Apollo's path, and thus exalt the Sky :
So may'st thou, Charles, with two-fold flame consume
Thy foes — and then thy People vivify ! "
The words under the Schut portrait are scarcely less flattering : —
"To Charles the Second, by the Grace of God King of Great Britain,
France and Ireland ; because he has raised to a hope of vindication and of
glorification the down-trodden dignity of Kingly Majesty, and the Country
enslaved to an odious servitude — To His Royal Majesty Tearful England
presents herself with eternal devotion.
Stretch forth thy vengeful hand in kingly Pride,
For, ah ! a fell Beast holds me in its thrall !
Justice is smitten, Piety scorn'd — o'er all.
Gold-greed accurst gnaws at Things sanctified.
The Shaft of Kingship in the dust is laid :
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Still, I pray Heav'n my Anchor be not ta'en.
Let the Beast prove the armed Subduer's main ;
The Avengers lash it with death-dealing blade.
The Royal Miracle
Bereft of thee, all hope we lack ; but Jove
Shall bind thy brow with diadem and shall thrust
The sceptres fitly in thy hands — so trust
His fire-blent bolts, and Pallas' shield above."
Many of the portraits of the Prince of Wales executed in early
boyhood were now retouched so as to represent him as he might be
supposed to appear when he turned his face southwards to do battle
outside the walls of Worcester with the victor of Dunbar — the
formidable Parliamentary leader who figured in the Royalist broad-
sides as O. C.
The compilers of the two contemporary almanacks for 1651
which I have consulted were evidently stout Parliamentarians. One
of them, at any rate, like the astute John Gadbury, must have been
something of a prophet, for he heads the particulars he gives of the
month of September with the lines : —
" 5c/ first applys to friendly Jove, and then [j-?V]
To cruell Mars (that enemy of man)
Whose calid Natures close heaven's moistening-gate
The usuall harvest to anticipate.
Corn ripes apace ; but yet there's cause to feare
Strong winds will shake the heavie-laden-care."
September had evidently already proved an unlucky month for
the Royalists. On the 3rd of that month the Scots were routed the
second time by Cromwell (1650) ; on the 13th Essex died (1646) ;
on the 2 1 St the colours of the defeated Scots had been hung in
Westminster Hall (1650) ; on the 24th the King's forces suffered
defeat at Rowton (1645) ; on the 27th Sir John Cell was sentenced
by the High Court of Justice (1650); and so forth. The illustra-
tion of the almanack for August, September and October, 1651, now
given, shows the phases of the moon, and may prove useful to those
who desire to follow carefully the adventures of King Charles, from
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dawn on Wednesday, September 3, when he surveyed the contending
armies from the summit of Worcester Cathedral tower until sunrise
on Wednesday, October 15, when the good ship "Surprise" was well
on its way from Shoreham Creek to the coast of Normandy.
It is presumed that the reader is already familiar with the general
details of the fight at Worcester on September 3, 1651. They are
sufficiently set forth in the old texts now reprinted, and are lucidly
explained in the paper read at Worcester on September 2, 191 1, by
Mr. J. W. Willis Bund, f.s.a., the learned author of The Civil War
in Worcestershire. An important point as to the whereabouts of the
King during the whole, or some portion, of his sojourn in the
"Faithful City" has also been discussed by Mr. F. J. Spackman.*
In a rare little volume illustrated with rude woodcuts and entitled
" A Narration of the most material Parliamentary Proceedings of this
present Parliament & their Armies, in their Civil & Martial Affairs
. . . continued until this year, published as a Breviary. Printed
for Th : Jenner, at the South Entrance of the Royal Exchange mdcli ",
will be found the following early contemporary account of the struggle
spoken of by the Royalists as "a black disaster," and the Round-
heads (with whom Jenner evidently sympathised), as " God's Crowning
Mercy " : —
" 3 September 1651. This day twelve months was glorious at Dunbar,
but this day hath been very glorious before Worcester, the word was, The
Lord of Hosts, and so it was now, The Lord of Hosts having been wonderfully
with us ; the same signal] we had now as then, which was to have no white
about us, yet the Lord hath clothed us with white Garments, though to the
Enemy they have been bloody, onely here lyeth the difference, that at Dunbar
our work was at break of day, and done ere the morning was over, but now
it began towards the close of the evening, and ended not till the night came ;
That in the end it became an absolute Victory, determined by an immediate
possession of the Towne, with a totall Rowting & Defeat of the Scotch
Army, the number of persons taken is neer 10,000, neer 3000 were slaine
* See Appendix I, p. 233, and Appendix II, p. 241.
The Royal Miracle
of the Enemy, but of all our side not above 200, which addes much to the
mercy. My Lord Generall did exceedingly hazard himselfe, riding up &
downe in the midst of their shot, and riding himself in person to the Enemies
forts, offering them quarter whereto they returned no answer, but shot ; let
us conclude therefore in the words of our renowned Generall, The dimensions
of this mercy are above all our thoughts, it is for aught I know, A Crowning
mercy, sure if it be not such a one we shall have, if this provoke not those
that are concerned in it to thankfullnesse, and the Parliament to do the will
of him, who hath done his will for it, and for the Nation
" The Scots King beaten at J^Forcester^ gets into a hollow tree^ remains
there a night, the next day in a wood, cuts his hair short, ships for
Havre de Grace & so to Paris.
" Sir, the Scottish King came hither the last of October, new style, and
being demanded by his Mother & the Duke of Orleans, how he escaped
the Fight of Worcester, gave them this account.
That about six o'clock in the evening, his Army being in all likelihood
beaten, he quitted Worcester Towne with a party of horse, and marched
towards Lancashire, but being fearfull of being pursued j and likewise of some
of the Scottish officers that might deliver him up, he with my Lord Wilmot
quitted their horses, sent the party of horse upon their march, and betook
themselves the second dayes march from Worcester into a Tree, where they
remained untill night, and then marched on foot that night j the third day
they took Sanctuary in a Wood, and night approaching, marched on towards
Lancashire, where they were received by a Lady, who furnished them with
Cloathes for a Disguise, & cut off their haire very short. Having reposed
two or three days, the Lady resolved to endeavour to ship them out of
England ; to which purpose, she riding behind the King, and Wilmot as
another servant by, they went to Bristol, but finding a narrow & hot
inquiry there, resolved to goe for London, where they stayed three weeks.
The King one day went into Westminster Hall ; where he saith he saw the
States- Arms, and Scots Colours ; my Lord Wilmot procured a Merchant to
hire a ship of forty tuns to transport them, which cost them a hundred and
twenty pounds, but where they took shipping is not yet knowne ; but as
soon as my Lord was entred the Barque, and the King as his Servant, the
Master of the Vessel came to my Lord, and told him. That he knew the
King, and told him, that in case it should be knowne he could expect no
mercy, which saying troubled them, But at length, what with money &
Collection of Loyalist Badges, etc., 1649-1 651
(Formed by the ^ariter and arranged hy Messrs. Spink)
promises, they prevailed, and so set saile for Havre de Grace, where they
landed, and from thence to Rouen, where they clothed themselves, and writ
Here we have, in all probability, the first version of the legend
of the Royal Oak, destined nine years later not only to achieve
immortality, but to enter, for all time, into many phases of social
life. Between 1651 and 1660 the Monarch of the Forest became
the latest and most approved emblem of loyalty, and figured,
together with some appropriate motto, on the badges secretly worn
by the faithful followers of the King in exile. *
The curious account of Worcester fight given by Thomas
Fuller in his Worthies of England was evidently penned long before
its publication in 1662, after the death of the author. Broad-
windsor in Dorset played an important part in the history of the
Royal wanderings ; and the King's escape there during the night of
September 23-4 is little less miraculous than his preservation in the
Boscobel Oak (September 6) or the sudden inspiration which led him to
turn from the Dorchester Road into Lee Lane (September 23). Fuller
became Vicar of Broadwindsor in 1634, and never seems to have
resigned the benefice till his death on 16 August, 1661. In 1651
he was an absentee, his place being filled by John Pinney.
Fuller's son, who, in 1662, inscribed the Worthier to Charles as
" Your Majestie's meanest subject, the Author's Orphan," was born
at Broadwindsor in June, 1641. It is thus that Thomas Fuller
speaks of the " Fatall Fight" of September 3, 1651 : —
" Many sharp Skirmishes have happened in this County^ and
* See Illustration, p. 23. About twenty of these badges are in the possession of the
writer. On one of them is a crowned bust of the King in profile to the right and the
words Carolus Secundus, while the reverse shows three crowns in the branches of a leaf-
less oak, with the sun bursting from the clouds above them, and the motto Tandem
Reviresc'tt. A token on similar lines was also issued by L. G. Lauifer, of Nuremberg.
The Royal Miracle
near this C/Vv. We onely insist on that Fatall Fight, September the
third, 1 6 5 1 .
" Know then (as Introductory thereunto) that His Majesty on the
first of August foregoing began his March from Edinburgh into
England, not meeting with any considerable Opposition, (those at
IVarrington being soon put to flight by his presence,) until he came
to IVorceiter : His Army consisted of twelve thousand effectuall Fighting
men (whereof two thousand English, the rest of the Scottish Nation)
but neither excellently Armed, nor plentifully stored with Ammuni-
tion, whilst the Parliament Forces under Cromwell more than doubled
that Number, wanting nothing (but a Good Cause) that an Army
could wish or desire.
"The Royalist Cheifest Strength consisted in two Passes they
possessed over the Rtver of Severn, which proved not advantagious
according to expectation : For the enemy found the River Fordable
elsewhere ; and the Bridge & Pass at Uptorn [sic'], though valiantly
defended by Major Generall Massey, (who received a shot in his
hand) was forced by Lambert powring in unequall Numbers on the
King's Forces. Besides Cromwell finished a Bridge of Boards &
Plancks over the main river with more Celerity and less Resistance,
than could have been expected in a manner of such importance.
"Then began the Battle, wherein His Majesty to remember his
subjects Good, forgot his own Safety, and gave an incomparable example
of Valour to the rest by Charging in his Own Person. This was
followed by few to the same degree of danger, but imitated in
the greatest fneasure by the Highlanders, fighting with the But-Qnds of
their Muskets, when their Ammunition was spent. But new supplies
constantly Charging them, and the Main Body of the Scotch Horse
not coming up in due time from the City to His Majesties relief,
his Army was forced to retreat in at Sudbury-gate, in much
"If there were (which some more than whisper) /^/ji? ^ foul Play
in some Persons of Principall Trust ; as they have had a great
space reasonably^ God grant them his Grace sincerely to repent, for
their Treacherous retarding the happiness, prolonging & increasing
the Miseries of a Gracious King and three great Nations. Sure it is,
here were slain the Flower of the Scottish Loyal Gentry^ with the
most Illustrious^ William (formerly Earl of Lanerick) Duke of
Hamilton. As for Common Sottldiers^ some few who escaped had a
longer life to have a sadder death^ wandring in the Country till other
mens Charity & their own Strength failed them.
" Since how God hath conducted His Majesty miraculously
through Laberynths of many Difficulties, to the Peaceable Possession
of His Throne, is notoriously known to the wonder of the world.
Here my Muse heartily craveth leave to make an Honorable address
to His Majesty Depositing at his feet the ensuing Panegyrick.
At Worcester great Gods goodness to the Nation
It was a Conquest Your bare Preservation.
When 'midst Your fiercest foes on every side
For your escape God did a LANE provide ;
They saw You gone, but whether could not tell,
Star-Staring, though they ask'd both Heaven Sc Hell.
Your SELF'S the Ship return'd from forreign Trading,
England's Your Port, Experience the Lading,
God is the Pilot ; & now richly fraught.
Unto the Port the Ship is safely brought :
What's dear to You, is to Your Subjects cheap,
You sow'd with pain, what we with pleasure reap.
The Royal Miracle
The Good-made Laws by you are now made Good^
The Prince and Peoples right both understood,
Both being Bank'd in their respective Station,
No fear hereafter of an Inundation.
Oppression^ the KING'S-EVIL, long indur'd
By others caus'd, by YOU alone is cur'd."
The visitor to Worcester will certainly find that the outward
and visible signs of the events of September, 1651, are, after the
lapse of over two centuries and a half, more abundant than he
would expect. The Commandery, a few paces beyond the buried
remains of one of the towers of Sidbury Gate, retains most of the
features it possessed when that gallant gentleman William, Duke of
Hamilton, was brought there to die ; traces of the " clap-gate " through
which Charles got once more outside the walls to set out on his six
weeks' wanderings are still discernible ; portions of the city wall have
survived both the " slighting " of the Cromwellians and the ravages of
time, and the outlines of " Fort Royal " are carefully preserved by
their new owner. Mr. F. J. Spackman, the energetic Secretary of
the Worcestershire Naturalists' Club, makes out a good case in favour
of the King having inhabited the now demolished Deanery during the
latter part of August, 1651,* but he cannot altogether convince Mr.
Willis Bund that such was the fact. The latter, however, is disposed
to admit that an officers' mess on a large scale must have been located
in the Guesten Hall, which in 1651 formed part of the old Deanery
(formerly the Prior's house) on the southern side of the Cathedral.
The Prior's House, to which the Guesten Hall was attached, was
built in 1225 by William de Bedeford, the twenty-third Prior. At
the Reformation it was allotted as a residence to the Dean. There is
a full description of it in the Parliamentary Survey made a year before
* See Appendix II, p, 248.
the Battle of Worcester. It was pulled down in 1845, ^^escendants of Francis Tates: Mrs. Frances Julie Florence
Greenwood ; Dr. Thomas Walker of New Brunswick, Mrs, Emily Andrews and C. E.
Adlam. The late M. Waddington, French Ambassador at the Court of St. James's,
was also a Penderel descendant.
WILLIAM LIKE o]
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