and great irregularities of sight, by throwing particular groups
of brain cells out of action.
The brain receives its supply of blood from two large arteries
1 Ophth. Review, 18, 1899, p. 204.
2 In this condition there was blindness of the superior half of the
field of vision with spasm of the lower branches of the central retinal
artery. He had occasional attacks in the left eye, losing the lower
half of the field of vision.
Photograph of arteries and arterioles, with delicate fibres (probably sympathetic
nerves) running along their walls. These regulate the supply of blood by
causing the vessels to contract or relax.
Prepared by a special process and kindly lent by Dr. Ford Robertson, of Edinburgh.
Facing page 164
Sketcli of a branch of the middla cerebral artery supplying the motor centres.
Diagramatic sketch of a section of the brain to shew how the cortex gets its
blood supply, and to demonstrate how spasm of a branch of an artery may
arrest its function in any part.
A sketch of the arterial supply of the brain. ACâ€” anterior cerebral artery.
PC â€” the posterior cerebral, which supplies the visual area. MC â€” the middle
cerebral artery supplies the clear part.
Spasm of AC would account for B2, by shutting off the higher association and
the motor centre of the foot.
pacing page 165.
MULTIPLE PERSONALITY AND CRIME 165
in front, the right and left carotids, and two smaller arteries
behind, the vertebrals. These are connected up inside the
skuU to form a beautiful system of vessels, so as to ensure a
steady and regular supply. From off this system on each
side, right and left, arise three arteries, the anterior, middle,
and posterior cerebral arteries. These inter-communicate
by their smaller branches to ensure still further a steady flow.
But if any important branch be shut off permanently, as by
a clot or a rupture, as in apoplexy, there results a permanent
paralysis of some part of the body according to the brain area
attacked. Whereas if an artery be in a state of spasm as
just described, the particular group of nerve cells supplied
will for so long be put out of action. I contend that this
offers a reasonable explanation of these extraordinary psychic
In my opinion the spasmodic contraction of certain arteries Spasm of
in the brain might account for loss of the corresponding fjf*"
mental functions in the case of Mary Barnes. Thus the B2 in
condition, in which there was a complete loss of association ^*^^^^
between objects and their names, was always associated with ality
inability to stand, as she lost the use of her ankles ; contraction
of the anterior cerebral artery would account for both
phenomena, as it supphes the prefrontal association area,
which guides the processes of thought, and also the motor
centre of the foot, which was always paralysed. The
paralysis of speech, hearing and bHndness are hkewise easily
accounted for, but the blindness was more comphcated, as it
was physical, not mental. The physical bhndness was probably
due to spasm of the branches of the middle cerebral artery,
which supphes some of the way stations between the retina
and the cortex (the geniculate bodies). Sir John Tweedy
testified to the normal state of the eye.
Psychical vision, or ideation, is situated at the posterior
pole of the brain, and from this area were evolved, during
the physical bhndness, a wonderful group of drawings. We
know that the bhnd are very sensitive to touch, and M. B.
during her blind condition guided her pencil solely by touch,
even in the matter of colouring. M. B. had her brain
stored with mental pictures which she had " gathered " during
166 EDUCATION, PERSONALITY AND CRIME
her lifetime, whereas by contrast those blind from birth or
infancy have not had the opportunity of collecting visual
The Con- It will be remembered that the pyramidal or intellectual
Stratifi- brain cells are in layers and develop into activity from within
cation of outwards.^ In this way we may say they resemble the concen-
Cdk ^'" trie layers seen in the section of a tree. Supposing there are
fifty layers of pyramidal cells, and that ten layers are educated
by the age of 3, if the circulation of the blood was shut off
all the upper layers, then the individual would become childish,
as in the B2 state. Again if the thirty deeper layers were
educated by the age of 10 and the circulation were shut off
the upper twenty layers, we could account for the character B3.
B6 was like a good child of 12 or 13, about as high a level
as M. B. attained normally. She has continued as B6 with
some sHght advance, and this might be explained if the embry-
onic nuclei were permanently damaged. The disturbance
of the circulation might impair the remaining higher layers
from their further normal evolution. Such would appear to
have happened in this case, for though about 23 she is mentally
on the plane of a girl of 16 to 18 years of age.
Disease If we apply the lessons of this unique case we see that the
Ait^ ih degenerate, and perhaps criminal, sub-personaHty BIO, suggests
Person- the possibility of a similar condition in some of our criminals,
ality where from disease or accident, probably in chUdhood, the
original self is disintegrated, and the lower nature takes
charge of the individual. We must have observed with
some acquaintances a complete change of character or per-
sonality after a serious illness. We are apt to say, " So-and-So
is a changed person, quite different " since some trouble or illness.
In reality the personality has been attacked at the foundation,
and the dissolution of the Ego has resulted in a sub-personahty
There are also many apparently normal people who show
two distinct natures or sub-personalities. For example the
same person may show the mother's sweetness and the father's
temper, or a peculiarity which does not occur in a parent
but in an uncle or aunt or even cousin. Here we have a
1 Fig. p. 108.
Diagram of the sympathetic nervous system
Which hes in ganglia or chain masses in front of the spinal column. There are
3 chief masses: over the heart and lungs (Ca), another plexus for the stomach
and viscera (So), and third for the reproductive organs (H). They are intimately
connected with every nerve and blood vessel, and when out of gear produce
Facing page 166.
MULTIPLE PERSONALITY AND CRIME 167
personality from each parent or from some more distant relative.
In such cases one encourages the good sub-ego while endeavour-
ing to postpone the visits of the unpleasant sub-personality.
The case of M. B. showed eleven separate lives in one body,
and is fuU of unravelled mystery. We cannot call them
eleven minds, nor yet ten aberrations, but ten fragments of the
whole or perfect mind.
I call them ten sub-personalities, and I compare mind to T^e Mind
a piece of fine architecture which is composed of so many posite "
structural parts. If an earthquake shake the structure beyond
the point of stability, there is an internal dislocation, so
that the whole shape is altered and hidden parts are seen.
But these are only substructures, however complete in them-
selves they appear. In B2, who was like an ignorant infant,
the mental fragment was very small. She had to be taught
or retaught the apphcation of every name, yet she could
express herself in writing. BIO was full of wicked thoughts,
and showed an intelligence much below the average. She
had no moral sense in this state, for though she knew
she was doing wrong, she had neither shame nor sorrow.
This condition is a replica of the criminal mind. Such
indisputable evidence shows the mental states of the crimi-
nal as being abnormal to the true Ego.
The most inexplicable feature was that in every sub-person-
ality she knew her parents, although she gave them the
nicknames of " Tom " and " Mary Ann."
The previous case, Miss Beauchamp, was under the hypnotic
influence and single control of Dr. Morton Prince, and thus
differed from my patient, who resisted the strongest attempts
at hypnotism. Moreover my case was critically examiaed
by the highest mental experts to ehminate personal error
on my part. Amongst them were Drs. C. Mercier, Robert
Jones, T. Hyslop, Outterson Wood, T. SaviU, Sir Thomas
Barlow, Drs. Milne Bramwell, Lloyd Tuckey and others.
She was also twice shown in the abnormal states to the CHnical
Society of London, with Dr. Buzzard presiding.
It would be a very serious matter if such a case came under Aspect of
the operations of the law. As Dr. Mercier pointed out, this Cases
168 EDUCATION, PERSONALITY AND CRIME
case showed the possibility of a person committing a crime
in one sub-personaHty, and being punished in another phase,
or in the normal state. Such might have happened with BIO
if a desperate act had been done, and no one could have shielded
her. From the sudden manner in which she changed her
personalities it is quite possible that the trial would have
been of a sub-personaUty other than BlO, and totally ignorant
of BlO's actions. It is at least possible that such things
occur, and is a strong argument for modifying the law of
capital punishment. In this case we had to protect BlO
against herself. It is right for the public to be protected from
the criminal classes, but it is equally just to demand of the
law the institution of machinery for protecting the criminal
It is just possible that some crimes committed by neurotics
have been committed in the hypnotic state, and it is worth
while to try the experiment of regenerating some such criminals
by wholesome suggestion during hypnosis.
Nearly aU influence resolves itseK into either imitation or
suggestion, and the power, effect and duration of suggestion
can never be fathomed or estimated. The evil suggestion
of a bad companion may be compared to a draught of disguised
poison. It is Hke the insect's sting in the young oakleaf,
which ripens into the gallnut when the leaf is mature ; or the
sowing of seed which may not bear fruit for an indefinite time.
Yet there they both are, absorbed and buried, for good or
for evil. Conversely the usefulness of the preacher depends
on his power of suggestion. The conversions of criminals
by the Salvation Army is due to the same cause, aided by
imitation and the hypnosis of music.
I once cured a girl of kleptomania by suggestion. Her
condition was undoubtedly criminal and she had been a
great trouble to her employers. She could not resist pilfering,
but was sharp enough to take precautions or guard against
detection, for if there was any chance of being caught she
controlled her desire. This to many would appear simple
wickedness, but it was not so. She was a moral cripple,
and was cured by sympathetic supervision. Nevertheless
my patient was a born thief, for she told me that if alone in
MULTIPLE PERSONALITY AND CRIME 169
my other room and a lady's bag were on the table, she could
not resist stealing from it. It was not the value of the object,
but a lust to steal. Many of the criminals have used the same
expression. As all these abnormal people take precautions
against detection, the law cannot realize that it is an obsession,
or possession, and deal with them as if they were normally
equipped in intelligence and self-control.
There is indeed nothing externally visible to separate BIO,
or this other girl, from the common thief ; and this suggests
a closer relationship between crime and mental dislocation than
society is at present prepared to admit
THE EGO AND SUB-EGOS OR PERSONALITY AND
THE EGO : Spiritist's opinion â€” No sub-personalities, but many personalities
â€” Possession and control â€” Science refutes spiritism. ONLY ONE EGO
IN EACH PERSON : A perfect child as example â€” " Born saved " versus
" Born lost "â€”A sub-personality. WHAT THE EGO MUST BE, A
NORMAL PERSONALITY : Sub-egos in all of usâ€” The ego of M. B.
gradually disappeared after two years â€” Now B6 requires care against
mental fatigue being unstable. M. B. ONLY A PART OF HERSELF
NOW : Proof that M. B. is only a fragment of her original self.
CRIMINALITY VERY RARELY DUE TO DOUBLE PERSONALITY:
Case of No. 3 â€” The criminal abnormal from childhood â€” Poorer classes
more liable to mental instability, and perhaps to sub-personality.
CASE OF TOTAL DESTRUCTION OF THE EGO : How to treat and
save these cases. HUMANITY ON AN INCLINED PLANE : Average
egos subnormal â€” Causes of sub-personality â€” Environment â€” Heredity
and conditions at birth. CONSTANT CAUSES WORKING AGAINST
THE EGO : Treatment of brain cases where damage suspected â€” The
dethroned ego â€” Definition of the ego â€” What is sleep ? SCIENCE
ADMITS UNSEEN FORCES : The spirit â€” The subnormal ego and the
spirit â€” Influence of religion and ethics â€” On abnormal types â€” A converted
criminal. CONTRAST OF THE LAW AND SALVATION ARMY IN
IMPROVING THE CRIMINAL : A sub-ego reviving under the S. A.
influence â€” ^The case resembles somnambulism. RELIGIOUS CON-
VERSION EXAMINED SCIENTIFICALLY: The distorted egoâ€” My
conversion under Lister â€” Stages of conversion â€” Brain the physical plane
of the higher spirit, and mind the psychical plane â€” Body, brain, mind,
spirit or ego. ETHICS VERSUS RELIGION : Knowledge always
interesting. We cannot busy ourselves in tradition â€” Cannot limit or
define the horizon of science. THE AGNOSTIC : We only see results,
not the how or why â€” Vita, Life â€” Anima, the soul. MAN LIKE A
MACHINE : May be bad â€” May wear out â€” Duty of the State â€” Cases.
The Ego rjig^j, j]gQ jg g^ subject of great discussion, and must be regarded
as undefinable by psychologists. Spiritists, however, are
more decided, and say there is not one Ego but many to each
They therefore dismiss the terms sub-ego or sub-personaHty,
and regard the human frame as a tenement, which may be
occupied or " possessed " by several personaUties or Egos.
These invade, one at a time being in control, and direct the
thoughts and acts of the individual. They claim scriptural
support in the parable of the man who had seven devils, but
PERSONALITY AND SUB-PERSONALITY 171
they do not appreciate that biblical spirits were regenerate
as well as degenerate, whilst modern spirits never do anything
that is useful or sensible. My case (M. B.) has been selected
as the most illustrative of their theories, but unfortunately
I do not agree that M. B. was possessed by ten different
personaKties, and explain the phenomena of mental dislocation
on purely physiological conditions.
I consider it possible on scientific grounds to refute spiritism,
whilst charitably ignoring the fraud and humbug which attaches
to it. The basal theories of spiritism, which are non-proven, are
put forward as facts ; but if common sense dechnes them, the
whole fabric falls to the ground. Nevertheless there are many
phenomena difiicult to explain, which suggest a future state.
Surely there can only be one personality or Ego as repre- Only One
sentative of each individual body and brain. To illustrate e^h'"
this practically, take a handsome well developed child of fine Person
perception, thought, and control. Such a one represents a
perfect and normal Ego, which is single and complete, with
every mental part properly adjusted and balanced. The
future of that child is assured, or as some might put it he is
" born saved." Alas ! the converse is too often apparent, and
the child is ' ' born lost.' ' The former starts better equipped than
most for the struggle of life. But if that child suffer at any
period from a severe illness affecting the brain or nervous
system, it is probable that a change will be observed in his
demeanour or character. Such a change indicates a damaged
Ego, or shattered and altered personality. The damage
might be sHght and with care recoverable, or it might be
permanent, and even though he or she might mix with the
world, it would no longer be the original Ego which the child
possessed at birth. I should regard this as a sub-personality
of the true Ego : a part only of the whole. Surely the Ego
is what God made and intended each individual to be ; which
is a normal personaHty, or a perfect mind.
One might also define the normal Ego as the most perfect What the
balancing of aU the mental parts. There must be good and b(fÂ°a""^
active inteUigence, with fuU control of aU lower instincts : Normal
instincts which have remained with us during the countless ahty"""
172 EDUCATION, PERSONALITY AND CRIME
ages of past evolution. We see that the normal Ego or person-
ality is absent in many people. We cannot believe that God
intended to place an imperfect mind within the human frame.
Nor can we raise up an imperfect Ego as a standard for com-
parison. When abnormaUty of body or personality occurs,
it is the result of disease, accident, or environment. Are not
these sub-egos or sub-personalities fragments of the true
Ego ? We know by our own lives that while there is the
true Ego in which we find peace and power, we are subject to
sub-personalities which are less perfect than the normal and
possibly of overpowering strength and influence. The Ego
in its normal state has great power of control to expel these
sub-personalities, which appear to us hke foreign invaders.
It is only when the Ego is weakened by any physical or moral
cause that it is possible for sub-personahties to control us.
In the case of M. B. influenza had so weakened the brain,
that her normal intervals got fewer and shorter, until after
three years the true Ego entirely disappeared. For the last
nine years she has remained in one of her sub-personalities,
B6, which fortunately is a very healthy sub-mental condition,
and one in which she is intelligent, industrious, and of high
morale. She not only supports herself, but is able to do
something for her family. But when she is fatigued, the
mind shows threatening symptoms : headache, malaise, loss
of memory, depression and a weakened will power. I have
therefore found it necessary two or three times to advise
change of occupation or complete rest.
â€¢^ary It is difficult to realize, but nevertheless a fact, that M. B.
only a is not her original self. She is mentally only a part of her
part of EgQ . much of the Ego having been shut off. She now only
now remembers the events of the B6 periods. Thus, she remembers
Dr. Lloyd Tuckey, for he visited her as B6, but she does not
remember Dr. SaviU who saw her as B2.
As at present B6, she is also ignorant of the periods of the
other sub-personalities, and cannot in any way fiU up the gaps
or blanks in her chain of memory. In consequence her normal
life has been forgotten, and she does not remember going to
school, nor her teachers. She has to be reintroduced to her
old schoolmates and other friends, for she thinks she has
PERSONALITY AND SUB-PERSONALITY 173
never seen them before. It is therefore possible for any one
to be only a fragment of the normal or perfect Ego, and this
may account for the many variations in character which we
In searching for sub-personalities amongst criminals, I have Crimin-
gone carefuUy into their past lives, to see if I could trace any rarely^^'^^
gaps of memory. In the case of a man who is undergoing a life due to
sentence for attempted murder, I found his memory far from per^on-
a continuous chain. He can hardly give any account of his ality
childhood, nor can he recall his marriage day. He with
difficulty remembers the birth of his first child, and cannot
say whether he or his father went for the doctor.
Surely amongst the 150,000 criminals in London there
must be a few illustrative cases. I find the criminal usually
occupies the position of the sohtary black sheep in the family,
and differs from the rest of his own folk. His personality
has probably appeared abnormal even before the wrongdoing
commenced. He seems to have been labelled from his early
days. Is it not possible that some sub-personality has been
at work from childhood, and that he starts ill-balanced ?
There are more opportunities in the humble walks of life for
such defective states to occur, as they are especially prone in
infancy to tubercular diseases, and to brain affections, being
thus vulnerable at many points through malnutrition. There-
fore, if nature at birth had equipped them Hke others, there
would still be aU these and other subtle forces working
against them : forces which no human being is strong enough
to withstand. Though we cannot always demonstrate these,
yet abnormal sub-personaHties may often be in possession
where least suspected.
To demonstrate this I will give an instance of total destruc- Case of
tion of the Ego or Personality. JÂ°^^^
Â° "^ Destruc-
A boy, bom of very healthy parents in good social position, tion of
started fair both physically and mentally, until the age of *^Â® ^^^
4, when he had a sunstroke in India. This accident retarded
mental development, while physically he grew into a fine
athletic young man. He was backward at school, dull, irritable,
and suffered from night terrors. In his teens he was pressed
174 EDUCATION, PERSONALITY AND CRIME
in study and consequently broke down under the stress. The
free use of beer and tobacco hastened the end, which necessi-
tated placing him under care before he reached the age of 20.
The Ego is in this instance totally and permanently destroyed,
for the body exists without the mind. He and many similar
cases might, if taken early, survive mentally under modified
conditions, by relieving the stress of competition. Such
do well in the country, or in situations which do not require
much responsibility. This case is a sad transition from good
heredity and sanity to complete dementia, but between these
extremes there are many stages. Such conditions are more
easily brought about by poverty, with the increased struggle
for existence ; or by the opposite, overstimulating diet among
the rich, not to mention the baneful influence of alcohol, tubercle
and other serious constitutional diseases.
Human- With these tremendous opportunities, possibilities, and
IncUneT chances, we see that humanity rests on an inclined plane.
Plane At the top in the region of perfection we find sanity, intellect,
moral control, and wisdom, which represent the normal
Ego. At the bottom he the hopeless mental and moral
wrecks, " the submerged tenth." Between the good and
the bad some are slipping down, while many are struggling
up. If we realize what this inclined plane means to ourselves
and to others, it ought to stir us to do our duty.
The fact that many of us appear normal but are only average
is no argument against the perfection of the normal Ego, for
everything human tends to mediocrity, by the law of averages.
It is our business to trace the cause in what appear to be
abnormalities of the Ego, or sub-personalities. Environment
strikes us as the most frequent cause, when we daily witness
the great disadvantages which attend the poor in slum life :
or in higher walks, where parents fail, through ignorance or
sin, in the care and education of their children. How many
bairns are unnecessarily soured and rendered peevish and
irritable ! Their tempers are permanently broken, when they
might have been happy and loveable. It is just the same,
as we observe, with a horse badly broken in by an untrust-
Other cases seem to be abnormal from birth. The brain
PERSONALITY AND SUB-PERSONALITY 175
may be injured at this period by prolonged or difficult labour,
or by the unskilful use of instruments. Other causes may
be alcoholism, tubercle, or syphilis, in one or both parents.
Too rapid childbearing may have exhausted the maternal
nutrition. In all these cases the physical habitation of the
Ego is damaged, so that the normal Ego cannot develop.
We see the counterpart of this, where an arm or leg never comes
into use because the motor cells thereof are damaged.
There may be endless causes at work against the develop- Constant
ment of the Ego, so that the shattered Ego, which we see in ^orHng
many, is but a part of the original, and this accounts for against
many of the weaklings and degenerates. It also illustrates ^Â°
the compound nature of the Ego, or the division of the person-
ality into parts. In isolated cases when the brain is attacked,
we should do our best to restore the health, as there is no part
of the body more capable of recovery than the brain and nervous