Doctrines in the Confession of
^aith 449

CHAPTER XXXII.

THE METHODIST CHURCH.

The Origin of Methodism The New Connexion Bible Christian Meth-
odists Primitive Methodists Protestant Methodists Association
Methodists Wesleyan Reformers The United Methodist Free
Church . . 458



U CONTENTS.

CHAPTER XXXIII.

THE METHODIST CHURCH.

The Methodist Episcopal Church of America The Articles of Religion
Government of the Church Centenary of American Methodism-
Lay Representation The Progress of the Church 465

CHAPTER XXXIV.

THE METHODIST CHURCH.

The Methodist Episcopal Church, South The Methodist Protestant
Church The Wesleyan Methodist Church The Evangelical Asso-
ciation The Colored Methodist Episcopal Church in America The
African Methodist Episcopal Church The Zion African Methodist
Episcopal Church 476

CHAPTER XXXV.

THE BAPTIST CHURCH.

Origin of the Baptists English Baptists Welsh Baptists Scotch Bap-
tistsIrish Baptists Continental Baptists 487

CHAPTER XXXVI.

THE BAPTIST CHURCH.

The Baptist Church in the United States Roger Williams and his Work
The first Church established in America Statistics of the Church
The Freewill Baptist Church 500

CHAPTER XXXVII.

THE BAPTIST CHURCH.

The Church of Christ The Mennonites The Church of God Seventh-
Day Baptists Liberal Baptists of America German Baptists, or
Brethren Southern Baptist Associations 509

CHAPTER XXXVIII.

THE LUTHERAN CHURCH.

Martin Luther, His Times and Work The Augsburg Confession Forms
of Worship and Church Order American Lutheranism Condition
of the Church 521

CHAPTER XXXIX.

REFORMED CHURCHES.

The Reformed Church in America Established in New Amsterdam, 1619
Early Dutch Ministers Doctrine, Government, and Condition
The Reformed Church in the United States Established in Penn-
sylvaniaThe Difference between the Two Churches Statistics of
the Church 531



CONTENTS. 15



CHAPTER XL.

THE CONGREGATIONAL CHURCHES.

Modern Congregationalism The Creed Church Discipline Foreign Mis-
sionary Work Home Missionary Work Condition of the Churchee. 540

CHAPTER XLI.

THE SOCIETY OP FRIENDS.

George Fox and his Labors Articles of Belief The Orthodox Friends
in the United States The Hicksite Friends Statistics and Institutions
of the Friends 550

CHAPTER XLII.

THE UNITED BRETHREN.

founding of the Moravian Church The Bohemian Reformation The
Synod of 1467 Proclamation of Religious Liberty The Brethren in
the United States The United Brethren in Christ Doctrines of the
Church 557

CHAPTER XLIII.

UNITARIAN CONGREGATIONALISTS.

Distinguishing Doctrines Historical Sketch Unitarianism in the United

States Means of Denominational Work 566

CHAPTER XLIV.

THE UNIVERSALIST CHURCH.

The Founders and their Times Organization Doctrine Views on Fu-
ture Punishment The Condition of the Church 574

CHAPTER XLV.

THE NEW JERUSALEM CHURCH.

Emanuel Swedenborg Swedenborg's Doctrines The Atonement The
Sacred Scriptures The Resurrection The Church in the United
States 580

CHAPTER XL VI.

THE CHURCH OF JESUS CHRIST OF LATTER-DAT SAINTS.

Joseph Smith, Jr., and the Book of Mormon Brigham Young chosen
Prophet The Edmunds Law of 1883 The Anti-Polygamy Bill of
1886 The Faith and Doctrine . . 56



16 CONTENTS.

CHAPTER XLVII.

THE SHAKERS.

Mother Ann's Immigration to America The True Christian Church-<
Views on Property Employments of Shakers Compend of Princi
pies Shaker Communities 615

CHAPTER XL VIII.

THE CHRISTIANS.

Origin of the Church in North Carolina, Vermont, and Kentucky
Founders of the Three Branches and their Views Their Union and
Subsequent Separation General Belief. 622

CHAPTER XLIX.

ADVENT BELIEVERS.

The Adventist Church and its Founder Doctrines of the Believers Ad-
ventist Sects Mr. Miller's Statement of Personal Views Dates as-

for the Second Advent 625



CHAPTER L.

MODERN SPIRITUALISM.

Belief of American Spiritualists Their View of Christ The Transition
from this Life to the Next Spiritual Communications not Infallible
Spiritualism neither a Sect nor Church Eminent Believers The
Rational Spiritualists 628

CHAPTER LI.

THE DOMINION OP CANADA.

Early Religious History Statistics of the Denominations in 1861, 1881,
1883, 1884 The Consolidation of Methodist Churches Leading
Church Buildings in Quebec, Montreal, Toronto, and Ottawa 633

CHAPTER LII.

THE AUSTRALIAN COLONIES.

M, Products, and Population of New South Wales, Victoria,
inland, South Australia, and AVcstcrn Australia Tasmania and
Z. 'aland Growth of Rrli^j ()US Denominations on the Island-
American Churches represented in the Colonies 641

APPENDIX.

Portr;i ; -,f Important Characters connected with Re-

j



WHAT THE WORLD BELIEVES,



COMPARATIVE STRENGTH OF THE DIFFERENT
BELIEVERS.

ROMAN CATHOLICS.

ifrica 1,106,200

Arabia and Persia 11,263

Asiatic Archipelago 1,000,000

Austria-Hungary 28,000,000

Belgium 5,518,146

Canada 1,962,610

China and Japan 800,000

Denmark and Colonies 1,857

France 35,387,703

Germany 16,232,651

Great Britain 5,520,000

Greece 60,000

India, Ceylon, and Farther India 1,600,000

Italy 26,658,679

Luxemburg 203,623

Mexico and Central America 12,196,677

Netherlands 1,439,137

Ottoman Empire 900,000

Polynesia and Australasia 434,442

Portugal 4,745,124

Russian Empire 7,546,000

South America 26,754,000

Spain 16,605,000

Sweden and Norway 1,312

Switzerland 1,160,782

United States *6,832,000

West Indies 2, 911, 000



Total 206,588,206



* Estimated population.

CH)



18 STATISTICS.

PROTESTANTS.

Arabia, Asiatic Archipelago, China, Persia, and Turkey

Asiatic Russia 40,000

Austria-Hungary 3,509,013

Belgium.. 15,000

Canada 1,800,000

Denmark '1,865,000

East India and Ceylon 300,000

English Possessions, Africa * 650,000

France 580,757

Germany 28,331,152

Great Britain 26,000,000

Greece 15,000

Italy 58,651

Luxemburg 400

Liberia, Algeria, Egypt, and Madagascar 69,000

Netherlands 2,169,814

Norway. 1, 704, 800

Polynesia .' 1,000,000

Russia 2,800,000

South America 2,000,000

Spain and Portugal 60,000

Sweden 4,560,652

Switzerland < 1,667,109

Turkey 40, 000

United States *10,500,000



Total 89,825,348

EASTERN CHRISTIANS.
ORIENTAL CHURCHES

Abyssinians 3,000,000

Armenians 3,000,000

Copts (Egypt) 200,000

Jacobites 250,000

Maronites 150, 000

Nestorians 170,000

6,770,000

GREEK AND RUSSIAN CHURCHES

Austria-Hungary 3,052,684

Germany 3,000

Greece,- 1,635,698

Russia 60,000,000

Turkey , 11,000,000

75,691,382



Total 82,461,382

* Communicant*. The Protestant population aggregates 30,000,000.



STATISTICS.



JEWS.

Africa 1,000,000

Asia 2,000,000

Australia 2,000

Austria-Hungary 750,000

Belgium 1,500

British America 1,240

Denmark 4,300

France 49,439

Germany 363,790

Great Britain 40,000

Greece 2,600

Italy 35,356

Luxemburg 600

Netherlands 81,693

Ottoman Empire 150,000

Eussia 2, 600, 000

Persia 19,000

Sweden 2,993

Switzerland 7,373

United States , *500,000



7,612,784
MOHAMMEDANS.

Africa 100,000,000

Asia (excluding Turkey) 50,000,000

Australia 300

France . 3,100

Germany , , 100

Greece 917

Russia 2,350,372

Turkey (Europe and Asia) 16,700,000



Total 169,054,789

SUMMARY.

Brahminical Hindoos 130,000,000

Christians 388,200,000

Fetich tribes and Pagans not otherwise enumerated. 227,000,000

Followers of Buddha, Shinto, and Confucius 482,600,000

Jews 7,612,784

Mohammedans 169,054,789

Parsees 1 ,000,000

Total.. 1,395,407,573

* Estimated population.



LEADING BELIEVERS IN THE UNITED STATES.



DENOMINATIONS.


MINISTERS.


MEMBERS.


Adventists . . .


107


11 100


Advent ists Second


501


63 500


Adventists, Seventh-Day


167


17 169


Baptists . .


17 327


474 771


Baptists Freewill



Online LibraryAlbert Leighton RawsonWhat the world believes, the false and the true, embracing the people of all races and nations, their peculiar teachings, rites, ceremonies, from the earliest pagan times to the present, to which is added an account of what the world believes today, by countries → online text (page 1 of 62)