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l^arfaarlr CoUegr ILitirarg
JAMES RUSSELL LOWELL,
GInM of 18»8.
Received -J im w J 9, > S8j .
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FROM CHAUCER TO COWPER;
PREFACES, BIOGRAPHICAL AND CRITICAL,
BY DR. SAMUEL JOHNSON:
THE MOST APPROVED TRANSLATIONS.
BF ALEXANDER CHALMERS, RS.A.
IN TWENTY-ONE VOLUMES.
pope's homer's ILIAD AND ODYSSEY,
DBYDEN'S VIRGIL AND JUVENAL,
Pitt's virgjl's ^neid and vida's art op poetry,
PtlNTED POR J. JOHNSON; J. NICHOLS AND SON; R. BALDWIN; F. AND C. RIVINGTON ; W. OTRIDGE AND SON;
LEIGH AND SOTHEBY; R. FAULDER AND SON; G NICOL AND SON; T.PAYNE; Q. ROBINSON ; WILKIE AND
ROBINSON: C. DAVIE8; T. EGERTON ; SCATCHERD AND LETTERMAN , J. WALKER ; VERNOR, HOOD, AND SHARPE;
R. LEA; J. NUNN; LACKINOTON, ALLEN, AND CO.; J. STOCKDALE; CUTHELL AND MARTIN; CLARKE AND SONS;
J. WHITE AND CO.; LONGMAN, HCRST, REF^, ANt) ORME; CAUELL AND DA VIES ; J. BARKER; JOHN RICHARDSON;
J. M. RICHARDSON; J. CARPENTER ; B. CROSBY ; E. JEFFERY; J. MURRAY; W. MILLER ; J. AND A. ARCH ; BLACK.
PARRY. AND KIN8GBURY ; J. BOOKER; S. BaGSTER ; J. HARDING; J. MACKINLAY ; J. HATCHARD ; R. H. EVANS;
MATTHEWS AND LEIGH j J. MAWMAN ; J. BOOTH ; J. ASPRRNE ; P. AND W. WYNNE ; AND W. GRACE. DEIOHTON
AND SON AT CAMBRIDGE, AND WILSON AND SON AT YORK.
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I'M r 1'Q
C. WHim VOHAM, PrtetOT,
OotireU Stnet, LDftdoo.
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m TWKinT-FOUE BOOKS.
PKEFACE to the Iliad 3
Book I. The CoDtentkni of Achilles and
Book II« The Trial of the Army, and Cata-
logue of the Forces 19
IIL The Duel of Menelaus and Paris ... 27
IV. The Breach of the Truce, and the
first Battle 31
V. TheActsofDiomed 36
VL The l^pisodes of Glacus and Diomed,
and of Hector and Andromache... 45
VII. The single Combat of Hector and Ajax. 50
VIIL The second Battle, and the Distress
of the Greeks 54
IX. The Embassy to Achilles 60
X. The night Adventure of Diomed and
XL The third Battle, and the Acts of
XIL The Battle of the Grecian Wall 79
XIIL The fourth Battle continued, in
which Neptune assists the Greeks :
the Acts of Idomeneus 84
XIV. Juno deceives Jupiter by the Girdle
of Venus , 92
XV. The fifth Battle, at the Ships, and
the Acts of Ajax 97
XVL The sixth Battle : the Acts and Death
XVIL The seventh Battle^ for the Body of
Palroclns : the Acts of Menelaus. 1 1 1
XVIII. The Grief of Achilles, and new Ar-
mour made him by Vulcan 118
XIX. The Reconciliation of Achilles and
XX. The Battle of the Gods, and the Acts
of Achilles 127
XXI. The Battle in the River Scamander. 132
XXII. The Death of Hector 137
XXIV ::;:;: t5i
^ HOMER'S ODYSSEV.
IN TWIHTV-FOUR BOOKS.
A general View of the epic Poeta, and of the
Iliad and Odyssey. Extracted from Bossu. 158
Book I. Minerva's Descent to Ithaca 167
11. The Council of Ithaca , 171
III. The Interview of Telemachus and
IV. The Conference with Menelaus 179
V. The Departure of Ulysses from Ca-
VII. The Court of Alcinous ..., 196
IX. The Adventures of the Cicons, Loto-
phagi, and Cyclops 204
X. Adventures with £olus, the Lestrigons,
and Circe 209
Xr. The Descent into Hell 214
XII. The Sirens, Scylla, and Chary bdis ... 220
XIII . The Arrival of Ulysses in Ithaca 224
XIV. The Conversation with Eumoeus 228
XV. The Return of Telemachus 233
XVI. The Discovery of Ulysses to Telema-
XVIII. The Fight of Ulysses and Irus 246
XIX. The Discovery of Ulysses to Eury-
XXI. The Bending of Ulysses's Bow 259
XXII. The Death of the Suitors 263
Conclosionof the Notes 275
On the Odyssey ib.
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Vencf to Drydcn 285
Dedication to the Pastorals 287
The 6rst Pastoral ; or, Titynis and Melibceus. 289
The second Pastoral ; or, Alexis 290
The third Pastoral ; or, Palemon 291
The fourth Pastoral 5 or. Poll io 293
The fifth Pastoral; or, Daphnis ib.
The sixth Pastoral ; or, Silenus 295
The 8eventh Pastoral ; or, Meliboeus 296
The eighth Pastoral; or, Pharmaceutria 297
The ninth Pastoral; or, Lycidas and Moeris .. 298
The tenth Pastoral; or. Gall us 299
Dedication to the Georgics 300
Dedication to the .Sneis 327
Book 1 358
Book V 388
Postscript to the .£oeis 460
Dedication to JuvensCl '. 462
The first Satire 497
The third Satire 499
The sixth Satire 503
The tenth Satire 510
The sixteenth Satire 514
TRANSLATIONS PROM PBRSIU8.
Prologue to the first Satire '. 515
The first Satire. In Dialogue betwixt the Poet
and his Friend or Monitor 516
The second Satire. Dedicated to his Friend
Plotius Macrinus, on his Birth-day 518
The third Satire 519
The fourth Satire 521
The fifth Satire. Inscribed to the Rev. Dr. Busby 523
The sixth Satire. To Caesius Bassus, a Lyric
Book L r. 531
Book IX. ; 595
^ XII 623
^DA's art op POITRV. IK THREE BOOKS.
II ... 638
life of Mr. Francis 655
Secular Poem C99
C. Whittiugham, Priuter, Goswcll Slrfet, London.
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TRANSLATED BY POPE.
VOL. XIJT. B
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PREFACE TO THE ILIAD.
HoMn 9 uni ye raa lly anowed to have had the greatest invention of any writer whatever. Tlic praise
of jw^nient Virgil has juftly contested with him, and others may have their pretentions as to parti«
cuhr excellencies ; but his invention remams yet unrivalled. Nor is it a ^wonder if he has ever b«ea
■dmowledged the greati^t of poets, who most excelled in that which is the very foundation of poetry
It ii the invention that in different degrees distinguishes all great geniuses : the utmost stretch o^
boman study, learning, and industry, which masters every thing besides, can never attain to thb.
H famishes art with all her materials, and without it, judgment itself can at best but steal «is«ly ;
for aft is only like a prudent steward that lives on mansiging the riches of nature. Whatever praisei
nay be given to works of judgment, there is not even a single beauty in them to which the invention
DOft not contribute : as in the most regnlar gardens, art can only reduce the beauties of nature to
BOre regularity, and snch a figure, which the comnton eye may better take in, and is therefore apce
Mteitained with. And perhaps the reason why common critics are inclined to prefer a judicioai and
nethodical genius to a great and fruitful one, is, becatise they find it easier for themselves to pur«
toe their observations through an uniform and bounded walk of art, than to comprehend the vast and
nxkm extent of nature.
Oor author's work is a wild paradise, where if we cannot see all the beauties so distinctly as in an
Mdeied garden, it is only because the number of them is infinitely greater. It is like a copious nur-
Miy, %hiiSh contains the seeds and first productions of every kind, out of which those who followed
Inm have but selected some particular plants, each according to his fancy, to cultivate and beautify.
If some things are too luxuriant, it is owing to the richness of the soil ; and if others are not arrived
to perfection or maturity, it is only because they are over-run and opprest by those of a stronger
It is to the strength of this amazing invention we arc to attribute that unequalled fire and rapti fc,
»Wdi is so forcible in Homer, that no man of a true poetical spirit is master of himself while he reads
IwD. What he writes, is of the most animating nature imapnable ; every thing moves, everything
lives, and is put in action. If a council be called, or a battle fought, you are not coldly informed of
what was said or done as from a third person ; the reader is hurried out of himself by the force of the'
poet's imagination, and turns in one place to a hearer, in another to a spectator. The course of his
^nes rtsemblea that of the army he describes.
0< i"* «f* Jlraf, ifti CI 9rufi ;^fiitf «'«#'« i>ift*iT».
They pour along like a fire that sweeps the whole earth before i^
It is however remarkable that his fancy, which is every where \ igorous, is not discovered immediately
at the hegmning of his poem in its fullest splendour : it grows in the progress both upon himself and
ctben, and becomes on fire, like a chariot-wheel, by its own rapidity. Exact disposition, just thought,
cnrrect elocution, polished numbers, may have been found in a thousand ; but this poetical fire, this
Tivida vis animi, in a vciy few. Even in works where all those are imperfect or neglected, this can
o\crpo»cr criticism, and make us admire even while we disapprove. Kay, where this appears, though
attended with absurdities, it brightens all the rubbish about it, till ne see nothing but its own splendour.
This fire is discerned in Vinrfl, but discerned as through a jrla^s, reflected from Homer, more shining
titan fierce, but every where equal and constant : in Luenn and Statins, it bursts out. in sudden, short,
»oil Interrupted flashes : in Milton it glows like a furnace kept up to an uncommon ardour by the force
of art; in Shakespeare it strikes before we are aware, like an accidental fire from heaven : but in Homer,
**^ in him only, it bums every wh<*rc clearly, and every where irresistibly.
I shall here endeavour to show, how this vast invention exerts itself in a manner superior to that of
a-'Vpo.-t, through all the main constituent parts of his work, as it is the great and peculiar charat ter'? tic
*alch distinguishes him froca all other authors.
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* PREFACE TO THE ILIAD.
This strong ^nd ruling Acuity wm like a powerful itar, which, in the violence of its course, drew
all things within its vortex. It seemed not enough to have taken in the whole circle of arts, and the
whole Compaq of nature, to supply hit maxims and reAections; all the im.ard passions and affections
of mankind, to furnish his characters ; and all the outward forms and images of things, for bis d<^rip>
tions i but, wanting yet an ampler sphere to expatiate in, he opened a new and bouiidleas walk for his
imagination, and created a world for hnnself in the inveritSop of fab^e. That which Aristotle calls
the "soul of poetry," was first breathed into it by Homer. I shall begin with considering him iq
this part, as it is naturally the firsts and I speak of it both as it means the design of a poem, and a«
It is taken for fiction.
Fable may be divided into the probable, the allegorical, and the marvellous. The probable
Fable is the recital of such actions as though they did not happen, yet might,, in the common course
of nature : oj of such as, though they did, become fables by the additional episodes and manner of
telling them. Of this sort is the main story of an epic poera, the return of Ulysses, the settlement
of the Trojans in Italy, or the like. That of the Iliad is the anger of Achilles, the most short and
singla subject that ever was chosen by any poet Yet this he has supplied with a vaster variety of
incidents and events, and crowded with a greater number of councils, speeches, battles, and episodes .
of all kinds, than arc to be found even in those poems whose schemes are of the utmost latitude and
irregularity. The action is hurried on with the most vehement spirit, and its whole duration employs
not |)o much as fifty da3rs. Virgil, for want of so warm a genius, aided hiinself by taking in a more
extensive subject, as well as a greater length of time, and contracting the desigii qf both Horner'^
poems into one, which is yet but a fourth part as large as his. The other epic poets have used the
same practice, but generally carried it so far as to superinduce a multiplicity of fables, destroy %\^e
unity of action, and lose their readers in an unreasonable length of time. Nor is it only in th^ main
design that they have been unable to add to his invention, but they have followed him in every episode
and part of story. If he has given a regular catalogue of an army, they all draw np their forces in^
the same order. If he has Mineral games for Patroclus, Virgil has the same fur Anchis^ ; and
Statins, (rather than omit them) destroys the unity of bis action for those of Archemoras. If Ulys-.
ses visits the shades, the .Sneas of Virgil, and Scipio of Silius, are sent after him. If he be di^ained.
from his return by the alluremeats of Calypso, so is .£nca8 by Dido, and Kinaldo by Armida. If
Achilles be absent from the army on the score of a quarrel through half the poem, Rinj^q must ab- .
sent himself just ns long on the like apcount If he gives his hero a suit of celestial armqur, V^irgit
and Tasso make the same, preset^ to theirs. Virgil has not only observed this close imitation of He
mer, but, where he had, not led the way, supplied the want from other Greek authors. Thosth^
story of Sinon, and the taking of Txvy ^'^» c^ip^ (says Mscrobius) aUnost word for word from Pi^
Sander,, as the loves of Dido and .£neas are taken from those of Medea and Jason in Apollonius, and
several others in the same manner.
To proceed to the allegorical fable i if we refiect upoi^ those innumerable knowledges, those secrets
of nature and phjrsical philosophy, which Hopier is generally supposed to have wrapped up in his
Allegories, what a new and ample scene of wonder may th|8 oopsidera^n afibrd us ! how fertile will
that imagination appear, whioh was able to clothe all the propeities of elemepts, the qualifications of
tAe ininll, the virtues and vices, in forms and persons ; and to intrpd«ce them into actions agreeable
to the nature of the things they shadowed ! This is a field ip which no succeeding poets could dispuU^
with Homer; and whate\er commendations have been allowed ^lem on thi^ head, are by no means for
their invention in having enlarged his circle, but for their judgment in haying contracted it For
when the mode of leaming changed in following ages, and scjence was delivered in a plainer manner ;
it then became as reasonable in the more modem poets to lay it aside, as it was in Homer to make;
use of i^ ^d perhaps it was QO unhappy circumstance for Virgil, that there was not in his time
that demaf^ upon ^im of so great an inyentlon, as might be c^pabfe pf fup^shing all those allegorical
parts of a ]pQi^'
The marvellous ^ble includds whatever is supernatural, and espeqally the ^lachines of the gods,
, He seems the 4rst who brought t|iem into a sjmtem of machinery for poetry, and such a one a%
makes its greatest iinjportance and dignity. For we find those autl^ors who have been ofiended at the
literal notion of the gQ^s* constantly laying their accusation against Homer as the chief support of it*
But whatever cause tbe||;e i^iigbt be to b^ipe his machines in a philosophical or religious view, they
4ru so perfect in the poctio, (ickat mankind have been ever since contented to follow them : none have
be* A able to enlarge the sphere of |>oetr^ beyond the limits he has set : every attempt of this natur^
has proved unsucce^ful ; and after all the various changes of times and religions, his gods continue to
Ihi* day the gods of poetry. • . ^ ^
\Vc come now to the characters of his persons ; ^nd here wc shall find no author has ever drawn. a^
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PREFACE TO tHE ILIAD. ; 5
may, vith to yinb\6 and loprising a variety, or given ut sach lively and afKiCtiiq^ iaprenioiis of
tka. Every one baa something so singularly his own, that no pamter could have distinguished them
Bxiie by tl)eir features^ than the poet has by their manners. Nothing can be more exact than the
diiiiBCtiQos be has observed in the dU&rent degrees of virtues and vices. The smgle quality of courage
b vooderfully diveni6ed in the several characters of the Iliad. That of Achilles is furious and in«
tmetibk; that of Diomede forward^ yet listening to advice, and sutgect to command ; that of Ajax
» heavy, and teif-oonfiding : of Hector, active and vigilant ; the courage of Agamemnon is inspirited
by love of empire and ambition ; that of Menelaus mixed vith softness and t«ndenie>Y for his people :
ve find io Idomeneus a plain direct soldier, in Sarpedon a gallant and generous one. Nor is this
jikfidoos and astonishing diversity to be found only in the principal quality which constitutes the main
of each character, but even in the under parts of it, to which he takes care to give a tincture of that
principal one. For example, the main characters of Ulysses and Nestor consist in wisdom : and they
tre distinct in this, that the wisdom of one is artificial and various, of the other natural, open and
rt^lar. Bat they have, besides, characters of courage ; and this quality also takes a different turn
io each from the difference of his prudence ; for one in the war depends still upon caution, the other
upoQ experience. It would be endless to produce instances of these kinds. The characters of Vir«
pi are far from strik^ ™ ^^ ^^ <^P^>^ manner ; they lie in a great degree hidden and undistinguished,
and where they are marked most evidently, affect us not in proportion to those of Homer. Hit
characten of valomr are much alike ; even that of Tumus seems no way peculiar but as it is in a superior
degree ; and we see nothing that differences the courage of Mnestheus from that of Sergesthus, Cloan-
thus, or the rest. In like manner it may be reouirked of Statius's heroes, that an air of impetuosity runs
tkroogh them all : the same horrid and savage courage appears in his Capanens, Tydeus, Hippomedon,
kc. They have a parity of character, which makes them seen brothers of one frimily < I believe when
the reader is led into this track of reflection, if he will pursue it through the epic and tragic writers,'
lie vill be convinced how infinitely superiour in this point the invention of Homer was to that of all
The speeches are to be considered as they flow from the characters, being perfect or defective as
they agree or disagree with the manners of those who utter them. As theie is mure variety of cba-
nctns in the Iliad, so there is of speeches, than in any other poem. Every thing in it has manners
(fts Aristotle expresses it) that is, every thing is acted or spoken. It is hardly credible in a work of
iuch length, bow small a number of lines are employed in narration. In Virgil the dramatic part is
\m m proportion to the narrative ; and the speeches often consist of general reflections or thoughts,
vhicb might be equally just in any person^s mouth upon the same occasion. As many of his persons
have no apparent characters, so many of his speeches escape being applied and judged by the rule
of p ropr i ety. We oftncr think of the author himself when we read Virgil, than when we are engaged
ia Homer : all which are the effects of a colder invention, that interests us less in the action described :
Homer makes us hearers, and Virgil leaves us readers.
If in the next place we take a view of the sentiments, the same presiding faculty ia eminent in the
nbtimity and spirit of his thoughts. Longinus has given his opinion, that it was in this part Homer
prioeipaUy excelled. What were alone sufiicient to prove the grandeur and excellence of his scuti-
aenti in general, is, that tbcy have so remarkable a parity with those of the scripture ; Du^ort, in
kisGnonologia Homerica, has collected iimumerable instances of this sort And it is with justice an
excellent modem writer allows, that if Virgil has not so many thoughts that arc low and vulgar, he
has sot so many that are sublime and noble ; and that the Roman author seldom rises into very a<;to-
Bishiaf sentiments, where he is not ilrcd by the Iliad.
if we observe his descriptions, images, and similes, we shall fmd the invention still predominant.
To vhat else can we ascribe that vast comprehension of images of every sort, where we see each cir-
cvostanoe of art, and individual of nature summoned together by the exteut and fecundity of hif
iaugination ; to which all things in their various views presented themselves in an instant, and had
ti^ impressions taken off to perfection at a heat ? Nay, he not only qives us the full prospects of
tioBfi, bot several unexpected peculiarities and side views, unobserved by any painter but Homer.
Nothing is so surprising as the descriptions of his battles, which take up no less than half the Iliad,
ad are snppUed with so vast a variety of incidents, that no one bears a likeness to another; such
^SAerent kinds of deaths, that no two heroes arc wounded in the same manner ; and such a profusion
<f ■•bte ideas, that every battle rises above the last in greatness, horrour, and confusion. It is cer-