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TFIE

HISTORY AND ANTIQUITIES

OP

EOXBURGHSHIRE

AND

ADJACENT DISTRICTS,

FROM

THE MOST REMOTE TO THE PRESENT TIME.



BY ALEXANDER JEFFREY,

AUTHOR or "GUIDE TO THE ANTIQUITIES OF THE BOEDER," ic.



^ccontJ (Soitton.

IN TWO VOLUMES.
VOL. L



J E'D B U R G H :
WALTER EASTON, ABBEY-PLACE.



JEDBVRGII: rKI.STKT) UT W.r.A?TO>-.



PREFACE.



The design of the present Work is to convey to the public,
within a reasonable compass, all the information I have been
enabled to gather, during a period of twentj-five years, in
relation to the History and Antiquities of Roxburghshire
and adjacent Districts. Since the publication of the First
Edition,, in 1836, the Work has been entirely re-written,
and, with the exception of i. small portion of the descriptions
of the Abbeys in Teviotdale, no part of the Contents of the
present Volume were included in that edition. It may, there-
fore, with truth, be stated to be an entirely New Work. No
pains have been spared by me to obtain correct information
in I'egard to the subjects treated of. Added to the know-
ledge which a long residence in the district necessarily gives,
I have specially visited every spot of interest, and examined
for myself all the remains of a bye-gone age within the
localities referred to. The works of all those who have
previously laboured in the same field I have carefully con-
sulted, and, while making a free use of their views when I
thought them right, I have not scrupled to express an oppo-
site opinion when I thought they had been led into error.
Notwithstanding I have done all that I could to render the
Work accurate, errors Avill, no doubt, be found on perusal,
but it is to be trusted these will be few and unimportant.



IV PREFACE.

To the Rev. James Duncan, Denliolm, I am ijidebted for
the Chapter on tlie Geology of the District, and who, I am
happy to be able to say, contributes the Botanical and Zoo-
logical Chapters in Volume II.

A.J.

Jediiuroh, Janunry, 1855.



CONTENTS OF YOLUME I.



CHAPTER I.

SITUATION AND OUTLINE, BOUNDARIES AND EXIKNT, DECLINATION '
AND CLIMATE.

PASK

The District is the Southmost Division of Scotland. Lies in Centre
of British Island. By what Counties Bounded. Its Form. Its
Outline. The Line of the Boundary'. Its Length and Breadth.
Its Political Divisions. The Declination of the District. The
Mountain Ranaies which enclose Teviotdale. The Waters which
Drain this District. The General Appearance of the District
from the Summit of the Duiiion. The Hill lies in the tract of
Red-Sandstone. The Climate of the District, - .... 9

CHAPTER II.

ITS HILLS AND VALLEYS.

The Cheviot Ranc^e. Cheviot Mountain. Its Commanding Posi-
tion. Chillhill. Hounamlaw. Their Situation and Qualities,
The Mountains on the Bowmont and Cayle. The Mountains
fit the Source of the Jed. On the March between Dumfries
and Roxburgh. The height of these Mountains, and General
Appearance. The Range of Mountains which divide Teviotdale
and Liddesdale. Pass through the Mountains at Mosspaui. Its
Beauty. Peculiar Feature of the Hills of the Cheviot Range.
Mountains and Hills in the Interior of Teviotdale. Dunion, its
Name and Appearance. Was a Watch Tower in the Early Daj's.
Penielheugh, its Appearance and Position. Its Name. Enchant-
ing Prospect from its Summit. Monument to Wellington, and
British Troops on its top. Ruberslaw, its Height and Situation,
ifinow Storm on it, supposed to have suggested to the Poet
Thomson the idea of his Poem of Winter. Peden and Welsh
Preached on its sides. Miiito Craigs, their Appearance and



VI CONTF.NTS.

PACK

Hc'ifflit. BarnhiU's Bed. Mintn Hills. Mountiins in the Nor-
thern p;irt of Tcviotchile. The Eildoiis Three. TheAp|iearance
aiui Character of these Hills. Blackliill, the Brilish Ary.silduii.
BemersiJe Hill. Williamlaw, between Leader and Gala. No-
tices of that District. Contests of the Swinelierds. Other Hills
worthjof notice, on account of their preservation of Name. Ge-
neral Observations on the Cheviot Hills, 18

CHAPTER Til.

ITS tOCHS AND RlYEKS.

Primside, and Linton Lochs. Stratmn of Marl in the latter. Hose-
law Loch. Locality famed as beinpf Scene of the Exploit of the
First of the .Somervilles. Canldsliiels, near Abbotsford. Hinilly
Burn rises from it. Whitniuir Loch, on the bounds of Selkirk-
shire. The Rivers and Streams. The Tweed. From whence
it derives its name. Place where it enters the District. The
Lenffth of its Course within the District. Scenery on the River
where it passes Abbotsford. The Tweed at Brida^end. The place
where Father Philip crossed with the Lady of Avenel. Places
and Scenery on the River Course within the District. The Sal-
mon Fishina;s in the River. Tlie Statute regulating the Tweed
Fishings. The River Teviot, its Rise and Name. Places and
Scenery on its course. It is visited by Salmon and Trout. The
Scottish Lyrists, by whom River and Sceneiy are noticed. The
Cavi.e. Origin of its Name, Scencrj-, and Localities in its
course. Observations on its Running Westward. Conical Mounts
at Linton Kirk and Linton Loch. Theory as to their Formation,
and also as to the Course of the River. Ox nam, its Source,
Course, and Scenery through which it passes. The Henwood.
Rattling Roaring \Villie. The Jkd. From whence Name de-
rived. Its Source. Scenery on its Banks as it passes Mossburn-
ford, Lintalee, and .Jedburgh. Caves. The Nature of the
Channel of the .Ted. Its Passage through the Old Red Sandstone
Formation. Salmon and Trout. The Reason of the Scarcity ol
Trout. The RiTLF, its Name, Source, and Course. SLixnie.
Observations as to the Etymology of the Name. Hawick Flood
in 1*01. The Tradilicm of the District in regard to the Flood.
Flood in 1M6. The Allan. Its Source and Name. The
Proximity of the Somces of the Rivers which Rise in the Sou-
thern Mountains to each oilier. Tributaries of the Teviot on the
North. The BoiiTHwiCK. Its .Sonne and Name. The .\le.
Its Rise and Name. Its Course by Riddell, Linthill, and Cavers.



COXTENTS. Vll

Beauly of its Banks behveen Ashyburn and Ancnim. Caves.
Superstitions of tlie District as to the Lake from which River
takes its Rise. Poets vvbo have sung of Ale. The Bow.moxt.
Its Sources and Course. Observations as to the Orio^in of the
Name. The Eden- Etymology of the Name. Its Course. The
Leader. Rises in the Soltra, and its Course by Earlston and
Cowdenknovves. Remarks on the Derivation of the Name.
Notices of Thomas the Rhymer, who lived on its Banks. The
Alwyn. Its Rise and Name. The Valley of the River is
thought to be the Glendearg of the Monastery. The Gala. Its
Source, and Origin of the Name. The Lidoel. Its Rise,
Course, and Observations on its Name. Armstrong the Poet, a
Native of its banks. The Hermitage. Its Piise and Scenery
on its Banks. Kershope. The Ancient Boundary between
England and Scotland. Other Smaller Streams and Burns.
The Goblin-Brook or Bogleburn. Woodenburn. Flood of 1782
— of 1*97, which carried away Kelso Bridge. The Teviot Stop-
ping in its Course. The Changes which have taken place in the
Distiict, deduced from the State of Communication with each
side of the Rivers of the District. Observations thereon. Acci-
dent at Melrose Ferry about 1735. The Bridges on the Rivers.
The Fords of the Rivers. Number of Corn Mills on these
Streams in ancient times. The Springs of the District. Chaly-
beate and Sulphureous. Consecrated Wells. Springs around
Melrose and Jedburgh, - - - - 28

CHAPTER IV.

ITS ANCIENT APPBAEANCE.

It was Originally covered with Woods and Lochs. Evidence derived
from Ancient Historians. From Trees found in the Mosses.
From Medals and Coins of Romans found buried below Moss in
a fertile soil. Jedburgh Forest. Jed derives its Name from its
Woods. Woody state shewn from the Names of Places on Jed
and Rule. In the Oxnam District. On the Cayle. On the
Teviot. In Names of Places in the District between Leader and
Gala. In Liddesdale, from names there. From Articles found in
MosseSj Marshes, and Lochs. From Evidence derived from
Charters. The introduction of Coal into the District. The
Boggy state of Kingdom proved from Names of Places. The
Names of Places, also instruct the kind of Animals which roamed
in it. Tradition as to these. Remains of Animals found in
District, - - ...§3



Viii CONTENTS.

CHAPTER V.

ITS GF. OLOGT.

P.

The Divisions of Scotlnnd in rel'erence to its Geoloc;}-. Observations
thereon. The Kxternal Aspect of the District viewed in refer-
ence to its Geolon;)-. Form of the Greywacke Hills. The Insulated
Heights are generally Trap. Greywacke the most extensive
Deposits of the District. Parts of the District which it Occupies.
What is Comprehended under Gre3-wacke. 3Iodifications in
its Character. It is Uniform in the District. Its Colour. Where
the Greywacke and the Red Sandstone Meet. The Clayslate.
Its Composition and Colour. Colour at Rink near Edgerston.
Stratification. Dip. Examples of these. The Strata of the
Greywacke forms the Summit of the High Ridges on the Sources
oftheTeviot. Flexures and Contortions Exhibited by it. Sup-
posed Cause of these. Minerals in Connexion with this Forma-
tion. Calcareous Sjmr and Quartz. Character of these. This
Formation Poor in Organic Remains. Where Remains are
Found. The Pelibles in Bed of Teviot are chiefly Greywacke.
The "Silver Tide" of Teviot arises from Ruiniing over Grey-
wacke. The Rock of this Formation iisetl as Road Metal and
Building. Its Character lor these Purposes. The Old Rbd
Sandstone Formation. Where the Conglomerate is seen. It
Presents itself in Huge Masses. The Materials of the Aggrega-
tions where Derived from. The Character of the Old Red Sand-
stone at its greatest Depth. Examples of the Modification of
the Rock in the Banks of the Jed, Rule, and Ale. Uniformity
of the Character of the Strata. Fissures and Slips in. Some-
times the Strata occurs in Elongated Curves. In Jed above
Fernihirst, and on the Road to Hunthill. Origin of this. The
ColouringMatterof the Formation. The Light Coloured Bedsiire
nl tlie Top. Examples of these. Quarries at Belses, Lanton,
and Denholm. Character of the Quarries at the latter place.
White and R»h1 .Sandstone at that place. Organic Rkmains
in this Formation: Molluscs, Crustacea, Reptiles, and Fishes.
The Wingeil Fish, Ptcrichthys, and the Holoptychius are
found in this Formation of the District. Description of the
Animals. Examples of these. The Dfn^ftrt«rf, the Chief Repo-
sitory of these Ichlhyolitic Remains. Examples of these Dent-
bands— are the Ptericlithys or Holn|)t3chii, as general Distinc-
tive of the Lower and Upper Beds of the Formation ? Remains
of Vegetables numerou«. Examjiles of these. Vegetable Re-
mains found in Denholmhill Quarry. Observations on these



CONTEXTS. JX

PAGK

Remains. Prooi's afforded h}- these Remain:? Identifies the For- 96
mation with the Old Red Sandstone. Coal cannot be expected
fo be found in the District. The Reason Why. Do the Remains
of the Holoptychins themselves determine the Formation ?
Upper Beds of the Old Red Sandstone constitute the principal
Biiildin» Stone in the District. Character as a Building Stone.
Examples of Limestone found in the Formation. Where they
«re so Found, (jfharacter of the Scenerj' as far as it Depends on
this Form.ation. Observations thereon. Of the Two Portions of
the Coal Formation found in the District. What these Consist
of, and their Situations. Character of the Fossils indicate the
Nature of the Formation. The Sandstor.es Composinaf tiiis
Formation — are peculiar to the Coal Sandstones. M'here found,
and the Character of these Stones for Buildiifg purposes. Ob-
servations on the Strata as it appears in Liddesdale. Limestones
of Larieston. Jasjjcrs of Robertslinn. The Dip of these Strata.
The Porphyries, Trap-Tdfas, and Trap. Where Porphy-
ry Strata occur? The most extensive Formation of it Forms
the Cheviot Range proper. It meets the Old Red Sandstone at
Morebattle. Description of the Rock. Summary of the most
Important Varieties of the Rock, and where they are to be
found. Their genei"il Direction. Effect or Character of the
Scenerj' similar to the Trap Rocks— generally form Conical
Hills — Insulated or Grouped — never Abrupt. The Eildon Hills
have been projected up through the Greywacke. Character of
the Rock. They consist chiefly of Brown or Reddish Fe!>par —
disseminated Crystals of Felspar and Miimte Crystals of Quartz
and Hornblende. Quarry above Bowden exhibit Beautiful Flesh-
Coloured Columns— 30 and 40 feet in lengtli — Columns nearly
Vertical. Porphyry is also Developed in the Southmost portion of
the District. It is to be seen in the Wisphill, and in the Banks
of Stream at Mosspaul. Its appearance. Trap-Tufa : What
is it? Where it occurs. A good Example of Tula afforded by
Minto Hills. Commonly associated with Augitic Trap, as at
Troneyhill and Ruberslaw. Another variety seen at Ancruni
Craig. The Trap proper is an Important Memberof the Rocks
of the District. Character of the Rock as found in the District.
Where it is found. In Lower Base of the Teviut, Penielheugh is
the principal elevation formed by it. The majority of the Sum-
mits in that of the District formed of it. Where Clinkstone
occurs. It is to be seen at Timpendeau behind the OKI Tower.
Dykes of Greenstone are frequent in the Coal Strata of Liddes-
dale. Not so in other parts of the District. Remarkable Belt of



X CONTENTS.

r.\f;K
Greenstone divides the District into Two eqnal Halves. It enters
llie Coiinly at I'pper Hyndliope, and leaves it about Roberton.
It traverses all tlie variety of Formation the District contains.
Its Character. Remarks on this Geolos;lcal Phenomenon. Illus-
trations of the Relations in which the Rocks described stand to
each other. The Alluvial AcciiMtiLATioNs: The Boulder
C'laj- exists in the lower part of the District. Most developed in
the Northern parts. Seen on the Banks of the Leader. Is ex-
posed at Sprouslon Quarry. The most extensive Newer Alluvial
Deposits are on IhelEast side of Eildon. To be seen on Tweed at
Kelso, and occurs on the Teviot. In the Valley of Teviot above
Ancrum Bridge. Deposits of Sand and Gravel. Remarkable
Deposit of this kind at Liddelbank. Some Ridges are to be
found at Kelso and Stitchel. One composed of Gravel, between
Ormiston and F.ckford. Supeiiicial accumulations of Boulders in
the District. Usually on the East side of Eminences. Why they
are found there. The Character of these Blocks. Natural
Terraces: Where these are to be seen in the District, Are
these Beach Marks? Seenitobe inconsistent with Glacial Action.
Simple Minerals which enter into the Composition of the various
Rocks. Tlie Si)Iierical Concretions which are found in the Dis-
trict. Remarks thereon. Concluding Observations. 96

CHAPTER VI,

ITS ANTIQUITIES.

Iiitroducforj' Observations. The People who first Inhabited this
District. At the dawn of Record, Coinitry covered by Celts.
Thought to be Descendants of the Tribes which possessed Pales-
tine. Was Britain peo|)led from Gaul ? Testimony of the Roman
Historians on this subject. Ctvsar's Notice of the Dniidical Insti-
tutions of Britai)i, examined with reference to the Condition of
the People. Caractacns. British Farms at the Roman Invasion.
The Names of the Tribes who Inhabited this District. The Ter-
ritory Occupied by them. Examination of the Opinions of Chal-
mers and Others on this point. The District of Lothian, where
was it ? Altiirs found at llabitancum help to instruct the Ter-
ritorj- occupied by tlie Early People. The Tweed the Tueda
of Richard, Doubts as to Tweed's being the Boundary River.
Watling-Street sujjposed to be the Boundary between the Otta-
dini and Gadeni who possessed the District. Line drawn by
Chalmers caimot apply. Driiioism the Religion of the Primi-
tive People. Derivation of the term. Nature of the Worship.



CONTENTS. XI

PACK

By whom iutrodiiced. Where the People NYorshipped. Several 154
Moimfains owe their Names to the Worship of' Baal. The Bel-
tein, where kimlled. Custom of going to the Hill Tops on May
Day a part of Baal Worship. Passing of Cattle through Need-
fire. Remains of the Dniidical System— In a Moss near Tiiinis
Hill. Cairn, Cromlech, and Circle. Ninestanerig, Remains on.
Tradition as to Lord Soulis being Boiled in a Cauldron there.
Former Extent of this place shewn by the State of the Remains
and Ground around. The Ceil at Hermitage. Grant byBolbech
to the Hermit. Remains near Plenderleath, between Oxnam
and Cayle. The Eleven Shearers at Hounanikirk. Tradition
regarding Remains between Hounam and Principal Cheviot.
In the Neighbourhood of Yetholm part of Druid Circle. On the
Farm of Frc'gdean. These formerly called Tryststanes. Druid
Remain near Mounteviot. Extent of tliese in former times.
Tliese are thought to have been all erected by British People.
The Manner of Borial of these People. The Ashes were depo-
sited in Cairns, Cistcaens, and Urns. Description of these.
Extent of some of these Cairns. Found in several Places in
Liddesdale. On the Rule. In the Parish of Southdean. In
Hounam, Linton, Morebattle, and Yetholm, these Remains are
found. Other Places where found. Primside Mill, Wooden Hill,
Caverton Edge, near Ednam, Eckford, and Crailinghall. A
Cistvaen found in Garden, at Jedburgh. At Crailing, Beaulie,
and Hawick, the same Remains have been found. Notices
regarding the Moat Hill of Hawick. Reterence to the same
Remains found in India. Tlie British People as Warriors.
The Planner in winch they Fought. The Weapons they used in
Battle. The Forts of the Earliest People. Specimens of the
British Forts found in Liddesdale at Cairby and Timiis Hills.
Descriptions of these. Observations on the Appearance of the
District and these Hills. Forts on Farm of Flight, Hudhouse, Sorbi-
trees. On the Hermitage same kind of Forts exist. Where
these are to be found. Forts of the same kind in tlie Interior of
Teviotdale. Dunion, Penielheugh, and Roxburgh. On Earlston
Hill is a Fort supposed to be Vitrified. Observations on these
Forts and Strengths. Doubts as to the kind of Strengths on the
Eildon. Forts supposed to be erected by the Romanized Ottadini
and Gadeni. The Catrail, its Character and Extent. By whom
Formed. Observations on this Military Work. Its Connexion
with Herrit's Dyke. Observations on the Strengths in the
Neighbourhood of the Eildons. The Caves in the Rocks:
■Reason for Placing these Uiuler the First Occupation of the



CONTENTS.

PAGE

Island, Found in various parts of the World at an Early Period. 151
Caves on the Jed : at Lintalee, Hiindalee, and Mossburnford.
Description ol' these. Description of those at Ancrum in tlie
Banks of the Ale. Of those at Grahamshnv and Roxburgh.
The Roman Remains in the District. Enquiry into the Objects
which led Caesar to invade Britain. The Arrival of Agricola
in the Ishnid. The Period of his Entry into this District. The
Ojjpressions under which the Natives la!)onred on his Arrival, and
which were remedied by him. In 79 he Explored the Woods and
Forests. He Fortified the Country by Posts and Stations. Ad-
rian's Arrival in the Island. The Ottadini and Gadeni join in
the Revolt of the Natives. LoUins Urbicus was appointed to rule
in Britain. What he did. When Severus assumed the Purjjle.
Precautions taken by him. Reduced the Country between the
Two Walls. Died at York. Caracalla, his Son, succeeded.
Made Peace with the Natives and took Hostages. Constantius
Chlorius was made Governor on the Resignation of Dioclesian.
Theodosius appointed. He Overcame the Caledonians, and
Named the District between the Two Walls, Valentia.
Flower of British Youth taken to the Continent by Maximus.
Britain felt the loss oi her Youth. The Romans left the
Island. The Watlino Strket. Etymology of the Name.
Where it .Starts from. Its Course by Corbridge, where it passes
the Tine. Remains Found at that Place. From Corbridge to
Hnnnum on the Wall, and from thence to Risingham. Roches-
ter the Bremenium of the Romans. Description of its Walls.
Remains Found at this Station. Course of the Road after leav-
ing Piochester. Arrives at Chewgreen. The Golden Pots. Ro-
man Milestones. Description of these Stones. General Roy's
opinion of these Stones, Similar Stones are Found on Devil's
Causeway. Descrijition of the Station at Chewgreen. Woden-
law. Extensive Prospect from this PI ice. The Three Eildons
are seen from it. Where the Road Fords the Cayle. Street-
House. Form of the Camp at Street-House. Description of it.
Road from the Cayle to the Jed at Boiijedwortli. Its Passage of
the River. The Appropriation of tiie Road by the Adjacent Pro-
prietors. The Ulainierof Construction of the Road. It is be-
lieved that the Kildons are the Trimontium of the Romans. An
Examination of Ihe various Opinions as to the Situation of the
Trimontium. Newstead a Roman Town. Remains found at
that Place. Altar to the Campestral Mothers: a Slab with the
.Symbol of the Twentieth Legion Sculptured on it. An Altar
Dedicated to the Gods of the Woods also found ther.'. Buildings



CONTENTS. Xm

PAGE

at Newstead. Description of these by Mr John Smith, Darnick, 154
Discoveries made at this ptace in 1846. Medals and Coins of
the Romans found in the District. Eildon Hills proved to be the
Site of the Trimontium. Bonjedvvorth is thought to be the
Gadaiiica of the Itinerary. Road after it passes the Tweed. The
Whkelcauseway. Its Course after leaving the Roman Wall
at BiRDoswALD. Enters Scottish Ground at Dead Water.
It then assumes the name of Wheelcauseway. Description of it.
Form of Construction. Destruction of it by Landlords and Far-
mers. Wheelchurch, with its accompanying Grave Yard. Its
Course over Needslaw into Teviotdale. Lost after it Coalesces
with a Road which came over Note of the Gate. Conjectures
as to its Course from that point. BonchesterHill. Roads Run-
ning in the direction of Jedburgh. Devil's Causeway leaves
the Watling Street on the East, shortly after it leaves the Roman
Wall — supposed to have been used by Agricola while his Ships
Explored the Coasts. A Second Branch Road sent ofl" at Bre-
MEN'U'M — supposed to join the Devil's Causeway. Road on the
West to Castleover. Road by Hawick, Hermiston, and Lillies-
leaf, to Eildon. Roman Post on Side Hill. Post at Clintburn.
Roman Stones in the Abbey of Jedburgh. Roman Camps on
the Rule and Jed. Cross Roads of the District. Were used by
the British Farmer in conveying Corn. Coins, and other Articles
dropt by the Romans. Malton Walls at Ancrum. Description
yf these. Thought to be Roman. By which Road did the Romans
enter the District. Christianity introduced by the Romans during
the 1st Century. The Saxon era. When they reached the Tweed.
Where they first gained a footing. Blackdyke running from Peel-
fell to the Roman Wall. Description of it. Battle of Dawstone.
Dawstonerig is thought not to be the place of the Battle Field.
Kenneth Burns Dunbar and Melrose. Cumberland transferred to
Malcolm. The Places in the District on which the Saxons im-
posed names. Built the Towns of Jedworth. Examples of the
Language spoken by that People. Tiie Flemings — their impor-
tance. Religion of the Saxons. Their attainments in the Arts.
Saxon Coins found in the District. District placed under the
Superintendence of Bishop of Lindlsfarne. The Abbeys of the
District: Description of Jedburgh Abbey. Its Architecture.
Antiquity of the Building discussed. Marriage of Alexander III.
in Abbey. A Spectre which appeared in tlie Procession of
Maskers. Observations on this appearance. Injury sustained by
the Building from the Border Wars. Persons Buried there.
Abbey of Kelso; its situation and description— the form of the



: CONTENTS.

PAGE

Buiklinpc. Tlie Slyle of y\rclii1ectiire. HertJbrd's reii.sons for not
tiiniint? it into



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