vision cannot, with propriety, be made by any particular State :
a tract of territory ceded to the United States by the late treaty
with Great Britain, which is not within the original claims of
any of the States, the safety of which must depend on Conti
nental provisions; the navigation of the Mississippi, in which
all the States are more or less interested, and the security of
which ought to be provided for by their joint forces, as well
naval as land ; the fisheries, the rights respecting which, are in
no particular States, but in the Union at large, and therefore
call for the protection of the Union ; the general commerce of
the United States, the rights of which, founded upon the laws of
nations, and the treaties of the United States with foreign coun
tries, also claim the joint protection of the Confederacy, and
cannot, with propriety, be left to the care of State establishments.
A distinction, that, in time of war it is to be protected by the
Union, in time of peace by each State, would involve, besides
other inconveniences, this capital one : That the United States,
when a Federal navy should become necessary to assert the
Federal rights, would be obliged to begin to create, at the moment
they would have occasion to employ, a fleet.
Secondly. The fortifications to be established for the security
of the States, ought to be constructed with relation to each other,
on some general and well digested plan ; and the provisions for
their defence, should be made on the same principles. This is
equally important in the double view of safety and economy. If
this is not done under the direction of the United States, each
State following a disjointed and partial plan, it will be found,
that the posts will have no mutual dependence or support ; that
they will be improperly distributed, and more numerous than is
necessary, as well as less efficacious. Hence they will be more
256 HAMILTON'S WORKS. [&T. 26.
easily reduced ; and there will be a greater expense, both in the
construction and defence.
Thirdly. It happens that, from local circumstances, particular
States, if left to take care of their own defence, would be in pos
session of the chief part of the standing forces, and of the princi
pal fortified places of the Union ; a circumstance inconvenient on
various accounts. It tends to impose a heavy exclusive burthen
on them, in a matter, the benefit of which, will be immediately
shared by their neighbors, and, ultimately, by the Union in
general. It trusts the care of the safety of the whole to a part,
which will naturally be unwilling, as well as unable, to make
such effectual provisions, at its particular expense, as the com
mon welfare requires. A single State, from its local situation,
will, in a great degree, keep the keys of the United States. A
considerable force, in the hands of a few States, may have an un
friendly aspect on the mutual confidence and harmony which
ought carefully to be maintained between the whole.
Fourthly. It is probable, that a Continental provision of the
forces which will be necessary to be kept up, will be made upon
a more systematic and economical plan, than a provision by the
States separately ; especially, as it will be of great importance
that, as soon as the situation of affairs will permit, public manu
factories of arms, powder, etc., should be established ; and a part
of the troops, employed in this way, will furnish those necessary
articles to the United States, and defray a considerable part of
the expense of supporting themselves.
Fifthly. There must be a corps of Artillery and Engineers,
which being a scientific corps, and requiring institutions for the
instruction and formation of the officers, cannot exist upon sepa
rate establishments without enormous expense.
The Committee, upon these principles, submit the following
The Military Peace Establishment of the United States to consist
of four regiments of Infantry, one regiment of Dragoons, one regiment
of Artillery incorporated in a corps of Engineers, with the denomina
tion of the Corps of Engineers.
^ET.26.] PEACE ESTABLISHMENT. 257
Each regiment of Infantry to consist, when complete, of two bat
talions ; each battalion of four companies ; and each company of one
hundred and twenty-eight rank and file ; with the following commis
sioned and non-commissioned officers :
One Colonel ; two Majors, one to each battalion ; eight Captains, one
to each company ; nineteen Lieutenants, two to each company ; or
twenty-one Lieutenants, eleven first, and ten second, Lieutenants, in
cluding one Paymaster, one Quarter-Master, one Adjutant, and two
Ensigns, one Ensign to each battalion ; Chaplain ; Surgeon, and Mate ;
two Sergeant-Majors, one to each battalion ; two Quarter-Master-Ser
geants, one to each battalion ; two Drum-and-Fife-Majors, one to each
battalion ; sixteen drums and fifes, two to each company ; thirty-two
Sergeants, four to each company ; one hundred and twenty-eight Corpo
rals, included in the rank and file ; that is, sixteen Corporals, and one
hundred and twelve private men to a company.
The regiment of Dragoons to consist, when complete, of two cohorts ;
each cohort of two squadrons, each squadron of two troops, and each
troop of thirty-two dragoons, rank and file, with the following commis
sioned and non-commissioned officers :
One Colonel ; two Majors ; eight Captains ; nineteen Lieutenants ;
including Paymaster, Quarter-Master, and Adjutant ; Chaplain ; one
Surgeon and one Mate ; two Sergeant-Majors ; two Quarter-Master-
Sergeants ; two Trumpet-Majors ; eight Trumpeters ; eight Farriers ;
sixteen Saddlers ; two Riding-Masters ; thirty-two Sergeants ; sixty-
four Corporals, included in the rank and file ; that is, to each troop,
eight Corporals and twenty-four private dragoons.
The corps of Engineers to be composed as follows :
One Major or Brigadier-General commandant ; one Colonel; two
Lieutenant-Colonels : two Majors ; twenty Captains ; forty-five Lieu
tenants (including Paymaster, Quarter-Master, and Adjutant), twenty
first, and twenty-three second, Lieutenants ; Chaplain, Surgeon, and
two Mates ; one Professor .of Mathematics ; one Professor of Chemis
try ; Professor of Natural Philosophy ; Professor of Civil Architecture ;
two Sergeant-Majors ; two. Quarter-Master-Sergeants ; two Drum-and-
Fife-Majors ; twenty drums and fifes ; forty Sergeants ; thirty-two Bom
bardiers ; eight Corporals of Sappers and Miners ; three hundred and
eighty-four matrosses ; ninety-six Sappers and Miners ; one hundred
and eighty-eight artificers of different kinds, to be distributed in the
following manner :
Two battalions of Artillery, each consisting of four companies, com
manded by a field officer ; each company consisting of one Captain, four
Lieutenants, four Sergeants, four Bombardiers, and forty-eight ma
Two companies of sappers and miners ; each company consisting
of one Cap tain., four Lieutenants, four Sergeants, and forty-eight sap
pers and miners. .
258 HAMILTON'S WORKS. [JErr. 26.
A corps of Artificers, commanded by one Captain of the corps, and
Artificers of the First Class.
Pay per month.
One Master-Founder in Brass, . '*.. ["''" $60
One Master-Founder in Iron, . 'i'"' v ' '*'," " 60
One Master Armorer, . , ^ ' ., 50
One Master-Cutler, ' . . ' . ^ 50
One Master-Blacksmith, . . '.' . 50
One Master-Carpenter, . . . V* . 50
One Master-Wheelwright, .... 50
One Master-Mason, ..... 50
One Master-Saddler, .... 50
One Master-Manufacturer of Cartridge-boxes, Scabbards, &c. 50
One Master-Engraver, *'^'/ * J .< '*** 60
Of the Second Class.
Four Founders in Brass and Iron ; four Armorers ; two Cutlers ;
two Blacksmiths ; two Carpenters ; two Wheelwrights ; two Masons ;
two Saddlers ; two Manufacturers of Cartridge-boxes, &c.
Of the Third Class.
Four Founders in Brass and Iron ; twenty Armorers : twelve Cut
lers ; [Powder-makers ?] thirty Blacksmiths ; thirty Carpenters ; twen
ty Wheelwrights ; twelve Masons ; six Saddlers ; six Manufacturers of
Cartridge-boxes, &c. ; two Turners ; two Tinmen ; two Brickmakers ;
two Potters ; one Glazier ; two Cabinet-makers ; one Locksmith ; one
Spur-maker ; one Tanner ; one Currier.
That the pay of a regiment of Infantry shall be as follows :
To a Colonel, . . . ., " . $100
Major, ...... 65
Captain,. ...... 50
Lieutenant, ..... 25
Ensign, ... ^'* 20
Paymaster, besides his pay as Lieutenant, . 15
Quartermaster, do. do. . .15
Adjutant, do. do. . 15
Chaplain, . v : -; V. '- T . .. 50
Surgeon, . .... . . 50
Sergeant-Major and Quartermaster-Sergeant, each,
Drum-and-fife-Major, . . 8
Drum and fife, . . ; -,
Sergeant, . . i . . > - 5
Private, ...... 2
.ET.26.] PEACE ESTABLISHMENT. 269
The pay of a regiment of Dragoons, as follows :
Field Officers as Infantry.
Captain, ( being obliged to find their own ) $60
Lieutenant, ( horses, $ 35
Quartermaster, Paymaster, Adjutant, as Infantry, 40
Second Lieutenants, 30
Chaplain, Surgeon, and Mates, as in the Infantry.
Sergeant-Majors, Quartermaster-Sergeants, do.
Trumpet-Major, . . . . .8
Trumpeter, ..... 2
Farrier, ....... 8
Saddler, ...... 8
Riding-Master, . . . . .10
Sergeants, Corporals, and private Dragoons,
as in the Infantry.
The pay of the corps of Artillery and Engineers, to be as follows :
Commandant according to his rank.
To a Colonel, . . . . $110
Lieutenant-Colonel, . . . . .80
Major, ...... 70
Captain, . . . . . * 60
Lieutenant, .... . . 30
Paymaster, C including pay as Lieutenants ; }
Quartermaster, < first Lieutenants, $30, second > each, 45
Adjutant, f Lieutenants, $25. J
Chaplain, Surgeon, and Mates, as in Infantry.
Professors, each, . . . . .80
Sergeant-Major, Quartermaster-Sergeant, each, . 8
Drum and-fife-Majors, . . . 8
Drums and fifes, ..... 3
Sergeant, ...... 6
Bombardier, ..... 4
Corporal, ...... 4
Matross, or Private of sappers or miners. . 3
Artificers as annexed to them.
That a ration of provisions shall consist of one pound of bread, or
lour ; half a pound of salt, or three-fourths of a pound of fresh, beef or
pork ; a pint of peas, or other vegetables equivalent ; one gill of vinegar,
and half a gill of salt.
Each officer and soldier to be entitled to draw one ration per day ;
the officer at his option to receive the estimated value in money ; and
the soldier to be paid at the rates annexed to each article, for whatever
it may not be possible to furnish him.
260 HAMILTON'S WORKS. [JET. 26.
That there be an allowance of soap per to each com
missioned officer ; and to every non-commissioned officer and
The allowance of forage to officers whose duty is to be performed on
horseback, shall be as follows :
To a Major-General, four rations ; Brigadier, three ; Field officers
of every corps, each, two ; Chaplain, Surgeon, Quartermaster, Paymas
ter, Adjutant, of every corps, each, one ; Captains, and other officers of
Dragoons, each, one ; Captains of Engineers, each, one.
A ration of forage to consist of. the following articles :
When officers are absent from their corps on duty, and cannot draw
forage, they shall be paid for it at the rate of for each
That the allowance of clothing to each non-commissioned officer, and
private soldier, shall be as follows :
One cloth coat, jacket, and overall, every second year ; one hat, one
linen frock, three shirts, three pair overalls, six pair shoes, two leather
stocks, annually ; one blanket every year. And if it shall be
found necessary to supply any non-commissioned officer or soldier, with
any articles beyond the quantity above specified, the value thereof shall
be deducted from his pay, according to the rates annexed to each.
If the idea of the Confederation is adhered to, the number of
troops to be raised must be distributed in the best manner the
nature of the case will admit, to the several States, according to
the proportion of their respective populations ; and each must
appoint regimental officers in proportion to the number of men
it .furnishes ; but as no State will have to furnish a complete
regiment, -this apportionment of the officers, especially, will be
come extremely difficult, if not impracticable, on any satisfac
tory plan : and the filling up vacancies as they arise, will pro
duce endless perplexity. It would be much to be preferred, if
the States could be induced to transfer this right to Congress ;
and indeed, without it, there can never be regularity in the mili
tary system. It would also be much the best, that the men
should be enlisted under Continental direction ; which will be a,
more certain and more economical mode : for as it now stands,
the United States are obliged to pay for all mismanagement or
extravagance which may happen.
The next object to be attended to, is that of fortifications.
These are of two kinds, land and naval : the first for internal
jET.26.] PEACE ESTABLISHMENT 261
security, the last for the protection of the future fleets of the
As to the first kind, there are many posts of importance al
ready existing, several of which it will be essential to occupy and
guard, till more permanent measures can be taken on a general
plan. For this, Congress have already made provision by their
resolution of the
The Committee are of opinion, that the principles laid down
in the memorial from Major-General Du Portail, Chief Engineer,
accompanying this report, so far as they respect the article of
fortifications, are, in general, sound and just; and that it will be
expedient for Congress, as soon as they have determined on the
establishment of the corps of Engineers, to instruct the head of
that corps to make a general survey of the points necessary to
be fortified, and to lay a general plan before Congress for their
With respect to maritime fortifications, the Committee are of
opinion, that this object, though of the highest importance, can
not be immediately undertaken ; but that it will be advisable for
Congress to appoint an Agent of Marine, to make all the inqui
ries, obtain all the lights, and prepare, in proportion as the public
finances will admit, all the means previously requisite towards
the establishment of posts, and the formation of a navy.
The Committee apprehend, that even if the resources of the
Unitted States were at this time equal to the undertaking of con
structing and equipping a navy, it would be ineligible to enter
upon it, till a plan, deliberately combined in all its parts, had
been digested and approved for that purpose. As the prepara
tory steps will require a considerable length of time before such
a plan could be matured for execution, it will, therefore, be pro
per, in the judgment of the Committee, to make the appoint
ment suggested, as speedily as it can conveniently be done.
The Committee are further of opinion, that it will be proper
for Congress to keep constantly on foot, magazines and arsenals,
H different parts of the United States, equal to the complete
equipment of twenty thousand men, in every thing necessary for
the field or for a siege, calculating on a three years' supply ; and
262 HAMILTON'S WORKS. [M?. 26.
that, in this view, it will be expedient to establish arsenals and
magazines at the following places :
and to deposit all the artillery and military stores, in possession
of the United States, in those several places, in equal propor
tions ; and as soon as may be, to make up any deficiencies which
may be found in the quantity proposed ; so that each deposit
may suffice for five thousand men.
"With respect to the establishment of military academies, as
proposed in the letter of the
by the Secretary at War, the Committee are of opin
ion, that the benefits of such institutions rarely compensate for
the expense ; and that, by having the three professors proposed
to be attached to the corps of Engineers, all the utility to be ex
pected from academies, may be substantially obtained : that, at
all events, such institutions can only be the object of future con
The Committee are of opinion, that as soon as the situation
of public affairs will permit, it ought to be made a serious object
of policy, to be able to supply ourselves with all the articles of
first necessity in war ; and in this view, to establish foundries,
manufactories of arms, powder, etc.
There are two reasons which appear to them conclusive for
this. The first is, that every country ought to have within it
self all the essential means of defence ; for, to depend on foreign
supplies, is to render its security precarious : the second, that as
it will be indispensable to keep up a corps of Artillery, and some
other troops, the labor of a part of these, bestowed upon the
manufactories, will enable the public to supply itself on better
terms than by importation. The Committee propose that the
Secretary at War be directed to lay before Congress a plan, in
detail, for this purpose ; designating the places where those
foundries and manufactories can be erected with advantage, the
means to be employed, and the expense to be incurred in the ex
ecution of the plan.
The Committee are of opinion, that a general staff is unneces
sary in time of peace, as all the objects of it may be answered
by the War Department, by the regimental officers, and by con-
-fflr.26.] PEACE ESTABLISHMENT. 263
tracts. They would only recommend to have a Major-General
to command all the troops ; a General officer to command the
corps of Engineers and Artillery ; and an Inspector-General to
preserve uniformity in the regulations and service of the troops.
The pay of these officers may be :
To a Major-General, per month, $
To a Brigadier-General, ...... $
Inspector-General, including the pay of his rank, . . $
In time of war, it will be necessary to appoint a Brigadier-General
to each brigade consisting of two regiments of Infantry ; but during
peace, as the service of the regiments will be detached, this may be
It will be necessary to establish a General Hospital for the reception
of invalids of the army and navy. For the present, only the following
officers will be requisite :
Pay and subsistence per month.
One Physician and Director, who shall also have the > ^
superintendence of the regimental hospitals, $
One Purveyor and Apothecary, . . .,.... 50
One Surgeon, . 50
One Mate, . 25
One Steward, 15
One Matron, ......... 8
Four Nurses, each, ....... 5
To be entitled to draw a ration per day each, and no other subsist
ence or allowance.
The invalids to be allowed no pay ; but the clothing and rations
specified for soldiers during life.
The gross expense of this establishment, if complete, as will appear
by the annexed estimate, will be $
From this may be deducted the value of the product of }
the manufactories, when established by the estimate also >
t Balance, an annual charge upon the United States, $
If Congress should think it inexpedient immediately to incur
so considerable an expense, the following method may be taken
to diminish it.
The companies of Infantry may, for the present, be recruited
only to sixty-four men each.
Only four troops of the Dragoons may be raised, and only
one troop mounted. It would be inexpedient to neglect this
264 HAMILTON'S WORKS. [JET. 26.
arm altogether; for it will always, in case of war, be of great
importance in the southern States ; and the knowledge of its
principles and uses ought to be cultivated.
The companies of Sappers and Miners, and the company of
Artificers, except the Master-Founders and the Armorers, may
be deferred till the means of the United States will admit of
carrying into execution the plan of foundries and manufactories.
Yet it would be proper that these establishments should be
adopted as proposed ; and the execution, in these instances, sus
The savings of expense, by these deductions, would amount
to ; which, taken out of the
aggregate expense of the whole establishment, will leave a resi
due of annual expense, of
The Committee are of opinion, that this expense is unavoid
able ; and that the only question is, whether it shall be borne by
the United States or by particular States : in which last case,
it is probable it will be greatly increased, for want of being con
ducted on a systematic plan : -and it is to be observed, that the
resources of the States, jointly or severally, are confined within
.certain bounds ; and that if any States contribute an extra pro
portion in one way, they must contribute less than their propor
tion in another. The superior national considerations already
stated, leave no doubt as to the manner in which the question
ought to be decided.
The Committee are also of opinion, that in considering the
means of national defence, Congress ought not to overlook that
of- a well regulated militia ; that as the keeping up of such a
militia, and proper arsenals and magazines, by each State, is
made a part of the Confederation, the attention of Congress to
this object will be a constitutional duty ; that as great advan
tages would result from uniformity in this article, in every
State, and from the militia establishment being as similar as the
nature of the case will admit, to the Continental military estab
lishment, it will be proper for Congress to adopt and recommend
a general plan for that purpose.
The Committee submit the following outlines of such a
^T.26.] PEACE ESTABLISHMENT. 265
plan; which may, if thought necessary, be digested and im
All the free male inhabitants in each State, from twenty
years old to fifty, except such as the laws of each State shall
think it proper to exempt, to be divided into two general classes ;
one class consisting of married, the other class consisting of sin
Each class to be formed into corps of Infantry and Dragoons,
organized in the same manner as has been proposed for the Con
Those who are willing to be at the expense of equipping
themselves for the Dragoon service, to be permitted to enter into
that corps. The residue to be formed into Infantry. This will
consult the convenience and inclinations of different classes of
Each officer and private of the Dragoons, to provide himself
with a horse, saddle, etc., pistols and sabre ; and each non-com
missioned officer and private, with a carbine and cartouch box,
with twelve rounds for his carbine, and six rounds for each
Each officer of the Infantry to have a sword and esponton ;
and each non-commissioned officer and private, a musket, bay
onet, and cartouch-box containing always twelve rounds of pow
der and ball.
That the corps of single men be obliged to assemble in com
panies once a month ; and once in three months regimentally, to
be inspected and exercised, subject to a penalty to be assigned
for that purpose.
That the corps of married men be obliged to assemble once
in three months by companies ; and once in six months regimen-
tally, for the same purposes as above-mentioned.
That when the State is invaded, the corps of either class,
indifferently, shall be obliged to take the field for its defence, and
to remain in service one year, unless sooner relieved by special
That when another State is attacked, and it is necessary to
march to its succor, one-half of the corps of single men shall be
266 HAMILTON'S WORKS. [JET. 26.
obliged to take their turn first, and to serve for the same period ;
to be afterwards relieved by one-half of the corps of the married
men ; and so on alternately.
That in addition to these two classes, there shall be a third
class, under a particular denomination, as fencibles, fusiliers,
train-bands, or whatever else may be judged expedient ; with the
same organization as the other classes, but composed in the fol
lowing manner :
Of all such of either of the two other classes as will volun
tarily engage to serve for the term of eight years, provided they
shall not exceed the proportion of one to fifty of all the enrolled
militia of the State ; and provided, that, if a war breaks out,
they shall be bound to serve three years after they are called
into service, and to march wherever the service may require.
The conditions on the part of the public to be these : That
they shall be furnished with a musket, bayonet, cartouch box,
and twenty -four rounds of powder and ball ; and once every two
years with a suit of uniform, to consist of a coat, jacket, and