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" Ships, Commerce, and Colonies."










Page 21 25th line from top, for " with the same," read "with


55 last line, for " 1864," read " 1860."
" 61 21st line from top, for " 650," read " 450."
" 66 28th line from top, for " 700," read " 7000."
" " for " 160,000," read " 760,000."

" 76 2nd line from bottom, for " rigid," read " rugged."
" 98 9th line from bottom, for " acres," read " square


" 250 Transpose in column Denomination the words " Pres-
byterian " and " Congregational."




IN the following pages the writer has aimed to afford a
complete resumi of reliable information, relating to the
history, geography, productions, and leading attributes of
one of the most extensive and important sections of the
Colonial Empire of Great Britain, How far he has suc-
ceeded, is left to the decision of an intelligent and impartial

The rapid sale of a large 'edition of his STATISTICS, pub-
lished in 1862, has induced the author to revise that work,
and embody much additional information, historical, geo-
graphical, and statistical ; also views of the cities and other
places in British North America.

And here he gladly avails himself of the opportunity of
thanking the heads of the Public Departments in each
Province, and other gentlemen, for the official reports and
documentary information received.

To the Press, also, he is under many obligations, for the
prominent manner in which his works have been brought
before the public.

This work, however, though it contains the principal
part of the matter of the preceding edition, in smaller type,


has been so amended and enlarged, by the introduction of
various matter relating to each of the Provinces of Canada,
Nova Scotia, New Brunswick, Newfoundland, Prince
Edward Island, British Columbia, and Vancouver Island,
and the Hudson Bay Company Territory, that the name
" Statistics," though of extensive import, does not fully
convey the design of these pages ; and therefore he has
adopted the more comprehensive title, " History, Geo-
graphy, and Statistics" of British North America.

That the work may be found useful in Schools and other
Institutions of education ; a reliable text-book to Legisla-
tors and officials generally; instructive to the general
reader; and a safe guide to emigrants and travellers, is the
desire of


October, 1864,


History of British North America , , 1

" of the Aborigines 50

Visit of His Royal Highness the Prince of Wales,. ..,..,.. 55

Recapitulation Historical Memoranda 63

Progress of British North America 65

Boundaries of " " " 68

Subdivisions " " " 69

General description, External Waters, Inland Seas, Rivers,

Mountains, Plateaus and Valleys 69- 74

Latitudes and Longitudes 100

Vital Statistics population 102

Area and other Statistics of each Colony 103

Quality of Arable lands 104

Situations and dimensions of Islands 105

Principal Products and Exports 105

Climate 106-114

Geology 114

Estimates of Coal 125

Botanical , , 130-138

Zoology Reptiles 135-137

Ornithology 137-153

Ichthyology 153-159

United States fisheries in British waters 164

Political Institutions 165-168

Legal and Judicial, Municipal 168-170

Distances 182-194

Intercolonial Railroad 227

Union of Colonies 323

Pronunciation of Words 324




History 2-30

Boundaries 74

Lakes, Rivers, &c 74

Niagara Falls and Bridges 78

Victoria Bridge 79

Ottawa and Saguenay Ri-
vers 79

Roads, Lands 81

Counties Population.. 83,84

Mines and Minerals 117

Gold Mines 119

Fisheries 159

Banks 172

Post Offices 178

Board of Works 180

Militia 181

Distances 184

Telegraph Lines 191

Packets 194

Cost of Government 195


" Tabular view of. 199

Canal Traffic 200

Progress compared 202

Imports and Exports 205

Revenue and Expenditure. 206

Products exported ... 210

Importations and Export's 217

Trade with States 218

Finances for six years. ... 219
Area, population, debt, re-
venue 221

Canal Improvements 222

Debt, &c , compared 225

Forest products 232


" distances 217

Lands granted and un-

granted 230

Manufactories 240


Education 241-249

Newspapers 259


Quebec 260

View of 261

Commerce of. 263

Montreal 263

View of 264

Trade of 266

Victoria Bridge 267

View of 268

Three Rivers (City) 269

Sherbrooke 270

View of. 270

St. Hyacinthe 270

Ottawa (City) 271

View of 271

Kingston 273

View of 272

Hamilton 275

View of 275

London 276

View of 276

Trade of Inland ports 277

Sarnia, Brockville, Belle-
ville, Cobourg, Peter-
borough 277

Port Hope, Beaverton,Gol-

lingwood, Niagara 278

View of Niagara Falls 279

View of Niagara Bridge . . 280
Colborne, St. Catherines,

Queenston 281

Population of Cities 295

Clergymen and Adherents 297
Houses, families, and places

of worship 299

Asylums, Prisons, &c 300

Agriculture 302-313,314

Emigration 318



History of Acadia 31-41

" Nova Scotia 41

Geography 85

Civil Divisions 87

Mines and Minerals 121

Gold Fields 124

Fisheries 161

Banks 172

Post Offices 180

Militia 181

Distances 188

Telegraph Lines. 192

Cost of Government 195


Sources of Revenue 198

Financial View 199

Comparative Progress.. .. 202

Imports arifl Exports 205

Shipping 204

Imp. and Exports compared 205

Revenue and Expenditure . 206

Products exported 210

Debt, &c 225


" projected 229

Lands granted and un-

granted 234

Manufactories 240

Education 250-252

Newspapers 259

Halifax (City) 283

View of. 284

Commerce of 286

Pictou 287

View of. 287

Towns 288

Population of Cities 295

Relig. Denom. of Cities... 296
Clergymen and Adherents 297
Houses, families, and places

of worship 299

Asylums 300

Agriculture. 302-306, 313, 316
Emigration 318



General Description

Subdivisions, & c

Mines and Minerals


Fisheries .


Post Offices



Telegraph Lines

Cost of Government.. . . . .


Sources of Revenue

Financial View

Progress compared

Imports and Exports

Revenue and Expenditure.
Imp. and Exp. for 36 years

Trade with States

Products exported






Debt, &c., compared 225


" projected 229

Lands granted and ungr'd 233

Manufactories . . . 240

Education 253-256

Newspapers 259

St. John (City) 289

View of. 289

Commerce of. ... 291

Fredericton 292

View of. 291

Towns 292

Population of Cities..... . 295

Relig. Denom. of Cities. . . 296
Clergymen and Adherents 29?
Houses, families) and places

of worship 299

Asylums 300

Agriculture. 302-306, 313, 317
Emigration 318




History 43

General Description 94

Subdivisions 96

Mines and Minerals 121

Banks 172

Post Offices 180

Militia....... l&l

Distances 189

Telegraph Lines 194

Cost of Government 195


Sources of Revenue 198

Financial View 199

Progress compared 202

Imports and Exports 205

Revenue and Expenditure. 206

Tabular Financial View. . 207

Shipping 207


Vessels built 208

Products exported 210

Debt, &c., compared 225

Lands 236

Manufactories , 240

Education 256

Newspapers 259

Charlottetown 2942

View of.... 293

Towns 293

Population of Cities 295

Relig. Denom. of Cities... 296
Clergymen and Adherents. 297
Houses, families, and places

of worship 299

Asylums 300

Agriculture.. ....? 302-317

Emigration 318


History 44

Description 88

Civil Divisions 91

Mines and Minerals 129

Fisheries 161-163

Banks 173

Militia 181

Distances 189

Telegraph Lines 193

Cost of Government 195


Progress 202

Imports and Exports 205

Revenue and Expenditure. 206

Products exported 210

Debt, &c., compared 226

Public Lands.. 235

Manufactories 240

Education 257

Newspapers 259

St. Johns 281

View of 282

Towns 283

Population of Cities 295

Relig. Denom. of Cities. . . 296
Houses, families, and places

of worship 297

Clergymen and Adherents 299

Agriculture 302-316,318

Emigration 318



History 47

Cost of Government 195

General Description 97 Statistics of Trade 226

Hudson Bay Territory .... 98 Public Lands 236

Mines and Minerals 127 Newspapers 259

Gold 127 Victoria 294

Fisheries. 163 $ View of. 294

Distances 190 New Westminster 295

Post Offices 194



Public Lands 237

View of Fort Garry 237

Agricultural area . . . , 318




WHEN and by whom America was first visited is unknown ;*
that it was peopled at an early period is beyond dispute. His-
torians inform us that Greenland and other northern parts of it
were visited by the Danes, A.D. 770, and by the Scandinavians
in the years 985 and 1004. It was not, however, until 1492 that
America became known to Europe. In that year Christopher
Columbus, a native of Portugal) but commissioned by Spain,
visited the Western hemisphere.

This discovery subsequent visitors enlarged, extended, and

In place of naming this continent Columbia, in honor of its
discoverer, a subsequent explorer, Americus Vespucius, a Flor-
entine, has inherited the honor, and time has sanctified the error.

In 1497, England commissioned Sebastian Cabotto or Cabot
and others to extend the discoveries of Columbus in America.
Cabot arrived on the north-east coast, Labrador. In the fol-
lowing year he visited the same coast ; and in 1499 he discovered
Newfoundland and other sections of America. About three
years after Cabot's voyage, Corte're'al, a Portuguese, visited the
same coast. About the same time French and other fishermen
commenced taking fish on the grand bank of Newfoundland.

* Authorities consulted : Gameau's History of Canada, (Bell's transla-
tion); Murray on British North America ; Aliburton's History oi Acadia;
and M. Martin's British Colonies.



England claimed North America, on the ground of having
discovered it. France commenced at an early period, after its
discovery by England, to colonize it, and explore parts of the
interior ; hence this nation claimed North America, in 1523,
partly on the ground of discovery, but principally on the ground
of colonization. In the latter year, Verazzani, a Florentine,
commissioned by France, sailed from Florida, in the South, to
Newfoundland in the North. To this extensive region he gave
the name of New France. In 1614, Captain John Smith, of
Virginia, traversed the seaboard from Penobscot to Cape Cod,
to which coast he gave the name of New England.


In 1534, Jacques Cartier, under the auspices of France, entered
the Gulf of St. Lawrence ; and traversed a large extent of its
shore-line. The following year he re-visited America and
ascended the River St. Lawrenqe, and visited the Indian villages
of Stadacona, now Quebec, and Hochelaga, Montreal. To the
mountain in rear of the latter village he gave the name of Royal
Mountain, which, by a slight change in orthography, is the present
name of Canada's most populous city. Cartier returned to
France, and in 1541 re-visited the River St. Lawrence with
five vessels laden with emigrants and supplies. He commenced
to plant a settlement at Stadacona. The Indian tribes at first
were friendly ; soon after, however, they became jealous of
European encroachments on the soil, which they said was given
to them by the Great Spirit. Jealousy soon engendered hos-
tility ; when Cartier and his colonists were obliged to embark
for France.

As the savages figured prominently in the early history of
America, we have devoted a short space, in another part of this
work, to an account of them.

In the following year, Roberval arrived from France, on the
banks of the River St. Lawrence ; he was, like his successors,


invested with vice-regal powers. At this time about 200
colonists of both sexes arrived, nearly one-fourth of whom died
in the winter of 1542-1543.

In the latter year, Cartier again arrived in Canada. The
name " Canada" was at first given to a part of the country
above and below Quebec. It signifies, in the native tongue,
clusters of cabins or villages.

After making some inland explorations, the whole party,
including the Governor and Cartier, returned to France. In
all probability Cartier was the first European who visited the
interior of America. He discovered its importance as a fur-
producing country. And here we may state, in order to avoid
repetition, that the peltry trade was a prominent object with
Europeans, during the first two centuries after Carder's visit.
Sometimes the government of France monopolized it ; but
most generally, it was in the hands of companies, who paid a
stipulated annual amount to the government of France, which
was expended in the Colony. At the. conclusion of the European
wars of 1544, Roberval and a number of emigrants again
embarked for America, but all were lost on the passage.

In 1583, Sir Humphrey Gilbert visited Newfoundland, and
took formal possession of it in England's name. This expedition
was attended with disastrous results.

In 1598, La Rqche landed 40 men on Sable Island, off the
coast of Nova Scotia, and returned to Europe. Seven years
after only 12 of these were found alive.

In 1607, De Monts, the founder of Acadia, sent Samuel
Champlain, his Lieutenant, and a number of colonists to
Stadacona on the St. Lawrence, where they erected a fort and a
number of houses. Champlain was invested with legislative,
executive, and judicial powers. On arriving he found the
Algonquins at war with the Five Nations. Champlain and his
colonists rashly joined the former, which involved the French
in wars which lasted nearly a century. In 1609, M. Pontgrave
arrived with additional emigrants. The French, and their Indian
allies continued at war with the Five Nations with varied sue-


cess. Champlain re-visited his native country, and returned to
Canada with more colonists ; and again, at the recall of De
Monts, returned to France. The Five Nations continually
harassed the settlers. In 1610, Champlain again visited the
River St. Lawrence, where he found the war between the
savages so violent that it was difficult to plant settlements,
which was his principal aim, or penetrate the country. Between
this period and 1616, he made three visits to Canada, during
which he planted some settlements and explored a part of the
country visited Lakes Champlain and Nipissing, and ascended
the Ottawa nearly to its source.

About this time the ecclesiastical authorities in France
endowed a number of conventical institutions in Canada. The
island of Montreal was granted to religious orders who erected
numerous convents on it. And the traders in fur had erected
several factories, where the pelts were prepared for the markets
of Europe.

In 1622, the Indian tribes began to estimate the mastering
force of civilization, and offer terms of peace.

The intestine wars which existed between the Catholics and
Huguenots, in France, gave rise to the proscription of Protestants
in the French colonies of America. And the wars now raging
between England and France made matters still worse. An
English fleet of six ships, commanded by Kertk, arrived at the
mouth of the River St. Lawrence, and, after Capturing several
French vessels, ascended the St. Lawrence in front of Quebec ;
after some skirmishing, this garrison capitulated in July 1629.
Champlain embarked for Europe. Peace, however, between
Great Britain and France was proclaimed before Quebec was
taken. Kertk, not aware of this, captured a French store ship

' In 1632, England renounced all claim to New France, which
included Canada, Hudson's Bay, Labrador, Nova Scotia, New
Brunswick, and a large part of the American States. A treaty
was signed to this effect at German-on-Lay. Champlain, re-
appointed Governor, arrived at Quebec with a body of soldiers


and emigrants. His principal object was to colonize the country
and christianize the savages ; he sent among the latter a number
of Jesuit missionaries. In 1635, the foundation of a Jesuit college
was laid at Quebec. The death of Champlain, which now
occurred, was a great blow to the Colony. He had crossed the
Atlantic ocean fully a score of times, and had spent thirty
years of untiring efforts in equitable diplomacy and christianizing
influences in order to give permanence and stability to French
power in New France.

At this time the Iroquois, a cruel and savage tribe of the
Five nations (six), was waging a war of extermination against
the Hurons ; the latter, being in alliance with the French,
caused the colony much trouble. A new company of French
merchants was now formed surnamed " The Hundred Part-
ners." This formidable association, however, could do but
little, though assisted by the state, to stay the horrid cruelty
and vast effusion of blood. The haughty Five Nations had
ceased to respect the French flag, and daringly pursued the
French settlers to the cannon's mouth.

Between 1640 and 1659, Montreal, the Hochelaga of the
Indians, and Ville Marie or Mariapolis of the French, was
occupied by the latter, who built a fort on it.

The European population of Canada at this time did not
exceed 200 souls. There was now erected at Quebec, a College,
Hospital, and Ursuline Convent; all of which still exist.

The Colonists now received additions to their numbers from
France. They began in 1644 for the first time to sow wheat.
The Five Nations, who were in alliance with the English, were
supplied by the latter with fire arms, which made them more
formidable foes. The French colonists could not go far from
their cannons without protective arms. The Iroquois divided
into bands and made simultaneous attacks on the colonists and
their Huron allies. Battles were gained by both sides ; and
peace frequently made. But through Indian perfidy it seldom
lasted long. In 1646, the Five Nations prosecuted the war
against the French and their Indian allies in the most relentless


manner, cruelly torturing and murdering all they met with.
In 1648 they destroyed the village of St. Joseph, 700 souls - r
and in the following year they strangled 400 helpless women
and children of the Huron tribe ; those whom they killed at
once were the most fortunate, as the others were tortured in
a manner which savages only could do. Other villages, and
even the missionaries shared the same fate. Both the hostile
tribes were equally cruel ; both had alternate successes and
defeats ; but in a closing combat theHurons were almost exter-
minated. Only about 250 of this once numerous tribe remained
at the termination of these hostilities. The Iroquois attacked
the village of St. John, and massacred or enslaved the in-
habitants 600 families.

The Governor of Canada, for want of sufficient force, had to-
look passively on. During the year 1651 and three succeeding
years, all business was suspended, and despair filled every
European mind ; the land could only be cultivated under the-
cannon's range. " The Hundred Partners," although they had
spent about 1,200,000 livres in the country, now had to cease

The Agniers, a savage tribe of the Five Nations, compelled
the Governor at Quebec to deliver up to their brutality the few
Hurons who had fled under the guns of this fort for protection.
Peace was frequently concluded between the French and
savages ; but it was generally on such terms as the latter
dictated. The wars in Europe prevented the French govern-
ment from sending out sufficient forces to subdue the savages.

In addition to these troubles, differences arose, in 1662,
between Bishop Laval and the Governor, which resulted in the
recall of the latter. Dissensions also continued to exist
between this Bishop and subsequent governors.

An earthquake occurred in February, 1663, which frightened
the people into a sort of religious frenzy ; the savages also-
became afraid that the souls of their ancestors were going to
return to the earth, which they lamented, as there would not be
enough game in the country for both generations, the present
and the departed.


In 1663 the total European population did not exceed 2,500
souls, sparsely distributed over a large extent of country. The
savages now sent ambassadors to the Governor asking for
peace ; but past experience destroyed all faith in their pledges ].
and it was concluded that the only way of securing a lasting
peace, and respect to treaties, was to subjugate them by force
of arms.

Between 1626 and 1663, a large part of Canada was divided
into seigniories, and appropriated to military officers, merchants,
and religious corporations ; these again were subdivided into
farms of 90 acres, and burthened with enormous taxes.

It was not until 1854 that the feudal system was abolished by
statutory law ; when a tribunal was established for regulating
the relations of seigniorial landlords and their tenants.

These seigniors had large powers civil and even criminal
jurisdiction. The total number of fiefs or feudal estates in 1854
was 220, possessed by 160 seigniors, and about 72,000 renters.
The area thus occupied was 12,828,503 acres, about one-half of
which was rented. The country was divided into three dis-
tricts Montreal, Three Rivers, and Quebec, and a Governor
located in each ; the Governor-General, however, remained at
Quebec. In the Governor, Intendant, Bishop, and head military
officers were centred all power legislative, executive, and
judicial. In 1651, a judge was appointed over all criminal
matters in the colony, called a " Grand Seneschal." In con-
sequence of abuse of power, this system was remodelled, and a
"Sovereign Council" appointed, which consisted of the Gover-
nor-General, Intendant, Bishop, Attorney-General, and a num-
ber of Councillors (5), afterwards 12. Various courts were
constituted. In 1717 an admiralty court was established.
This system continued till 1760.

The early settlers were easy to govern ; the system was equi-
tably and impartially administered, and at little cost. Not sc-
at present, " the glorious uncertainty of the law" arising from
conflicting enactments and decisions of judges.
In its ecclesiastical state, the Bishop and clergy were all-


powerful ; and the power of the ecclesiastical court was not
unfrequently employed in regulating and controlling the civil
tribunals. Canada was constituted an apostolical vicarate in
1657, and became an episcopal see in 1674, when Francis De
Laval was appointed its first bishop. The Catholic clergy
passed from the hands of the Jesuits into those of the secular
priesthood in 1659. The " regular clergy " consisted of monastic
bodies; while the "secular clergy" that of the Catholic priest-
hood in general. One-twenty-sixth of the products of the soil
was ordered to be paid to the clergy, which is still the case.

Quebec Seminary, now Laval University, was founded by
Bishop Laval. In 1714, seventy-five students attended it; now
(1864) upwards of three hundred.

Though Canada had at an early period its Seminary, Jesuits'
College, Hotel-Dieu, Quebec ; Hotel-Dieu, Montreal ; General
Hospital, Ursuline Convent, and Congregation of Notre Dame,
it was a century and a half after the colony was founded before
the first newspaper was published. The Quebec Gazette was
published at Quebec in 1767; it was printed partly in English
and partly in French. The peasantry did not pay much atten-
tion to education. The Indians still continued to harass the
settlements. Shortly after the arrival of M. De Tracy, Governor-

Online LibraryAlexander MonroHistory, geography, and statistics of British North America .. → online text (page 1 of 25)