And crowdi) of heroes in their anger dy'd.
The sire of Earth and Heaven, by Thetis won
To crown with glory Peleus' giod-Iike son,
Will'd not destruction to the Grecian powers,
But spar'd a while the destio'd Trojan towers:
While Nuptune, risine from his azure main,
Warr'd on the king of Heaven with stem disdain.
And breath'd revenge, and fir'd the Grecian train.
Gods of one source, of one ethereal race.
Alike divine, and Heaven their native place ;
But Jove the greater; first-bom of the skies.
And more than men, or gods, supremely wise.
For this, of Jove's superior might afraid,
Neptune in human form concealed his aid.
These powers infold the Greek and Trojan train
In war and discord's adamantine chain,
Indissolubly strong ; the fatal tyc
Is stretch'd on both, and, close-compell'd, they die.
Dreadful in arms, and grown in combats gray.
The bold Idonieneus controls the day.
First by his hand Othryoneus was slain,
Sweird with false hopes, with road ambition vain !
Call'd by the voice of war to martial fame.
From high Cabcsus' distant walls he came ;
Cassandra*s love he sought, with boasts of power.
And promised conquest was the proff'er'd dower.
The king consented, by his vaunts abus'd ;
The king consented, but the fates refus'd.
Proud of himself, and of th' imagined bride.
The field he measur'd with a larger stride.
Him, as he stalk'd, the Cretan javelin fouud;
Vain was his broast-plate <o repel the wound:
His dream of glory lost, he plung'd to Hell:
His arms resounded as the boaster fell.
The great Idomencus bestrides the dead ;
" And thus," he cries, " behold thy promise sped !
Such is the help thy arms to Ilion bring.
And such the contract of the Phrygian king !
Our offers now, illustrious prince ! receive ;
For such an aid what will not Argos give?
To conquer Troy, with ours thy forces join.
And count Atrides' fairest daughter thine.
Meantime, on farther m» thods to advise,
Cume, follow to the fleet thy new allies :
There hear what Greece has on her part to say,'*
He spoke, and dragg'd the gory corse away.
This Asius view'd, unable to contain,
Before his chariot warring on the plain ;
(His crowded coursers, to his squire consign'd.
Impatient panted on his neck behind)
To venireance rising with a sudden spring.
He hop'd the conquest of the Cretan king.
The wary Cretan, as his foe drew near,
Full on his throat discharged the forceful spears
Beneath the chin the point was seen to glide.
And glittor'd, extant at the farther side.
As when the mountain-oak, or poplar tall,
Or pine, fit mast for some great admiral,
(»roans to the aft-heav'd ax, with many a wound,
Then spreads a length of ruin o'er the ground:
So sunk proud Asius in that dreadful day,
And stretch'd before his Inuch-lov'd co'jrscrr Uy»
Digitized by VjOOQIC
Ha grinds the dost distam'd with streaming gore,
And, fierce in death, lies foaming on the shore.
DeprirM of motion, 6tilf with stupid fear.
Stands all aghast his tremhliog charioteer,
Nor shuns the foe, nor turns the steeds away,
But falls transfixed, an unresisting prey :
Pierc'd by Antilochus, he pants beneath
The stately car, and labours out his breath,
Thns Asius* steeds (their mighty master gone)
Remain the prize of Nestor's youthful son.
Subb*d at the sight, De'iphobus drew nigh,
And made, with force, the vengeful weapon fly.
The Cretan saw ; ^nd, stocking, causM to glance
From his slope shield, the disappointed lance.
Beneath the spacious targe (a blazing round.
Thick with bull-hides and brazen orbiu bound.
On his rais'd arm by two strong braces stay'd)
He lay collected in defensive shade ;
O'er his safe head the javelin idly sung,
And on the tinkling verge more faintly rung.
Ev'n then, the spear the vigorous arm confest.
And pierc'd, obliquely, king Hypsenor'i breast :
Warm'd in his liver, to the ground it bore
The chief, his people'^ guardian now no naore !
" Not unattended," (the proud Trojan cries)
*' Nor unreveng'd, lamented Asius lies:
For thee though Hell's black portals stand displayed.
This mate shall joy thy melancholy shade."
Heart-piercing anguish, at the haughty boast.
Touched every Greek, but Nestor's son the most,
Griev'd as he was, his pious arms attend,
And hb broad buckler shields his slaughtered friend:
Till sad Mecistheus.and Alastor bore
His honoured body to the tented shore.
Nor yet from fight Idomeneus withdraws ;
Resolv'd to perisb in his country's cause,
Or find some foe, whom Heaven and he shall doom
To wail his fate in death's eternal gloom.
Hie sees Alcathoiis in the front aspire :
Great -fisyetes was the hero's sire :
His spouse Hippodam^, divinely fair,
Anchisese eldest hope, and darling care ;
Who charm'd her parent's and her husband's heart.
With beauty, sense, and every work of art :
He once, of Ilion's youth, the loveliest boy.
The fairest she, of all the &ir of Troy.
By Neptune now the hapless hero dies,
Who covers with a cloud those beauteous eyes.
And fetters every limb : yet, bent to meet
His fate, he stands; nor shuns the lance of Crete,
Fixt as some column, or deep-rooted oak,
(While the winds sleep) his breast receiv'd the stroke*-
Before the ponderous stroke his corselet yields.
Long osM to -ward the death in Gghting fields.
The riven armour sends a jarring soun^ :
His labouring heart heaves with so strong a boimd.
The long lance shakes, and vibrates in the
Fast-flowing from its source, as prone he lay,
life's purple tide impetuous gushVl away.
Then Idomen, insulting o'er the slain ; J
*' Behold, Dciphobus ! nor vaunt in vain :
See ! on one Greek three Trojan ghosts attend.
This, my third victim, to the shades I send.
Approaching now, thy boasted might approve.
And try the prowess of the seed of Jove. ^
From Jove,' enamourM on a mortal dame.
Great Minos, guardian of his country, came :
I>>ucnlion, blameless prince ! was Minos' heir j ,
His ^t-bom k ^^ third fxwa Jupiter :
0>r spacious Crete and faec bold sons I retga.
And thence my ships transport me throngh tbo
Lord of a host, o*er all my host I shine,
A scourore to thee, thy father, and thy line.**
The Trojan heard ; uncertain, or to meet
Alone, with venturous arms, the king of Crete;
Or seek auxiliar force ; at length decreed
To call some hero to partake the deed.
Forthwith ,£neas rises to his thought:
For him, in Troy's remotest lines, he sought ;
Where he, incens'd at partial Priam, stands^ '
And sees superior posts in meaner hands.
_ To him, ambitious of so great an aid,
The bold De'iphobus approached, and said:
** Now, Trojan prince, employ thy pious anBf,
If e'er thy bosom felt fair honour's charms.
Alcathoiis dies» thy brother and thy friend !
Come, and the warrior's lov!d remains defend.
Beneath his cares thy early youth was traio'd.
One table fed you, and one roof cootain'd.
This deed to fierce Idomeneus we owe ;
Haste, and revenge it on th' insulting foe."
^jfieas heard, and for a space resign'd ,
To tender pity all his manly mind ;
Then, rising in his rage, he bums to ight ;
The Greek awaits him, with collected mij^ht.
As the fell boar on some rough mountain's head,
Arm'd with wild terrours, and to sUughter bred.
When the loud rustics rise, and shout from fiu*.
Attends the tumult, and expects the war ;
O'er his bent back the bristly honours rise,
Fires stream in lightning from his sanguine eye»;
His foaming tusks both dogs and men engage.
But most his hunters rouse his mighty rage:
So stood Idomeneus, his javelin shook.
And met the Trojan with a lowering look.
Antilochus, IKxipynis, were near.
The youthfVil ofl^pring of the god of war,
Merion, and Apbareus, in field renown'd :
To these the warrior sent his voice around :
** Fellows in arms ! your timely aid unite »
Lo, great JEneas rushes to the firht :
Sprung from a god, and more than mortal bold ;
He fresh in youth, and I in arms grown old.
Else should this band, this hour, decide the
The great dispute, of glory, or of life."
He spoke; and all as with one soul obey'd ;
Their lifted bucklers (Mat a dreadful shade
Around tiie chief. .£neas tou demands
Th' assbting forces of his native lands t
Paris, DeTphobus, Agenorjoin;
(Co-aids and captains of the Trajan line)
In order follow all th' embodied train";
Tike Ida's flocks proceeding o'er the plain ;
Before his fleecy care, erect and boh).
Sulks the proud ram, the father of the fold :
'N^lth joy the swain surveys them, as he leads
To the cool fountains, through the well-koown
So joys JEaeas, as his native band
Moves on in rank, and str«ftches o'er the land.
Round dead Alcathoiis now the battle roee j
On every side the steely circle grows ;
Now batter'd breast-plates and hack'd helmeti
And o'er their heads unheeded javelins srag.
Above the rest two towering chiefs appear,
There great Idomeneus, iEnea« here,
Digitized by VjOOQlC
HOMER'S ILIAD. BOOK jniL
L'kegodsof w, dHpensing fate, they stood,
Andiam*dto drench the ground with matual
The Trojan veapon vhizz*d along in air,
Tbc Cretan saw, aad sbuim*d the brazen spear :
Stnt from an arm so strong, the missive wood
Stuck deep in eaHh, and quiver'd where it stood.
Bat (Fjiomm teceiv'd the Cretan?s stroke.
The forceful ipear his hoUow corselet broke,
It rippM his beUy with a ghastly woopd.
And loll'd the smoking entrails to the ground.
Stretch'd on the plain, he sobs away his breath,
AaA forioos grasps the bloody dost in death.
The victor from his breast the weapon tears ;
(His spoils he could not, for the shower of spears.)
Tboo^ now nnfit an active war to wage,
Heavy with cnmhrous arms, stiff with cold age,
His listless limbs unable for tlie course ;
la standiog fight be yet maintains his force :
Till, faint with labour, and by foes^ repeU'd*
His tirM slow steps he drags from off the field.
Deipbobus beheld him as he past,
And, firM with hate, a parting javelin cast :
The javelin err'd, but held its course along.
And pierc'd Ascalaphus^ the brave and young :
Tlie soo of Mars fell gasping on the ground.
And gnashed the dust all bloody with his wound.
Nor knew the furious fiither of bis fall ;
High-throoM amidst the great Olympian hall,
On i^lden elouds tb* immortal synod sate ;
iVtain'd friMn bloody war by Jore and fate.
Nov, where in dvist the breathless hero lay.
For slain Aycalaphiis commenced the fray.
Deiphobus to seize his helmet flies,
Aod from his temples naids the glittering prize ;
Valiant as Mars, Meriones drew near.
And on his loaded arm discbargM his spear :
He diTjps the weight, disabled with the pain ;
Tbe hoUow helmet rings against the plain.
S»ift as a vulture leaping on his prey,
FroBi his torn arm the Grecian rent away
The peeking javelin, and r€Join'd his fritods.
His wounded brother good Polites tends ;
AiMnd his waist the pious arms he, threw,
Aod from the rage of combat gently drew :
Hin his swift coursers, on his splendid car,
lUpt from the lessening thunder of the war ;
To Troy they drove him, laroaning from the shore,
Ao<l sprinkling, as he pass'd, the sands with gore.
Meanwhile fresh slaughter bathes the sanguine
Heaps hl\ on heaps, and Htaven and Earth re-
Bold Aphareus by great iF.neas bled ; [sound.
As tow'rd the chief he tum'd his darinij head,
Hf piercM his throat ; the bending head, dcprcst
^eath his helmet, nods upon his breast ;
Hjs shield reversed o'er the fall'n warrior lies j
AtA nrerlasting slumber seals his eyes.
Antiloehos, as Thoou tum'd him round,
Transpierc'd hb back with a dishonest wound :
The hollow vein that to the neck extends
Along the chine, his eager javelin rends :
Sopine he falls, and to his social train
Spreads his imploring arms, but spreads in vain.
Th' exultmg victor, leaping where he lay,
From his hroad shoulders tore the spoils away ;
Ha time observ'd ; for, clos'd by foes around,
On all sides thick, the peals of arms resound.
His shieU, emboss'd, the ringing storm sustains,
M he impervious aod untouch'd r«^umins.
(Great Neptune's care preserv*d flrom hMtilejagc
This youth, the joy of Nestor's glorious age)
In arms mtrepid, with tbe first he fbnght,
Fac'd every fb^, and every danger sought ;
His winged lance, resistless as the wind.
Obeys each motion of the master's mind.
Restless it 6ies, impatient to be free,
And meditates the distant enemy.
The son of Asius, Adamas, drew near.
And struck his target with the brazen spear,
Fierce in his front ; but Neptune wards the bloir, '
And blunts the javelin of th^ eluded foe.
In the broad buckler half the weapon stood ;
Splinter'd on earth flew half the broken wood.
Disarmed, he mingled in the Trojan crew ;
But Merion's spear o'erfook him at he Hew,
Deep in tbe belly's rim an entrance found,
Where sharp the pang, and morUl is the wound.
Bending, he fell, and doubled to the grouiidy
Lay panting. Thus an ox, in fetters ty'd, '
While death's strong pangs distend his ^abonrinf
His bulk enormous on tbe field displays ; [side.
His heaving heart beats thick, as ebbing life decays*
The spear, the conqueror from his body drew.
And death's dim shadows swam before his view.
Next brave Deipyrus ha dust was laid :
King Helenus wav'd high the Thracian blade^
And smote his temples, with an arm so strong,
The helm fell off, and roll'd amid the throng :
There, for some luckier Greek it rests a prize ;
For dark in death the godlike owner lies !
Kaging with grief, great Menelaiis burns,
And, fraught with vengeance, to the victor turns: .
That shook the ponderous lance, in act to throw j
And this stood adverse with the bended bow i
Full on his breast the Trf»jan arrow fell.
But liannless bounded from the plated steel.
As on some ample barn's well-harden'd floor,
(The winds collected at each open door)
A\'hile the broad fan with force is whirl'd around,
Litjht leaps tlie golden grain, resulting froip the
So from the steel that guards Atrides' heart,
Repeird to distance flies the bounding dart.
Atrides, watchful of th' unwary fot^
Pierc'd with his lance the hand that gra'sp'd the bow.
And nail'fl it to the yew : the wounded hand
Trail'd the long lance that mark'd with blood thd
But !^oo<l Agenor gently from the wound [sand.
The spear scilicifs, and the bandage boimd ;
A sling's soft wool, snatch'd from a soldier's side.
At once the tent and li-atiire supply'd.
TU'hold ! Pisander, ur-j'd by talk's decree,
Sprinirs throu-^h the ranks to fjll, and fall by'thcCj
(ireut Menelaiis to enhance thy fame ;
Hii:h-towerinc: in the front, the warri t came.
Fii-st the sharo lanee wa<« by Atrid.s ♦hrown ;
The lnnr(! far distant by th>" winds mjs b]oun,
Xor pien'd l^ismder throui^h Atride>' shield;
Pi^ar.dcr's sj>rar fell shiver'd on thf \\t Id.
Not so di><ourap'd, to the future blind,
V.'iin dreams c»rc(^nqursts.vrll l-is haii^rhty mir.d;
D.juiitlt'ss he ru««hf s whrrr tlie SJpart;in lord
I.ikr liirhtTiiii.: brintish'd his far b' a-mng i.word.
Hi< lett arm hi'^h o;^pos'd tir- sliin-nfr shif M :
f!i • riirbt, hum atli, th*^ -'o;^ rd pole .i\ luld
-An olive's riouvly urain th<' handle irnde,
Di'^tiiict with ««tiirlv ; and brj/on w i> tbe blade} i
This on the holm di'^rhaiirVl a r,<^ble blow :
The plume diopt noddmg to th( plain below,
Digitized by VjOOQIC
Shorn from the eolt Atrides vav'd his steel :
Beep through hit front the weighty ftilchion fell ;
The crashing bones before its force gave way ;
In dust and blood the groaning hero lay ;
Forc'd firom their ghastly orbs, and spouting gore.
The clotted eye-balls tumble on tfie shore.
, The fierce Atrides spum*d him as he bled.
Tore off his arms, and, loud-exultiug, said :
" Thus, Trojans, thus, at length be tanght to
O race perfidious, who delight in war ! [fear;
Already noble deeds ye hare performed,
A princess rapt transcends a navy storm'd :
In such bold seats your impious might approre,
Without th' assistance, or the fear, of Jove.
The violated rites, the ravished dame.
Our heroes slaughtered, and our ships on flame.
Crimes heapM on crimes shall bend your glory down,
An4^ whelm in ruins yon flngitious town.
O thou, great Father ! Lord of earth «id skies.
Above the thought of man ! supremely wise !
If from thy hand the fates of mortals fiow,
Fiom whence this &vonr to an impious fbe,
A godless erew, ahandonM and unjust.
Still breathing rapine, violence, and Inst }
The best of things, beyond their measnre, cloy ^
Sleep's balmy blessing, love*s* endearing joy ;
The feast, the dance ; whatever mankind deshre,
Ev'n the sweet charms of sacred numbers tire.
But Troy for ever reaps a dire delight
In thirst of slaughter, and in lust of fight"
This said, he seized (while yet the carcass heaT^d)
The bloody armour, which his train received :
Then sudden mix*d among the warring crew,
And the bold son of Pylasmenes flew :
Harpolion had through Asia travel^ far,
Following his martiaJ fether to the war ;
Through filial love he left his native shore,
Vever, ah never, to behold it more !
Bis unsuccessful spear he chanc*d to fling
Agmhist the target of the Spartan king ;
Thus of his lance disarm'd, from death he fljes.
And tumy around his apprehensive eyes.
Him, through the hip transpierchng as he fled.
The shaft of Merion mingled with the dead.
Beneath the bone the glancing point descends.
And, driving down, the swelling bladder rends:
Sunk in his sad companien*8 arms he lay,
And in short pantings sobbM his soul away ;
(Like some vile worm extended on the ground)
While lifers red torrent gush'd from out the wound.
Him on his car the Paphlagonian train
In ^low procession bore from off the plain.
The pensive father, fttther now no morel
Attends the moumjful pomp along the shore |
Ahd unavailing tears profusely shed ; ^
And, unrcveng'd, deplor'd his offspring dead.
Paris from far the moving sight beheld.
With pity softenM, and with fury swellM ;
His honoured host, a youth of matchless grace,
And I6v'd of all the Paphlagonian race j
With his full strength he bent his angry bow.
And winged the feathered vengeance at the fbe.
A chief there was, the brave Ruchenor nam*d,
For riches much, and more for vhrtuc fam*d.
Who held bis seat in Corinth's stately town;
JMydus' son, a seer of old renown.
Oft had the father told his eariy doom.
By arms abroad, or slow disease at home:
He climb'd his vessel, prodigal of breath,
Aad chose the certain^ glorious ptth to death.
Beneath his ear thepototed arrowenti
The soul came issuing, at the narrow vent ;
His limbs, unnerv'd, drop useless on the groimdy
And everlasdng darkness shades him round.
Nor knew great Hector how his legions yield
(Wrapt in the cloud and tumult of the field ;)
Wide on the left the force of Greece commoidf^
Knd conquest hovers o'er th' Achaian bands t
With such a tide superior virtue swa]r*d^
And he * that shakes the solid Earth, gave aid.
But in the center Hector fix'd remain'd ;
Where first the gates were fbrc'd and bal#ariEi
There, on the margin of the hoary deep, [gain'd|
(Their naval station where th' Ajaces keep.
And where low walls confine the beating tides.
Whose humble barrier scarce the foe drrides ;
Where late m fight, both foot and horse enf^d,
And all the thunder of the battle rag'd)
There join'd the whole Bosotian strength remaiai^
The proud lonians w'lth their sweeping trains,
Locriansand Phthians, andth^^piDan force j
But, join'd, repel not Hector's fieir course,
llie fiower of Athens, Stichius, Phidas led.
Bias and great Menestheus at their head.
Megea the strong th' Epeian bands control'd.
And Dracius prwlent, and Amphlon bold ;
The Phthians Medon, fiun'd for martial mi|^
And brave Podarces, active in the fight.
This drew from Phylacus his noble line:
Iphiclus's son ; and that (Olleus) thine :
(Young Ajax' brother, by a stol*n embrace;
He dwelt far distant from his native place.
By his fierce stepdame from his fisther'aoeigB
Expell'd and exil'd for her brother slain.)
These mlethe Phthians, and their arms empk>y
Mixt with Boeotians, on the shores of TYoy.
Now side by side, with like unwearsr'd care.
Each Ajax labour'd through the field of war :
So when two lordly bolls, witl) equal toil, fsoily
Force the bright ploughshare through the fallow
Join'd to one yoke, the stubborn earth they tear.
And trace large furrows with the sliinnig share;
O'er their huge limbs the foam descends in snow,
'And streams of sweat down their sour fordieadt^
A train of heroes followM through the field, [fioir.
Who bore by turns great Ajax' seven-fold shield;
Whene'er he breath'd, remissive of his might,
Thr'd with incessant slaughters of the fight.
No fbllowing troops his brave associate graoa :
In close engagement an unpractis'd race.
The Locrian squadrons nor the javelin widd.
Nor bear the helm, nor lift the moony shield;
But skill'd from far the flying shaft to wing,""
Or whiri the sounding pebble fVom the sling ;
Dextrous with these they aim a certain wound.
Or fell the distant warrior to the ground.
Thus in the van, the Telamonian train
Throng'd in bright arms, a presshig fight main-
Far in the rear the Locrian archers lie, [tain ;
Whose stones and arrows intercept the sky,
The mingled tempest on the foes they pour ;
Troy's scatteringorders open to the shower.
Now had the Greeks eierMl fame acquired.
And the gaird lUansto their walb retir'd;
But sage Polydames, discreetly brave,
Address'd great Hector, and this counsel gave :
*' Though great in all, thou seem*st averse tm.
Imfiartial audience to a fiuthfbl friend ; Cks4
Digitized by VjOOQIC
HOMER'S ILIAD. BOOK Xllt
To god$ am4 XQcp thy matchless worth is Ipiowo,
Av4 every art of glorious war^thy own ;
But in cool thought and counsel to excel,
How widely differs this from warring well ?
Contenit with what the hounteous goda have given,
On yxMider decks and yet o'erlooks the plains !"
The counsel plcas'd ; and Hector, with a bound,
Ijeap*d from his chariot on the trembling groand^
Swift as he leapM his clanging arms resound.
•* To guard this post," (he cried) " thy art employ.
And here detain the scattered youth of Troy ;
VThere yonder heroes faint, I bend my way.
And hasten back to end the doubtful day.''
This said ; the towering chief prepares to go.
Shakes his white plumes that to the breezes flow.
And seems a moving momitain topt with snow.
Throogh all his host, inspiring force, he flie^.
And J^ids anew the martial thunder rise.
To Panthus* $on, at Hectof's high command,
Haste the bold leadjers of the Trojan band :
Bat round the battlements, and rouqd the plain.
For many a chief bp looked, but Ipo^'d in vain ;
Delphobos, ijor Hejenus the seer,
Nor Asins' son, npr Asius' self appear.
For these were ^ierc'd with many a ghastly wound.
Some cold in death, <ome groaning on the ground ^
Some low in dust (a mournful object) lay ;
High on the wall some brcathM their souls away.
Far on the left, amid the throng he found
(Cheering the troops, and dealing deaths around)
Tbc gpracefol Paris ; whom, with fury movM,
6pprobrious, thus, th* impatient chief reprovM :
" Ill-fated Paris ! slave to woman-kind.
As smooth of face as fhiudulent of mind !
Where is Deiphobus, where Asius gone ?
The godlike father, and th' intrepid son ?
Th^ force of Heleqns, dispensing futti ;
And great Othryoneus, so feaj-'d of late ?
Black fate hangs o'er thee firom th' avenging
Imperial Troy from her foundations nods ; [gods,
Wbehn'd in thy country's ruins shalt thou fall.
And one devouring vengeance swallow all."
When Paris thus : " My brother and my friend.
Thy warm impatience makes thy tongue ollend.
In other battles I deserved thy blame.
Though then not deedless, nor unknown to fame :
But since yon rampart by thy arms lay low,
I scattered slaught'.-r from my fatal bow.
The chiefs you seek on yonder shore lie sUin ;
Of all those heroes, two alone remain ;
Deiphobus, and Helcnus the seer:
Each now disabled by a hostile spear.
Go then, successful, where thy soul inspires x
This heart and hand shall second all thy fir^ :
What with this arm I can, prepare to know,
Till death for death be paid, and blow for blow.
But, 'tis not ours, with forces not our own
To combat ; strength is of the gods alone."
These words the hero's angry mind assuage ;
Then fierce they mingle where the thickest ragti»
Around Polydamas, distain'd with blood,
Cebrion, Phalces, stem Orthaeus stood.
Palmus, with Polypsstes the divine,
And two bold brothers of Hippotion's line :
(Who reach'd fair Ilion, from Ascania far.
The former day; the next engag'd in war.)