and direct a different course of action. Dr. Mercier supports
this theory, and points out that where a criminal act is per-
petrated after many successive minor acts, there are so many
opportunities for the criminal's will power to have called a
halt. He says later : "At each stage the exercise of wiU is
necessary to carry him on to the next." Though correct
with normal individuals, I think it will be generally admitted
that " obsessed " lunatics (paranoiacs), or what may later
be called " possessed " persons with fixed delusions of perse-
cution, wiU effect their purposes, whatever comphcated
obstacles may be opposed to them.
THE MORAL INVALID AND MENTAL CRIPPLE 187
Instability of purpose fortunately disarms most lunatics. The
But the criminal differs from both, for he is persistent, yet jy^^j
oftimes quite as irresponsible. The criminal's mind is so Abnormal
absolutely different from the normal that he should not be
judged by the same principles. Whatever the cause, he
lives on a distinctly lower plane.
The mental association is crippled, perhaps never developed.
The average criminal is like an overgrown baby, without
power to use his knowledge to his own advantage. He may
hate punishment and wish to do right, but like a naughty
child must not only be protected, but forced to do what is
proper. To wiU is present with him, but how to do he knows
not, as St. Paul the psychologist wrote long ago. As there
is no one to help him, he goes the way of least resistance,
which is downhill. His instincts are those of primitive man,
entirely egotistic, or, as we term them, atavistic, hence the
ethics, and altruism, which are the development of religion and
civilization, are unknown quantities in him. In pursuit of
his selfish purposes he focuses his attention on civil law,
leaving out of focus a blurred picture of the higher social
and moral duties. Hence I contend, that many of these
criminals as mental cripples cannot be held responsible, or
credited with either clear judgment or free will.
What I have observed in the " up-to-date " criminal does
not tally with the criminal of fifty years ago. Times change,
so do environments, and so the law of adaptation alters the
personality. The great Quaker philanthropist, Wilham Tallack,
has enrolled some interesting personal experiences. He
says that in the United States the prison authorities are too
lax, while in our country there is an inconsiderate severity
and uncertainty. It is his opinion that the uncertainty and
one-sidedness of British law are due to exaggerated caste
and class distinction, and the survival of the military feudalism
of the Middle Ages.
My observations among criminals seem to strengthen this J[^Â®
view, that many of them are moral invalids and as such they Thief a
must be treated. Even after their conversion they seem in J|?oraI
no way anxious to compensate the owners for the property
stolen. To us that would appear the first step, but in these
188 EDUCATION, PERSONALITY AND CRIME
moral invalids there is a failure to appreciate properly the
problem and principles of society. In fact, nearly all the
burglars seem quite satisfied that they have only robbed rich
houses, and left the poor alone. They also consider that
their term of imprisonment pays off the debt, and therefore
restitution is not required of them.
The Salvation Army and similar religious bodies are now
giving these poor criminals the education which the State
should have given them in their childhood. The State denied
them this armour against crime, and now punishes them.
We have the sympathy of a large number of the legal pro-
fession, for they also look upon these social derelicts as moral
invalids and cripples. But the profession cannot help as
they would, for the cumbersome State machinery is so rusty
and old, that no amount of oiUng will make it move straight.
We must have new State machinery and let the old be
These moral cripples require moral splints, as much as do
physical cripples ; they demand suitable treatment and pro-
tection. There is great room for practical psychology, and
in these matters law and medicine should stand shoulder to
shoulder. The medical man can trace subtle mental degen-
eracies and aberrations, which require his technical knowledge.
The doctor has no proper place in a trial as partizan, his
high calling and technical knowledge should place him as an
unbiased consultant. Should there be room for diversity
of opinion, then a medical council should be held. A crime
is like an abnormal growth, a species of moral cancer. While
using the most vigorous measures to destroy it, the criminal
should not be discharged uncured. At present nearly all
cures are effected by religious bodies. Among many of those
I have examined, the greater percentage could have been re-
formed at earUer stages. Meanwhile criminals and wrong-
doers are very expensive to the country, as they stumble along
the thorny path ; many of them waiting for years, tiU the
Salvation Army was permitted to hold out its helping hand.
Virchow : quotation â€” Criminal masses rather than classes. UNABLE TO
DEFINE THE TERM CRIMINAL : Many sins or crimes protected by the law
â€” Crime and privilege â€” Law versus justice. THE CRIMINAL â€” CLASSI-
FICATION OF CRIMINALSâ€” I. INSANE : Mentally weak ; the term
criminal lunatic is contradictory. 2. BORDERLAND CASES : Equally
among the rich ; Often the result of dissipation in parents ; Treatment ;
Many are imbeciles. 3. SPORTS : Genii ; Family taints. 4. ACCI-
DENTS : Y.M.C.A. and the Polytechnic â€” Perverts active â€” Inverts pas-
sive â€” General Booth's treatment â€” Compulsory measures required â€”
Mugs. THEIR REPLICA AMONG THE RICH : The criminal a
sportsman â€” A-social, the enemy of society â€” His social rights â€” Recog-
nizes no private rightsâ€” Never grateful. CRIMINAL A SOCIALIST :
The illicit financier versus burglar. ONLY TWO KINDS OF CRIME :
Illegitimate gain and illicit lust â€” Violence usually secondaryâ€” If primary
due to perverted lust â€” Missionaries of empire. OBJECT OF PUNISH-
MENT : Revenge and reform â€” Revenge of society â€” Reformation from
prison methods nil. THE INDETERMINATE SENTENCE : Later
supervision advisable â€” The prisoner to determine his own sentence by
his conduct â€” Probation, not freedom â€” Some convicts quite incurable â€”
The Borstal system â€” Half of the boys should never be in prison â€” Punish
the parents. CORPORAL PUNISHMENT : Navy and Army should
be open to these lads â€” Reformatory with indeterminate sentence â€” Re-
move the prison label. " JUVENILE ADULTS " DWARFED IN
PRISON : Better class of warders required for juveniles â€” Prisoner should
pay expenses. AN AFTER-CARE ASSOCIATION : Crime a parasite
on societyâ€” Social dross. MAN NOT FALLEN BUT RISEN : Quaker
doctrine of the soul â€” Corroborated by Nature â€” Civilization still low down
â€” The desire for wealth without labour. THE LIBERTY OF THE
SUBJECT IS A POPULAR DELUSION : Cases to demonstrate this fal-
lacy â€” Inverts â€” State should be parent and guardian. FERTILITY
OF THE UNFIT : National protection â€” Cases â€” Sterilization the cure â€”
Arnold White the pioneer. THE KNOWLEDGE OF THE BRAIN IS
THE KEY TO THIS GREAT PROBLEM : Defective construction in
prefrontal area â€” The moral centre â€” The surface of the brain mapped
outâ€” Habit. THE CRIMINAL MIND : " Long timers " quite " broke."
TREAT THE CRIMINAL SCIENTIFICALLY: Who is he? and
why is he ? His history before birth â€” His environment â€” Case â€” The
poor want our personal interest â€” The criminal summed up. WE ARE
ALL POTENTIAL CRIMINALS : Fundamental criminals. ADULTER-
ATION OF HONESTY A FORM OF COMPETITION : Reactive criminals.
A Biological Peoblem in an Everchanging Environment.
A TREATISE such as this would be incomplete without a chapter
on the criminal. Virchow wrote in 1892: " Every deviation
from the type of the parent animal must have its foundation
190 EDUCATION, PERSONALITY AND CRIME
in a pathological accident." Is not the criminal a psychological
accident ? As before stated, they do not form a species, a
race, not even a class, but being drawn from aU ranks should
be spoken of as the " Criminal Masses." Their masses are
so numerous that they are often described officially as the
" criminal population."
Unable to At the outset I am disturbed by my inability to define the
Term term " Criminal," because sin and crime do not run on parallel
Criminal lines. ^ Much of well-recognized wrong-doing does not come
within the power of the law, as in the wrongs done to young
girls or children.
Other sins are protected by law. Thus in the company
promoting business false and misleading statements, other-
wise called lies, are permitted by the courts. The court
allows gullible people to be deceived ; but surely it ought to
attach responsibility and liability for published statements ;
it also permits barbaric cruelty and oppression in connexion
with money-lending and the "hire system."
Conversely, many crimes are technical and can hardly be
called sins. Poaching is an example of this. Formerly the
tenant-farmer had to submit to his landlord's game destroying
â€¢ his crops or food without redress ; and if he destroyed the depre-
dators, worth a few shiUings, he was liable to penal servitude.
Crime too often indicates privilege ; wealth, power, and
class operating against the poor. It almost suggests that
the law makers have in bygone days built up for themselves
a heritage of ever-flowing wealth, when they enacted the
various laws which make up the British Constitution. AU
we can say is that law and justice pursue divergent paths
as a rule, but occasionally converge and even meet.
Law represents the wUl of the strong and too often leads
to crime. Justice we can barely hope for, as it is a divine
attribute. If true justice were dispensed by the State amongst
her children, there would hardly be any place for the criminal.
Classifi- I suggest the following classification of criminals : â€”
ShSIi^l 1. The insane and the mentally weak.
2. Those on the borderline.
^ Krimen ; kri, to do. Sanscrit.
Prefrontal cortex of an imbecile.
\- : â– â– Â£Â»
.^ .â– / .1
Prefrontal cortex of a hopeless idiot
p'^ -^ (niicro-cephalie).
, ' â– -'-. f - â– -â– .â€¢" / V
Note how very shallow the 2nd or pyra- Note that the 2nd layer is only ^ of the
midal layer is (often found in dangerous normal depth,
I am indebted to Dr. Bolton for these photographs.
Facing page 130.
Prefrontal cortex of a dement.
Prefrontal normal cortex.
â– ' . â– â– â–
â– ^ .'*â– .â€¢.-â€¢'..
r ..' ''".' \.' ' ;i'-' â€¢'.;â– '.'"
""â– â€¢<. â€¢â– ." ' , â€¢ '.
' V '* Â» *
, A . -â– " /â€¢.-'â€¢>
1 Â» â€¢ â€¢ â€¢â€¢
'â€¢,'â– â– â€¢ ;'â€¢:Â«-â– â€¢.:*.; ;
, ' - * '
, , * â€¢ ' "' â€¢
'*: :â– ./,;â– -â€¢*â€¢.
â€¢ ,â– ^- ' 1. *. Â» . -
â€¢ â€¢â– ,
' ft * ' Â» *
* â€¢ ' * ' * -,
- Â«. â€¢
* *â– â€¢
^, . -*( â€¢''.*'â€¢ ' - ;â–
' ' â€¢ * Â«.
. '- ^"^ â€¢ ;â€¢ .; â€¢ *.. \
'm, * ^ '
' * â€¢
â– * .'<.-*
â€” â€¢.â€¢;-. - .,^5SSSsSSSKn^aÂ«!SS
, ^ . ' - V - r .
;â– ;; :. "^ â€¢ :>, 'i;-.":-"
ft'".. â€¢' 7 '' '
. t .^ **' ' -* * *./'
"'* '*" \ - V . â€¢ ~ â€¢'
* % * Â»â€¢
JC ^ ',*'*'â€¢ ' â€ž * * , *
â™¦ * *, " * * 'â€¢ â– ^
; * Â«ij , *, ..' . - ' â– "'
' f - * , ''â€¢i 'â€¢ ' '*
*" ^ - "^ . *. * ^
.s. ' *'
Â» â€¢* - Â» - â€¢
> ' " â– Â»
..â€¢- . t â– .> ;"
,-"^ â€¢.: - .â€¢.-. -^v'^'
K <â€¢ \ * â–º - '
â– 'â– k'. '.â€¢.'*Â«>'' ' . " . â–
'â€¢ -. * - ,' s*^' ' '
* X . Â» . v,k *- ' â€¢ V
* . ^ " * '
!!*',â€¢ - # ' . ..
(â€¢- '^ ' 1
'' > â– *Â» â– -
'/' .-r/ '.'k". /' '.
f,'' - ^*-;^.; '.^.-f J* '
'â– ' â€¢ 1^ *â– Â» ' -* , . " '
., â– â€¢ , â€¢
;â€¢*''"Â« ' "' " â™¦ â€¢ .
â€¢ * Â» ' ' *^ ' '
. " " - . * '
â€¢ " â€¢*,â€¢â€¢.â€¢*
.. â€¢. .V* . ,â€¢;/
â€¢ ' '
' * *
'â€¢/â€¢â– '."^/*' -â€¢â– â–
'... , < ^ â€¢Â» ,,
4' '' < . â€¢
H ~ , â€¢
.".â™¦.. * . /<
â€¢ * '' ^ <â€¢ .. â€¢ Â»
. ' . . <':
1 â– 'Â« . T
'â€¢â€¢â– *Â« 'Â« ; â– Â»'â€¢' '/ '
Â» â™¦â™¦ .
â€¢ ' â– * '**Â»''
â€¢â€¢ â– ''*',â™¦:'." '.
Â«^i * /; -â€¢Â« ; '
â€¢k . " "= 4 â€¢
> â€¢â€¢ â€¢ â€¢ â–
'â– /, *, â€¢ ,â™¦ i
a^ i* , t ^ (
*â€¢Â« . ' .^ .. .Â«
â€¢ 1 â€¢ ' ' >
, . /, â€¢ . â€¢
i. . â– â– 'â– ^1 â– â– .
' - v, ,-..â– =â–
â™¦. "' '*'' /'Â».',
â€¢- 'â€¢''".. ' '
â€¢ . 'Â» 'Â» , â€¢Â» J>^' .
* < Â» !* Â« "â€¢
Â«- â€¢ e 'Â«â– .,>
.,.. .. '.t- ^^ ,^ â™¦.;
' * jt
- ' <.;.**
Â»'' ^;'-.. ".'â€¢;*
'- . - t
â€¢> â– '
' iÂ» â€¢ .
â– *Â« â– ** , .
t *â– **â– M
- "' : â€¢*< \Â£
Observe the wasting in II., the
II. is the layer of intellect con-
taining the pyramidal cells.
Facing page 191 .
THE CRIMINAL 191
3. Sports or variations, due to heredity.
4. Accidents, due to environment.
The cause in the first three is internal while in the last it is
1. The relationship of insanity to crime is the happy hunting- i- Insane
ground for specialists. As yet only gross cases of insanity are
recognized by the law, although in doubtful cases the judges
and the jury are usually sympathetic. There are, however,
many cases of incipient insanity, or loss of control, where the
fate of the accused depends on the judge, and some judges
are not educated up to psychology and deal with these cases
on the theory of original sin.
The hundreds of prisoners, who are certified as mentally
weak and are turned out on the streets, should for their own
sakes and ours be collected into asylums or colonies, if they
have no proper homes and no responsible relatives. Our
medical officers are very much hampered in this detail. The
results are very serious. As soon as insanity is diagnosed the
stigma of crime should be removed, and the contradictory
term " criminal lunatic " abandoned.
Insanity frequently is not recognized at the time when a
crime is committed. Among the more usual " insane " crimes,
if I may use that expression, are those of sudden impulse,
often aimless, and also of extreme violence. Epileptics are
liable to these explosions or nerve storms, but epilepsy may
not be in evidence. Such might be described as suppressed
epilepsy, and usually some neurosis or insanity will be found
to have occurred in a branch of the family. A few years ago
the Lancet reported eight murders in one year by lunatics
recently discharged from asylums under an unfit Act of Parlia-
ment. These cases might however have been criminals before
their mental diseases had developed.
One unfortunate man, who murdered his Kttle daughter, and
was reprieved, a year later in prison developed insanity which
continued for many years !
Other forms of insanity are often passed over in deahng
with a crime, especially imbecility and delusion. Of the
latter, delusions of persecution obsess many an unfortunate
being and end in serious crime.
192 EDUCATION, PERSONALITY AND CRIME
One poor fellow is packed so fuU of delusions and clairvoy-
ance that I can hardly understand his repeated convictions
as an expert thief, and his l&fteen years in prison. Now
he is rescued by the Salvation Army and is a quiet, harmless
delusional lunatic. He has no stigmata of degeneration,
being a tall, broad, handsome man.
Another, a man of 30, should have been marked ofE as a
lunatic during his fifteen years in prison. He is a middle-
grade imbecile, but in spite of that, having escaped the destruc-
tive power of the School Board, can remember his life to the
age of 4. If the School Board had captured him his memory
would only have gone back to 10.
He was trained very thoroughly in a thieves' den and was a
pickpocket when 7 years old, and was first charged in a poHce
court when 8 years of age. This educational estabhshment
is still in existence.
Saddest of all such cases are those of incipient general
paralysis, when there is a great tendency to indecency, and
this happens in the lives of those who normally would abhor
2. Border- 2. Borderland cases form a difficult class, both for diagnosis
landCases ^^^^ treatment. They are as abundant among the weU-to-do
as among the poor, but are kept out of harm's way in the
They are not insane enough for asylum treatment, but
are so unstable and neurotic as to be a continual source of
anxiety to their friends. Among the rich their misfortune
is often due to a parent's dissolute life. The same applies
to the pauper cases, but here the dissipation and alcohohsm
continue, so that there is no proper home hfe, and they
become wanderers or criminals. If these cases are sent to
ordinary prisons they are almost certainly doomed. If
they have not entered manhood they may be rescued by
the Borstal method, and they have a stiU better chance if
placed in such homes as those conducted by Mr. Wheatley of
the St. Giles Mission. Mr, Wheatley tells me that very few
of these " first offenders " run away. The reason is, that
they have good shelter, nutritious food, and above all,
sympathy ; they reahze that they could not improve their
Betz or large motor cells, from the normal case.
Observe the pattern.
The same motor cells from the idiot.
I am indebted to Dr. Shaw Bolton for the above 8 photographs.
Facing page 192.
^ ^ -
:^ - ##â€¢
^ , â€¢
Normal pyramidal cells from the prefrontal (the area of control).
For a more correct idea of the normal cortex as regards the number of cells see
p. 231, and compare with murderer's cortex, pp. 223 and 224.
H^ , -^ B -.-
. Â» ^ .
1 * â€¢ .
* ^ .
i'^ Â»' *
^ .^ > ^ ^ ,
^^ '^ â– '
Pyramidal cells from the prefrontal area of the idiot.
These two photographs are lent by Dr. Bolton.
Facing page 193.
THE CRIMINAL 193
position ; they do not commit crime for pleasure, but for a
living. Most of these poor lads are quite willing to earn an
honest livelihood if they are given the opportunity, although
some of them are really " feckless " imbecUes. As a result
of deprivation and want, their intelligence is poor, their
memory is unreliable and does nor extend far back, their
tempers are very uncertain, and habits of cleanhness, indus-
try or perseverance do not exist.
They are fitted for outdoor work, or where little skill is
required. If they be put in positions of trust, or are subjected
to competition or strain, they are very liable to fail and to come
within the grip of the law.
It is often difiicult to classify this group, so for temporary
purposes I would suggest that imbeciles be divided into three
(1) Low grades, practically brainless, which are obviously
mentally deficient and also very depraved and vicious, with
less intelligence than the brutes.
(2) Middle grade imbeciles, who cannot support themselves
and require to be kept in institutions or under private care.
Their brain cells are far below the average, and the convolution
pattern very simple.
(3) High grade imbeciles, who may learn trades and be
self-supporting, take their position in family life and society,
and even rule kingdoms. This large class is the cause of
much social disorder and they are uncertain on account of their
instability. They are abundant among the leisured classes,
being the product of dissipation and idleness. The influence
of their wealth and position makes them a pecuHar social
danger, especially if they have power. While we have seen
some on thrones causing international friction, at the other
extreme we find our prisons half fuU of them, when they
are the result of poverty, stress and too often enforced
3. Sports form the third class, and their origin has been fully 3. Sports
discussed in Chapters II, III, IV and VI on variations and
heredity. It would be well carefully to peruse the cases
illustrating this class.
Human sports are found either high above the line of medio-
194 EDUCATION, PERSONALITY AND CRIME
crity or else at very low levels. The former are mostly genii.
Many genii are topheavy or unstable, and no event in their
lives need occasion surprise.
There are many sports amongst criminals, and this is sug-
gested by the fact that there is usually only one criminal in a
family group. In some cases there is a visible family taint, some
of the children being insane or eccentric, while another perhaps
differs in being a criminal. Occasionally the whole family
appears normal and one cannot trace the cause of the criminal.
If we could ascertain more about the previous generation, we
would probably find some evidence of instabiUty.
4. Acci- Accidents form one cause of many falling into crime. Too
dents often a child of good heredity is left an orphan and friendless,
or placed in unwholesome surroundings and drifts into crime.
Case 6 is a very good illustration. Many young men who are
obliged to live from home fall into temptation for want of
interested friends. The Y.M.C.A., the Polytechnic, and similar
institutions may take credit for having saved thousands of
young men from ruin.
The ultimate classification of criminals must be on simple,
broad lines in the way I have indicated, but those who know
more of them than I dowiU doubtless improve on my simple
Perverts and Inverts.
The term pervert is to be applied in its widest sense to aU
who misuse or misapply their normal faculties. A pervert
is necessarily anti-social ; the idea of " commonweal " never
presents itself to him. The ultimate goal of selfishness for
every wrongful action is a perversion of rectitude.
The invert is a passive wrong-doer, lacking energy, a sort
of " born tired," or " can't worker," often " won't worker," and
deficient in intellect. He is a bud that does not flower, some-
times cannot, usually will not.
General Booth sums up the correction and cure, by sug-
gesting he should have a meal given him to start with, and a
second one promised when a certain amount of work has been
performed. If he does not work he must starve, and if he
does not earn it for dinner let it wait for his supper, and if he
THE CRIMINAL 195
does not win it by the evening postpone it tiU breakfast-time
Mental evolution and physical energy can only be forced
out of such by compulsory measures. The State should have
the power to seize all loafers and " ne'er-do- weUs " and force
them into labour colonies until their reform is completed, and
effectively restrain them from multiplying. They comprise a
mass of unskilled criminals who are despised as " mugs "
by the skilled upper-class of criminal.
These lazy and criminal inverts have their rephca in the Their
aristocracy and wealthy classes. Among the pure aristocracy among
intermarriage, indolence and dissipation have produced a large the Rich
proportion of degenerates, whilst excesses among the nouveaux
riches seem to result in rapid deterioration of their progeny.
The sociahst, of course, objects to see the pauper invert
" moved on " from the street corner, whilst the wealthy invert
" swells round " the parks. Though the wealthy invert does
not annoy society by coming on the rates yet he may be a
more dangerous criminal, for he often uses the power wealth
confers for very evil and grossly selfish purposes.
In whatever manner we classify the criminal, we are always
brought back to the fact that he is a " sportsman " ; if I might
be allowed a httle extension I should say " the sporting gentle-