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phrases in current circulation in the times of the New Institution, or
during the apostolic age. Our present inquiries extend no farther.
The question now before us may be varied so as to bring up another
New Testament phrase. For example — Is every measure, distribution,
portion, or gift of the Holy Spirit recorded in the Living Oracles, a
manifestation of the Spirit f To proceed with deliberation and with
confidence, let us first examine the phrase, "manifestation of the Spirit "
(I. Cor. xii. 7).

Phanerosis (rendered manifestation. Old Version and New) occurs
but ticice in the Living Oracles. Paul is the only writer who uses it.
and he only uses it once in each of his letters to the Corinthians (2ud
ICpistle, chap. iv. 2). "By manifestation of the truth, commending our-
selves to every man's conscience in the sight of God." The word


piiAXEnoo, which eignifies to make manifest, to disclose, to bring to
light, occurs more than fifty times: irom this is derived phanerosis,
manifesiation, eihihition, disclosure. It is quite obvious, then, that all
the measures, gifts, or distributions of the Spirit, were visible, sensible,
and manifest to ail: for they are called "manifestations of the Spirit."
In writing on "spiritual gifts" (I. Cor. chaps, xii., xiil. and xiv.) in the
opening of the subject, Paul (chap. xii. 7) classifies them under one
general head, which he denominates "a manifestation of the Spirit."
"There is a manifestation of the Spirit given to every man [all the
spiritual men] for the advantage of all [the brethren]." Then come
the specifications of these manifestations of the Spirit before enumer-
ated — "To one is given by the Spirit the word of wisdom," etc., etc. If,
then, by "a manifestation of the t'ruth" Paul meant such a public and
sensible exhibition of it as would commend the honesty and sincerity
of the heart to every man's conscience, by "a manifestation of the
Spirit" he meant such an exhibition of his presence and residence in
the heart, as would convince the understanding of all that these spirit-
ual men, who professed to have received the Holy Spirit himself, did
in truth possess that divine agent. From all which, may it not oe
inferred that a person in the apostolic age, professing to have received
the gift of the Holy Spirit, or the Holy Spirit himself, without a mani-
festation of it; or who was unable to display it by some unequivocal
exhibition of it, would have been considered either a knave or a

Before we approach nigher to the question before us, there is another
Scriptural phrase, so similar to this, used by the same inspired writer,
and in the same epistle, which deserves a passing remark. The intel-
ligent reader will no doubt think of "the demonstration of the Spirit"
found in I. Cor. ii. 4, "I came not to you, brethren, with excellency of
speech and of wisdom. My discourse also and my proclamation were
not with persuasive words of human wisdom, but with the demonstra-
tion of the Spirit and of power, that your faith might not stand in
the wisdom of men, but in the power of God." We quote the whole
passage, that the import of this word "demonstration" {apodeixis),
which occurs but once in all the Living Oracles, may be duly felt. The
verb apodeiknumi (to demonstrate) occurs Acts ii. 22; xxv. 7; I. Cor.
iv. 9; II. Thess. ii. 4. Jesus Christ was "recommended [demonstrated)
to you by God by powerful operations, wonders, and signs which God
wrought by him in the midst of you." Thus the verb is first used
(Acts ii. 22); and from this we learn what is called a demonstration
of the Spirit. "They were not able to prove [to demonstrate] their
accusations against Paul" (Acts xxv. 7). "God has set forth us [dem-
onstrated us Apostles] Apostles last as persons appointed to death"
(I. Cor. iv. 9). "Sitting in the temple of God, openly showing [demon-


strating] himself to be a god" (II. Thess. ii. 4). With all the prem-
ises in the Book, tho reader may now see that a dcmonslration of the
Uliirit is a public, evident, sensible display of supernatural power, ou
which the faith of a person may stand as on the power of God; or
such a manifestation or exhibition of the Spirit, evincing, beyond
rational doubt, that he is no linave or vain pretender who says that ho
has received the gift of the Holy Spirit.

Perhaps our question is already sufficiently answered to the satisfac
tion of the reader. Was every one mentioned in the volumes of God
as possessing the gift of the Holy Spirit, able to give a manifestation
or demonstration of the Spirit? This is the question now before us;
and it is proved two ways — either by an induction of all the cases
which we have not yet attempted, or by a definition of all the phrases
employed to express the meaning, design, or extent of the gift of the
Holy Spirit. The latter is more immediately our object — the other is
rather a consequence drawn from the premises fairly exhibited and
examined. This much we may say, and it must suffice for the present
essay, that, when the Scriptural import of the phrases "the gift of
the Holy Spirit," "spiritual gifts." "measure" or "distribution of the
Spirit " "<lemoustrati07i of the Spirit," is fully and clearly ascertained,
they all indicate a "manifestation of the Spirit." And perhaps it may
be inferred that no man ever did possess the gift of the Holy Spirit,
who could not, and who did not, afford a manifestation of the Spirit.
For every manifestation of the Spirit, says Paul, was given to every
spiritual man for the advantage of all; and unless the demonstration
of the Spirit was to all, it could not be an advantage to all.

Let none of the admirers and believers in "physical and moral opera-
tions of the Spirit" — in "common and special operations" — in "divine
influences," be alarmed at this investigation of the matter. We are
now ascertaining from the proper authority (the Scriptures them-
selves), the true and only authorized meaning of the sacred dialect.
When we discuss the merits of these popular and ecclesiastic terms
and phrases, we shall not use the Bible, but the creeds and commen-
tators of modern Christendom. Meanwhile, it is Bible words and Bibl?
ideas only we are prying into.


Having ascertained the Scriptural import of the following words and
phrases, "gift of the Holy Spirit," "spiritual gifts," "the Spirit by
measure," "distribution of the Spirit," "demonstration of the Spirit,"
"manifestation of the Spirit" — we proceed to the examination of some
other apostolic phrases relative to the same subject. The phrase "car-
7iest of the Spirit" next deserves our attention.


If the reader lias some preconceivea system in his mind which he
desires to see established by these examinations, I think it is probable
he will be disappointed; for we are not seeking to establish any. We
prosecute this inquiry as if we had never written nor spoken ono word
upon the subject. We are taking a new course of examination, and if
it result as did our former inquiries by another process, it will be then
confirmatory of the views already offered; just as if the working of a
question by the Rule of Three should give the same result as already
ascertained by the Rule of Practice, it establishes the certainty of the
former solution; but if it should give a different result, then it must
call for a reconsideration of the matter. The reader, then, if he do
justice to himself, will place himself in the same circumstances as
the writer, and, with the candor and docility of a student, open the
Living Oracles, and ask. What say the Scriptures?

Arrahon, the word translated earnest in the phrase before us, found
II. Cor. i. 22, occurs only in two other passages; viz.: II. Cor. v. 5;
Eph. i. 14. It is a Hebrew word adopted into the Greek language of the
New Testament, as the word baptism is a Greek word adopted into
the English New Testament. It is translated usually pledge, earnest.
In the common and in the new version, this word is always rendered
earnest. The ancient Hebrew and Phoenician word is a commercial
term, and indicates that part of the price of any article which was
given in hand at the time of purchase. The goods were marked or
sealed, and a sum in hand paid, when the purchase was made; hence
the Hebrew verb from which it is derived signifies to make sure, or
to become surety. It is found three times only in the translation of the
Seventy, and always adopted as in the New Testament, from which
writings doubtless the Apostles had it.

Before we attempt to ascertain the precise import of this phrase,
there is a word which occurs in the same connection with it, both in
the Epistles to the Corinthians and Ephesians, which must be distinctly
understood antecedent to a full intelligence of "the earnest of the
Spirit." It is the word sealed. "God," says Paul, "has anointed us
Apostles" — "Christ establishes us, God anoints us, and has also sealed
us, and given the earnest of the Spirit in our hearts" (II. Cor. i. 21,
22). And Eph. i. 13, 14, speaking of the Ephesian converts in the
second person, contrasted with the Jewish converts who before expected
the Messiah, Paul says, "Having believed, you were sealed with the
Spirit of the promise, the Holy Spirit [the promised Spirit], who is the
earnest of our inheritance, for the redemption of the purchase to the
praise of his glory."

The reader now perceives the intimacy between God's anointing,
sealing, and giving of the earnest of the Spirit, and feels the import-
ance of understanding the terms sealed, anointed, as well as the term


earnest. We shall therefore attend to them in order; and first, to
the word seal:

tiijhnujis (seal) occurs in the New Testament sixteen times. Uf
these, thirteen are in the Apocalypse; and always denote a public mark
or external sign, such as the seal upon a letter. The instrument by
which a visible mark or impression is made is literally a seal. This
seal has an inscription upon it; and therefore we have the instrument,
the inscription, and the impression made by it, all denominated "'seal:'
They are, however, all visible. The instrument, the inscription, and
the impression on the wax or on the paper, are called seals. Metaphor-
ically it denotes secrecy, and is so used in the Apocalypse. It also
imports confirmation.

Let us now examine all the places in which it occurs. Rev. v. 5,
"Seven seals" — visible impressions or marks indicative of security and
secrecy. It is found chap. v. 1, 2, 5, 9, and chap. vi. 1, 3, 5, 7, 9, 12;
viii. 1 — eleven times in this sense: chap. vii. it denotes the instrument
by which impressions are matle; chap. viii. 1 and chap. ix. 4, the impres-
sion made on the forehead; II. Tim. ii. 19, it seems to be used for
the inscription on the seal; and Rom. iv. 11 it denotes a confirmatory
mark. Circumcision was in the person of Abraham a seal or confirma-
tion of the faith he had in uncircuracision. It is only found once
more (I. Cor. ix. 2), "For the seal of my apostleship you are in the
Lord." The converted Corinthians were a confirmation of Paul's apos-
tleship. From this comes the verb,

To seal (sphragizo) , which occurs seventeen times. Ten of these
are found in the Revelation in the sense above defined — Rev. vii. 3, 4,
5, 6, 7, 8; X. 4; xx. 3; xxii. 10; Matt, xxvii. 66, it is applied to the
stone on the sepulchre. John vi. 27, God has sealed his Son, confirmed
his mission by the Holy Spirit without measure. Rom. xv. 28, meta-
phorically, to secure. The remaining passages bear upon the subject
directly, and are found Eph. i. 13 and iv. 30, in the sense applied to
Jesus, John vi. 27. God sealed his Son by the manifestations of his
Spirit. The Apostles were sealed as his ambassadors by the same
Spirit; and the converts from among the Jews and Gentiles were also
sealed as God's people by the manifestations of the same Spirit.

To give a ring with an inscription, or to give a seal, indicated in
all ages of the world the conferring of an office. Pharaoh gave Joseph
a ring (Gen. xli. 42) when he made him governor. A similar example
is found Esth. viii. 2; iii. 10. The Lord Chancellor of England, Lord
Keeper of the Great Seal, Lord of the Privy Seal, and the Secretaries
of State receive their oflSce by the king's delivering to them the seals
of their respective offices.

The seal of the Spirit was then a pul)lic sign. mark, or pledge that
God had sent his Son — that Jesus had sent the Apostles; and on their


converts it was a sign or a pledge that God had received them as his
people. Every "manifestation of the Spirit" was a confirmation of the
mission of the Apostles, a seal of their apostleship. The spiritual gifts
bestowed upon the converts by the hands of the Apostles, was a seal
of the apostleship of the persons who conferred them, and it was also
a pledge that God had received the persons sealed as his property.

Connected with sealing is the figure of anointing: for kings, and
prophets, and priests, on receiving their office, or on being sealed, were
also anointed with oil. The pouring of oil upon the head was a literal
anointing; but figuratively, the bestowing of the Holy Spirit, or some
spiritual gifts, is the anointing spoken of in the New Testament. An
examination of all the places where it is found makes this unquestion-
able. The word chrio (to anoint) is only found five times in the
apostolic writings: Luke iv. 18; Acts iv. 27; x. 38; II. Cor. i. 21; Heb.
i. 9. It is four times applied to Jesus, and once only to the Apostles;
and certainly alludes to "the gift of the Holy Spirit" in the ascertained
sense of that phrase. Luke iv. 18, "The Spirit of the Lord is upon
me," says Jesus, "because he has anointed me to preach the gospel."
Acts iv. 27, "Against thy holy Son Jesus, whom thou hast anointed."
Acts X. 38, "How God anointed Jesus of Nazareth ivith the Holy Spirit
and tvith power:' This explains the matter fully. Heb. i. 9, "God has
anointed thee with the oil of gladness above thy fellows" — his other
public servants. The oil is the ointment or anointing, called the
chrisma, found only in John's Letter, ii. 27 — the gift of the Spirit — •
■ The anointing teaches you all things." The remaining passage is
II. Cor. i. 22, and is connected with the seal and the earnest: "God h^s
anointed us, sealed us, and given the earnest of the Spirit in our
hearts." As "the Holy Spirit and power" are not two things, neither is
the anointing and the seal. "God anointed and sealed us" (Apostles)
are not two distinct acts, but the same act presented under two figures.

Those who regard John the Baptist as pouring water upon the
Messiah call that his anointing, or christening ; and therefore those who
sprinkle water upon the head of infants formerly called it christening,
from the Greek word chrisas, which signifies anointing!

The oil, the pouring of the oil, and the head on which it was poured,
are all external and visible. Hence the Holy Spirit descended on the
head of the Messiah visibly, and sat upon the head of the Apostles in
the resemblances of fiery tongues. Thus were Jesus and the Apos-
tles anointed.

There is, however, a difference in meaning between the word
anointing and the oil, and between the oil and its effects. Oil had
sensible effects upon the person. Hence, as the emblem of the gift of
the Holy Spirit bestowed on Jesus, it is called "the oil of gladness:'
Joy in the heart, arising from consecration to the Lord, was the natural

nil-: MlLLKWfAL HAIiniSGER AliiniXiKI). 119

effect of this anointing. Tliis joy in the heart is a prelude of the
fullness of joy, an earnest of the inheritance. This brings us within
sight of the meaning of the association of the anointing, the seal, and
the earnest.

A seal and an earnest are not the same thing, though the same
thing may l)o both a seal and an earnest. Anointing and sealing are
not the same act, though the same act may be both an anointing and
sealing. .\ sign and a seal are not the same thing; yet circumcision
to Abraham was both a sign and a seal. There is this difference
between a seal and an earnest: they are the same so far as an assurance
is concerned; but the seal assures of an inheritance without being any
part of it: whereas an earnest assures us of an inheritance, and is a
part 01 the inheritance itself. A seal may be a pledge to others, but
an earnest is a pledge to ourselves.

The seal of the Holy Spirit, as explained by Paul (Eph. i. 13), is
the earnest of the inheritance until the full possession of it. The
seal may be upon my head, but the earnest is in the head and in the
heart. If the head be anointed, the whole person is perfumed with
its graces. The oil poured on the head of Aaron descended in its
perfumes and influences to the tuft of his robe. The heart was always
filled with joy when the head was anointed. All the members of
Christ's body are anointed with him, and all experience the joy of
that unction in their hearts; and this to them is an earnest, an assur-
ance of the aihness of joy. Cut to this subject we can not do full jus-
tice till we have examined "the fruits of the Spirit."

Thus far we have progressed — God anointed and sealed his Son
and the Apostles by his Spirit, and sealed the converts made by their
ministry as his people, by various manifestations of his Spirit; and
those manifestations filled the heart with the fruits of God's Spirit,
which constituted an earnest in their hearts of the full fruition of
the heavenly inheritance.

The argument or assurance which the earnest of the Spirit in the
saints gives, is thus expressed: "If the Spirit of him who raised up
Jesus from the dead dwell in us, he who raised up Christ from the
dead will make even our mortal bodies alive through his Spirit who
dwells in us."

Before we speak of ''the fruit of the Spirit." and of "the first fruits
of the Spirit." w^ think it necessary to extend our vision, and bring
into our horizon what is spoken about the Spirit in the ages of the
world antecedent to the Christian economy. We shall, therefore, glance
through the ancient oracles.

There is not in the .lewish and Christian Scriptures a word of
more diversified occurrence and of greater variety of meaning, than the
word .'ipirit. It occurs very often without any epit!-rt. and we find it


in the following connections: Holy Spirit, Spirit of God, Spirit of
Christ, Spirit of the Lord, Spirit of the Lord God, Spirit of adoption.
Spirit of antichrist, Spirit of the Arabians, Spirit of bondage, Spirit
of burning, Spirit of counsel. Spirit of divination, Spirit of Egypt,
Spirit of error, Spirit of fear. Spirit of fear of the Lord, Spirit of glory.
Spirit of grace, Spirit of jealousy. Spirit of judgment, Spirit of infirm-
ity, Spirit of knowledge, Spirit of heaviness, Spirit of holiness, Spirit
of life, Spirit of meekness. Spirit of might. Spirit of your mind. Spirit
of the Philistines, Spirit of promise. Spirit of prophecy. Spirit of
slumber. Spirit of his Son, Spirit of truth. Spirit of understanding,
Spirit of whoredoms. Spirit of wisdom.

We have also another class of combinations of this word; such as
broken spirit, dumb spirit, evil spirit, free spirit, foul spirit, faithful
spirit, good spirit, humble spirit, meek spirit, new spirit, patient spirit,
perverse spirit, quickening spirit, quiet spirit, sorrowful spirit, unclean
spirit, wounded spirit.

Add to these the phrases. Born of the Spirit, Earnest of the Spirit,
Fruit of the Spirit, First Fruits of the Spirit, Newness of Spirit, Love
of the Spirit, Mind of the Spirit, Sword of the Spirit, Demonstration
of the Spirit, Manifestation of the Spirit, Ministration of the Spirit,
Sanctification of the Spirit, Grieve not the Holy Spirit, Quench not the
Spirit, Resist the Holy Spirit, Blaspheme the Holy Spirit.

Cruden, in his Concordance, ascribes nineteen different acceptations
or significations to the word Spirit as found in both Testaments. Cal-
met attempts to generalize them under four distinct heads of signifi-
cation, but evidently fails. Brown also makes an abortive attempt
of the same sort.

Even when the Spirit of God is spoken of, it does not always mean
the same thing. The Spirit of God sometimes unequivocally means the
breath of natural life. Thus in Job xxvii. 3, "The Spirit of God is
in my nostrils, all the while the breath is in me." The four winds
are in the same metaphor, called the four spirits of the heavens. (Zech.
vi. 5.) The Spirit of God moving upon the face of the great deep, may
also be a figurative expression; for the Hebrews were accustomed to
express their superlative comparison by adding the word God as an
adjective to a noun. Thus "the cedars of God," "the hills of God," "the
mountains of God," were very lofty cedars, hills and mountains.
However this may be, we find the phrase does not always mean the
same thing.

The "Spirit of God" in the Old Testament is spoken of thirteen
times only. When Pharaoh discovered the divine wisdom which was
found in Joseph after he interpreted his visions, he said to his serv-
ants, "Can we find such a man as this Joseph, in whom the Spirit of
God is?" The Lord also called Bezaleel of the tribe of Judah and "filled


him with the Spirit of (Jod, in wisdom, understanding, and knowledge,
and in all manner of workmanship." The "Lord put wisdom in tho
hearts of all who were wise-hearted," who with Aholiab and Bezaleel
•were to construct the tabernacle and its furniture as the Lord com-
manded Moses. "The Spirit of God came upon Balaam [Num. xxiv. 21,
upon Saul IL Sam. x. 10; xi. 6] and upon the messengers of Saul [xix.
20], and they all prophesied." The Spirit of God in like manner "came
upon Azariah, and he preached to Asa, to Judah, and Benjamin" (11.
Chron. xv. 1). Ezekiel says (xi. 24), "The Spirit took me up and
brought me in vision by the Spirit of God into Chaldea." This is all
we learn of the Spirit of God from the Old Testament.

But although we have not this phrase more frequently in the Old
Testament, much is said of the Spirit, in the ancient revelations. The
Lord took of the Spirit that was upon Moses, and put it upon the
seventy senators appointed to the government of Israel with Moses;
and when the Spirit came upon them they prophesied without inter-
mission. (Num. xi. 17, 25.) When Moses heard of their prophesying,
he said. Would to God that all the Lord's people were Prophets, and that
the Lord would put his Spirit upon them!

Caleb and Joshua are spoken of as men possessing another spirit —
it is spoken doubtless allusively to the Spirit of God. The spirit of
Elijah means the spirit which God bestowed upon him, which also
rested upon Elisha. The spirit came upon Amasa, one of David's cap-
tains, as the spirit of courage; and the same spirit gave a pattern of
the Temple to David, according to which it was erected. (L Chron.
xviii. 21.) This spirit dwelt in all the prophets. (Neh. ix. 39.) David
prayed to be upheld by God's free Spirit. An excellent spirit was
found in Daniel, and God by Solomon promised to pour out his Spirit
upon all who turned to the Lord. "Turn, you sinners, at my reproof,
and I will pour out my Spirit upon you."

But the phrase "Spirit of the Lord" frequently occurs in the Old
Testament. It is found twenty-six times, and is always used synony-
mously with the Spirit of God. It, as well as the Spirit of God, some-
times signifies the iclnd. Isa. xl. 7, "The grass withereth, the flower
fadeth, because the spirit of the Lord bloweth upon it. Surely the
people is grass!" It came on the great warriors and judges of Israel —
on Othniel, on Gideon, on Jephthah, en Samson, on Saul, on David, on
Jehaziel, upon Isaiah, upon Ezekiel, and upon Micah, and upon all the
prophets. AH who had "the Spirit of the Lord," or "the Spirit of God,"
in this age of the world, were supernaturally endowed in some respect
or other.

"My Spirit " in the mouth of the Lord, occurs ten times in the Old
Testament He promises to pour out his Spirit upon all flesh — upon
all who returned to him — upon all the seed of Israel — upon the Messiah


—upon the prophets. This, of course, will be found in the same accep-
tation of the phrase "Spirit of God," "Spirit of the Lord," unless we
regard it prospectively in reference to other influences promised in