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-vINCHELL
SYLLABUS OF GENERAL GEOLOGY




THE LIBRARY

OF

THE UNIVERSITY
OF CALIFORNIA

LOS ANGELES



The RALPH D. REED LIBRARY



DEPARTMENT OF OEOLOOY

UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA

LOS ANGELES, CALIF.

Miss Helen F. Fairbank;



gift of.



SYLLABUS



COURSES OF LECTURES AND INSTRUCTION



GENERAL GEOLOGY.,



FENCES TO SOURCES OF INFORMATION.



BY ALEXANDER WINCHELL, LL. D.



ANN AIJBOIt:

& COMPANY,

BOOKSELLERS AND I'un.i-i;
1879.



SYLLABUS



COURSES OF LECTURES AND INSTRUCTION



GENERAL GEOLOGY,



REFERENCES TO SOURCES OF INFORMATION.



BY ALEXANDER WINCHELL, LL. D.,

PROFESSOR OF GEOLOGY AND PALAEONTOLOGY IN THE UNIVEKSITY OF MICHIGAN.



ANN ARBOR :

<fc COMPANY,
BOOKSELLERS AND PUBLISHERS.
1879.



The solid Earth whereon we tread
In tracts of fluent heat began,
And grew to seeming random forms,
And seeming prey of cyclic storms.
Till at the last arose the man."



" There rolls the deep where grew the tree.
Oh, Erth, what changes hast thou seen !
There, where the long street roars, hath been
The stillness of the central sea.

" The hills are shadows, and they flow

From form to form, and nothing stands.

They melt like mist the solid lands
Like clouds they shape themselves and go."

In Mfmoriam.



Vidi ego quod fuerat quondam solidissima tellns
* Esse fretum : vidi factas ex sequore terras
Et procul a pelago ronchae jacuere marina.

vm: Met.



Ann Arbor Printing and Publishing Company.



nrary



t V,



PREFACE,



In citing sources of information, the references are generally made
first, to two standard text-books, Dana's "Manual of Geology," and
Leconte's " Elements of Geology." Following these are frequent
citations of other text-books and manuals, and some well-known pop-
ular works. Often the references extend to reports of original
researches, especially those of American origin. It has been the aim,
however, to quote few works not known to be generally accessible to
the student. In a few cases, nevertheless, the references will be found
sufficiently complete for advanced students. Thus, most of the impor-
tant original sources are cited under the subjects of Eozoon, Fossil
vegetation of America, Extinct American Reptiles and Extinct Amer-
ican Mammals.

Methods of minuter research are indicated in the " Supplement,"
and here are references to more recondite sources of information.

A. W.

UNIVERSITY OF MICHIGAN, October, 1879.



802015



ABBREVIATIONS,



A. A. A. S.=Proceedingsof the American Association for the Advance-
ment of Science.

Ag.: Sk.=L. Agassiz : Geological Sketches, Boston, 1866.

Am. /our.=American Journal of Science and Arts, New Haven, Hid
Series, unless otherwise noted.

Am. 2Va<. American Naturalist, Salem, Mass., now Philadelphia.

Bakewell : GeoZ.=Bakewell : An Introduction to Geology, etc., Am.
ed., Svo., 1839.

Bui. Hayd. SMr.=Bulletin of the U. S. Geological and Geographical
Survey.

Bid. Nat. Jlfus.=Bulletin of the U. S. National Museum.

Can. .ZVa.=Canadian Naturalist, Montreal.

Cook ; Geol. N. /.Cook : Geology of New Jersey, 1868.

Gotta : Ore Dep Cotta: Treatise on Ore Deposits, New York, 1869.

Cuvier: ZKscoMr-s.=Cuvier : Discours sur les revolutions du globe, 1828.

D. Dana, or Dana : Manual of Geelogy, 2d ed., 1874.

Darwin: Coral Reefs. harles Darwin: Structure and Distribution of
Coral Reefs.

Daws.: Story. Dawson : The Story of the Earth and Man, New York,
1873.

Daws.: Dawn. =Daw son: The Dawn of Life, New York.

De la B.: 06s.=De la Beche : The Geological Observer, 2d ed., London,
1853.

Fig.: World.=Figuier : The World before the Deluge, London ed., 1867.

Fos. & Whit.: L. Sup. :=F 'oster & Whitney : Report on the Geology of
the Lake Superior Land District, 1850-1.

Hayd.: Rep.=~H.ayden : U. S. Geological and Geographical Survey of
the Territories.

Hayd. .Kcp.=Contributed to Hayden's Report.

Hux.=Huxley : The Anatomy of Vertebrated Animals, Am. ed., 1872.

King: Rep.=King : U. S. Geological Exploration of the Fortieth Par-
allel.

King J Re>.=Contributed to King's Report.

L.=Leconte : Elements of Geology, New York, 1878.

Log.: Geol Om.=Logan : Geology of Canada, 1863,



6

Ly.: Man.=Lye\\ : Manual of Elementary Geology, 6th ed., N. Y., 1857.

Ly.: JVm.=Lyell: Principles of Geology, 8th ed., 1850.

Newb., Ives' Rep.=Newberry in Ives's Report, upon the Colorado
River of the West, 1861.

Palxont. /Soe.=Transactions of the Palteontographical Society, London.

P. A. N. S.=Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences, Phila-
adelphia.

P. A. P. S.=Proceedings of the American Philosophical Society, Phil-
adelphia.

P. B. S. N. H.=Proceedings of the Boston Society of Natural History.

Pop, iS'c*. .Jfon. Popular Science Monthly, New York.

Pow. Rep. Powell : U. S. Geographical and Geological Survey of the
Rocky Mountains.

Pow. .Ren.=Contributed to Powell's Report.

Q. J. G. S., or Quar. Jour. Geol. Soc.=Quarterly Journal of the Geolog-
ical Society of London.

Reel.: Earth=E,&cl\i$ : The Earth, etc., Am. ed., 1871.

Reg. .Rep.=Appendix to the Report of the Regents of the University
of the State of New York on the condition of the State Cabinet
of Nat. Hist.

Rep. Coast. Sun>.=Report of the United Status Coast Survey.

W.=Winchell : Sketches of Creation, New York, 1870.

W.: Geo>. Mich.=Winche\\ : First Biennial Report of the Progress of
the Geological Survey of Mich., 1861.

W.: G. T. tf^.^Winchell : The Grand Traverse Region, 1866.

Wheeler Rep.=Contributed to Wheeler's Report, U. S. Geograpical
Surveys west of the 100th meridian.

Whit.: Met. W.= Whitney : Metallic Wealth of the United States, 1854.

W.: JftcA.=Winchell : Michigan, being condensed Popular Sketches
of the Topography, Climate, and Geology of the State, 1873

Woodw.: Man. Mol.= Wood ward : Manual of the Mollusca.



SYLLABUS,



PART I,
INDUCTIVE OR POSITIVE GEOLOGY,



I. OUTLOOK OF THE SUBJECT.

I. Preliminary.

' 1. Distiction between Facts, Doctrines and Speculations.

(1.) The Facts Demonstrable to the senses of all.

(2.) Doctrines are accepted Explanations of the Facts.

(3.) Speculations are explanations still under discussion Possess various degree

of plausibility. -

(3.) Inductive or Positive Geology deals with Facts and Doctrines.

II. G-eology is a History. (D. 4.)

1. History of the Planet (D. 1, 2,3) - History of its organic occu-

pants. (D. 2, 5.)

2. Data or Materials of the History are Relics of former conditions

of the earth and its occupants. (D. 4-5.)

3. Mineral masses Animal remains Vegetable remains.

4. Mineralogy and Chemistry - Zoology Botany.

5. The earth also an Astronomical bod}'.

6. Its Form, Density and Movements determined by Mechanical

principles - And these are Mathematical relations.

7. Geology the Science to which all other sciences are ancillary.

III. The Starting Point of Investigation.

1. Phenomena presented \>y a Drift-covered s'urface.

2. Phenomena presented by an outcrop of Stratified rocks.
(1.) The stratified condition Sedimentation, Lect. VI.

(2.) Relics of aquatic creatures Fossils -^ Paleontology.

(3.) Indications of marine origin.

(4.) Wide existence of such phenomena.



3. The phenomena presented by an outcrop of Unstratified rocks.

(D. 107-8, L. 205-11.)
(1.) Crystalline Non-fossiliferous.

(2.) The rocks traceable to a fissure through stratified beds. (L. 205-7.)
(3.) Indications of igneous origin.

4. Succession in superposition of rocks.
(1.) Often seen in a high hill or mountain slope.
(2.) Often in traveling orer a level country.

(3.) Persistence in order of superposition.

5. Discontinuity of strata. (D. 96.)

(1.) In consequence of erosions Illustration.

(2.) lu consequence of non-deposition.

(3.) Land and sea-covered areas.

(4.) Geological sections Illustration. (D. 148, 166.)

(5.) Geological maps Illustrations. (D. 144.)

IV. Determination of the Normal Series of Rocks.

1. Generalization from many observations.

2. An Ideal section of the known rocks. (Chart.)
(1.) A graduation of rocks from top to bottom.

(2.) Indications of successive depositions.
(3.) Indications of progressive cooling.
(4.) Progressive changes in organization.
"V (5.) General classification of the rocks. (D. 133-43; L. 269-71.)

f Cenozoic. )

Aqueous or I Mesozoic. J. stratified and Fossiliferous.
Sedimentary. | Palaeozoic, j

[ Eozoic. Imperfectly stratified. Few fossils.
Igneous or crystalline. Of all ages. No fossils.



II. RECORDS OF PAST CONDITIONS OF THE EARTH.

I. Traces of past conditions the Material of the History.

1. Certain terrestrial changes in visible progress.

2. Similar results traceable indefinitely into the past.

II. Traces of the former action of the Sea.

1. Fossil shells far from the sea and at high altitudes.

(1.) Ancient opinions concerning them. (Lyell: Prin. Bk. i, ch. iii.; Marsh. Sara-
toga Add. Am. Asso., 1879 : Hallam : Literature of Europe, i., 228-30) " Freaks
of Nature" "Plastic Power" " Experimental Moulds " "Fortuitous
Concourse of atoms" " The Mosaic Deluge" " Influence of the Stars."

(2.) They are genuine debris Illustrations from the remains of shore-shells or of
human industry. (W. 18-22.)

2. Sea-beaches far inland Valley of St. Lawrence. (D. 549 ; Ly.

Prin., 178, 482; De la Beche: Observer, 445-57.)

3. Changes of sea-level actually observed. (D. 582-5; L. 127; W.

19-25; De la Beche: Obs., 435-44; R6clus, 527-55, 562-7, map of
upheavals and depressions.)



9

(1.) Scandinavia. (D. 582: L. 129; Lyell, Prin., 499-511; Reel us, 531.)
V (2.) Temple of Jupiter Serapis. (D. 584 ; Lee., 127-8; W. 19 ; Lyell, Prin., 489.)

(8.) Old Roman roads. (Ly. Prin., 493.)

(4.) Oscillations observed in America. (Cook: Geol. N. J., 350-73; Dawson, Quar.
Jour. Geol. Soc., xi., 119 ; Hitchcock : Geol. Mass., 307; Jackson : Geol. N. H., 280 ;
Long Island Hist. Soc., May, 1868 ; Reclus, eh. Ixxxiv.) Subsidence at St. Au-
gustine, Fla. ^ Elevations in.Pamlico Sound * Subsidence on the coast of
N. J. fan Nantucket Harbor Elevations along the New England
Coast Rotation of Grand Manan ' Rotation of Nova Scotia / Submer-
gence of the site of Louisbourg, (Cape Breton.) x Six hundred miles of the
coast of Greenland sinking for 600 years. (D. 583; L. 129 ; Reclus, 555.)
" (5.) Sea-waves on the coast of Chili and Peru in 1590, 1730, 1751, 1822, 1835, 1837, 1868'
1877. (D. 585. 662, 742 ; L. 130; Lyell : Prin., 435, 439, 481 -Pop. Sei. Monthly, Sup,
Dec., 1877 ; Hep. U. S. Coast Survey, 1862, 1869.)

(6.) Actual emergences of hew islands. (W. 23; Reclus, 489-96; Lyell: Prin., 416)

425,449) Graham, I., 1831 Sabrina in the Azores, (De la Beche : 06s.

100-1) Santorin, (De la Beche: 06s., 391-7.) Aleutians, 1806, 1814 In

the Pacific. (D. 84) Conjecture concerning the Symplegades.

X7.) Effects of a moderate depression in Illinois. (Bannister : Geol. III., iii., 241,)

III. Traces of the former action of Heat.
1. Baked sandstones, limestones and shales.

'2. Refrigerated molten rocks. In western U. S. (L. 207 ; King i.,
545-677 ; Gilbert in Wheeler Rep. iii., 118-131, 525-41 ; Howell in
id., 297 ; Stevenson in id., 411-25; King, Am. Nat., xi., 459. See
further Lect, XXVI.)

3. Some traces of fire older than those of water.

IV. Unextinguished Fires. (D. 699.)

1. Volcanoes. (D. 702-16; L. 81-93; Ly., Prin., 526-32; De la Beche,
Obverv., 317-48 ; Bakewell : Geol., 311-44 ; R<clus, 419-52; 458-74;
See further Lect. XXVI.)

^ 2. Hot springs. (D. 692 ; Ly. Prin., 238-49 ; Gilbert, Wheeler Rep., iii.,
150 [136 localities in U. S.] : Hayden, Ann. Rep., 1871, 64-198
[Geysers] ; Bakewell, Geol, 443, 447-50 ; Reclus, 234-7. See fur-
ther, Lect. XXVI.)

3. Mines and tunnels. (Nature, 3 Apr., 1879, 510) Mont Cenis
(Matthew, Canad. Nat., vi., 96) 'St. Gothard (Geol. Rep., Italy,
1873, Nature, 30 Jan. 1879, 303) On the Comstock lode (Church,
Am. Jour., xvii., 289) Sutro tunnel, N. Y. Daily Tribune, 6

Sept. 1879, diagrams.)

i 4. Artesian borings. (D. 699 ; Ly. Prin., 236 ; De la B6che : 06s., 463-7
Rfclus, 233, 480-8) - Alabama (W. Proc. Am. Asso., 1856
St. Louis (Litton: Trans. St. Louis Acad., i., 84 ; Brodhead: Mo.
Geol. Rep., 34) - Sperenberg (Nature, 11 Jan., 1877.)

V. Foundation Stones of the Land. - Granites, Gneisses, and

other rocks bearing marks of fire. (Lect. III.)

VI. Records of Extinct Populations. (Lects. IV.-XVII.)



10
I1L THE OLDEST KNOWN ROCKS.



On Rocks, see Von Cotta: Rock* classified and described, London ed., 1866; Blum :
Handbuch der Lithotogle und Gesteinlehfe, Erlangen, 1860 ; Brooks : Geology of Iron Region
of Mieh. in Geology of Mich., i, chap, iii.-iv.; Julien, in Oeol. of Mich., ii.; Hawes in Hitch-
cock's Geol. of y. If., pt. iv., Mineralogy and Lithology, in vol. iii.: Foster and Whitney:
Geology of Lake Superior Land District; Zirkel: Lehrbuch der Petrographie, Bonn, 1866,
_' vols.. 8vo,; Zirkel : Die Mikroskopisc.he Beschaffenheit der Mineralien und Qesteine, Leip-
zig, 1873, 8vo.; Rosenbusch : Mikroskopische Physiographic der Mineralien und Gesteine.
Bin Hulfsmittel bei mikroskopischen Gesteinstudien. Stuttgart, 1873, 2 vols., 8vo.

I. Earliest Bocks on a cooling Planet.

1. Hypothesis of a fire-formed crust. (D. 146-7.)
1. Commencement of sedimentation. (D. 147.)

(1.) Implies a cooled rock-surface and an ocean. (D. 147.)

(2.) Chemical Precipitation in Primeval Ocean. (D. 147; W. 60-1; Hunt: Chem. and

Geol. Estays, iid paper)

(3.) Vast accumulation of stratified materials. (D 147.)
3. Cause of disappearance of fire-formed crust.
(1.) The Isogeothermal plane.

(2.) Ascent of isogeothermal planes as sediments accumulate.
(3.) Progressive Melting or softening of under surface of crust.
(4.) Progressive Metamorphism at higher levels.

II. Classification and thickness of Archaean rocks. ( D. 140, 146;

Hitchcock : Geol. N. H ii., 468 ; Hunt : Chem. and Geol. Essays.
TjccmunC^

1 (Upper. (

I Huronian. ^ ^20,000 feet.

(Lower. (

iEozoic. I Labradprian, 10,000)
V 30 000 feet
Laurentian, 20,000 J



PYROLITHIC (Hypothetical.) ^ *



[A " Montalban " series is placed by T. S. Hunt above the Huronian, and by C. H.
Hitchcock below the Labradorian.J

III. Surface exposures of Archaean Books.

1. The Fundamental Rocks everywhere.

2. The great nuclear area in British America, and its appendages in

N. Y., Mich., and Wis. (D. 150, 160; W. 74; Daws.: Dawn, 7, 8;
Foster and Whitney: L. Sup., Pt. ii., 8; Irving: Geol. Wis., 1877
461-524.)

3. The Appalachian system of areas. (D. 150.)

4. Trans-Mississippi exposures. (King i., 15-98. See also Lects.

XXIIL, XXIV., XXV.



11

IV. Kinds of Rocks.

1. Laurentian predominantly granitoid, of both micaceous and

hornblende series. (D. 151, 67-70.) - Also crystalline lime-
stones. (D. 151 ; Logan : Geol. Can., 1863). - Iron ores. (Per-
haps those of Mich., D. 151, 159. See below.) Graphite.
(D. 151, 152 ; Logan : Geol. Can., ch. iii. and 586-93 ; Daws.: Dawn,
18, 27-33. See also general references above.)

2. Huronian predominantly quartzose. Also diorites, limestones,

iron and copper ores. (D. 159; Logan: Geol'. Can., ch. iv., and
594-6; 572-87; Brooks in Geol. Mich., p. 1-319; Pumpelly, Geol,
Mo., 31-214; Moore, in Geol. Mo., 1874, 638-71.)

3. Richness in Minerals. (D. 151-2.)

V. Condition of the Strata.

1. Highly disturbed. (D. 153; L. 272-3.) - Sections. (D. 148, 153 ;

L. 273; Hitchcock: Geol. N. H., ii., 15-36; King, i., Diagr., pi. i.;
ch. ii.. pi. ii., and Atlas, Map L, sections; Brooks: Geol. of Mich.,
i., 184 ; Daws.: Dawn, 13 ; Campbell : Am. Jour., xviii., 19, 121,
showing relations of newer rocks.)

2. Metamorphic - Explanation. (D. 724 ; Bischof : Chemical Ge-

ology; Daubree : Etudes synthetiques de Geologic experimental;
Hunt: Chemical and Geological Essays.)

3. Subjected to enormous denudation. (Lects. XXVIII., XXIV.

XXVII.)



IV. THE DAWN OF LIFE.



DAWSON : The Dawn of Life.

I. A hypothetical Protophytic period.

1. A strictly inorganic period must have existed. (D. 146.)

2. Mutual dependence of the kingdoms of life.

3. The vegetable the necessary forerunner of the animal.

4. Geological indications of early Laurentian vegetation.

II. Remains supposed Organic in Laurentian strata. Daws., as

above.)

1. These strata once known as " Azoic." (Foster & Whitney : Geol.

Lake Sup., pt. ii., 8.)

2. Suspicions based on iron-ores and graphites. (Hunt : Am. Jour., II.,

xxv., 431 ; Dawson : Dawn, 24-7.) A deductive discovery

as in exact science.

3. Organisms found Oct. 1858. (Logan : Canad. Nat., iv., 300 ; Geol.

Can., 49; Quar. Jour. Geol. Soc., Feb. I860; W. 435-7.)



12

(1.) Stratigraphical position. (D. 158.) Mineral Associations. (Daws.: 113-26 ;

Hoffman: Am. Jour. Set., i., 378; Jour. f. prakt. Chemie, May, 1869.)
(2.) Eozoon canaderwe as found Description and illustrations. (D. 158 : L. 275 ;

W.68; Daws.: Dawn, 59-93.
(4.) Its zoological affinities. Dawsonand Carpenter : Quar. Jour. Geol., Soc., Feb.,

1865 : Daws.: Dawn, 59-93 Anuzba and Actinophrys. (W.. 70 ; Daws.: Dawn

60) Compare StromatoporidiE. (W. Proc. Am. Asso., 1866.)
(4.) Its mode of Life. (Daws.: Dawn, 69-71.)

4. Foraminifera in all ages. (D. 131, 460, 471 ; Daws.: Davon., 62-5,

72-6. Their work in building up the continents. (D. 512;
Daws.: Story, 241-3 ; Fig.: World, 241-4) Numimilites and

their structure. (D. 131, 515.) Nummulitic limestone of
the Pyramids. (D. 512; L. 485) Orbitoides in America.

(Daws.: Story, 241.)

5. Organic Nature of Eozoon questioned King and Rowney.

(Quar. Jour. Geol. Soc., Aug., 1866; Am. Jour. Sci., II., xliv.,375;
Proc. Royal Jrish Acad., July, 1869, and Jan. and Apr., 1871 ; Am.
Jour., L, 68, 138-42; ii., 211-5.) Burbank (Proc. Am. Assoc.,

1871,262-6) Carter. ( ) - Otto Hahn.

(cited Am. Jour. Sci., June, 1872, 492) Karl Mobius. (Palseonto-
graphica, 1878, vol. xxv., Republished separately : see account in
Nature, 17 and 24 July, 1879. See also Mobius in Am. Jour. Sci.,
xviii., 177, Sep. 1879) - Otto Kuntze. (Nature, 28 Aug., 1879.)

6. All objections promptly met. (Quar. Jour. Geol. Soc., Aug., 1866!

Carpenter: Proc. Roy. Soc., No. xciii., 503; Hunt: Proc. Roy. Irish
Acad., July 12, 1869; Carpenter: Ann. Nat. Hist., June. 1874;
Daws.: Dawn, 169-206; Am. Jour., xvii., 196, March, 1879; Car-
penter and Dawson : Nature, 31 July, 1879.

III. Conditions of Land and Water when Eozoon appeared.

1. No positive evidence of land. But the Laurentian rocks are

partly fragmental.

2. The sea still in a tempestuous state.

IV. A long pause through the Huronian Age. Probable future

discoveries Supposed foreign equivalents.



V. GEOLOGICAL CLASSIFICATION.



I. Two Geological Conceptions, Time and Events.
1. Events or results of geological activity.

(4.) Among the Rocks : They differ in Constitution. ' Silicious, Aluminous
and Calcareous. (D. 65; Lyell: Man., 11-12.) They differ in relations of
Position. Unconformability. (D. 100.) This implies changes of level

of sea-bottom. Marks boundary line in succession of deposits. (L. 269.)



13

(2.) Among the Fossils: Progressive change. Sudden transitions.
Generally corresponds with unconformability. (King: Am. Nat., xl., 469.)
Transitions graduated by new discoveries. Have cataclysms occurred?
(Cuvier: Discours; Lyell : Prin.) The truth lies between the cataclysmic,
and the uniformitarian theories. (King: Am. Nat., xi., 461-70; L. 288, 317, 333,
495.)

2. Time - - Marked off by events - - Greater and less divisions
of time - Corresponding significance of the events.

II. Terms employed.

1. Rocks: Layer, Stratum, Formation. - Formations arranged
in Sub-groups or Stages, Groups, Systems and Great Systems.

2. Time : Arranged in Epochs, Periods, Ages and Times or

^Eous.

3. Correlation of terms in relation to Rocks and Time.

In reference to Time. In reference to Rocks. Examples.

TIMES or .EONS. GREAT SYSTEMS. Eozoic, Paleozoic.
AGES. SYSTEMS. Laurentian, Silurian.

Periods. Groups. Primordial, Canadian.

Epochs. Stages. Acadian, Potsdam.

4. Geographical origin of proper names.

III. General Historical Classification of Bocks and Geological

Time. (D 140; L. 201 ; W. 437-8, and Geol. Chart; Marsh: Am.
Jour., xvi., pi. iv. - - European Equivalents. (Cope, Bulletin
Hayden Survey, v. 50-1 ; W.: Geol. Chart.)

IV. Intrusive Bocks. Veins. (D. 108; L. 225-39; Wb.itn.ey :

Metallic Wealth U. S.; v. Cotta * Ore Deposits.) Dikes. (D.
109,111.) - Faulting. (D. Ill ; L. 222-5. See further Lect.
XXVI.)

VI. SEDIMENTATION.

De La Beche : Geological Observer, chaps, v., vi., and vii.; Dana : Manual, 649, 665-674.

I. Constitution of Sediments

1. Chemical Precipitation. (De la Beche: 06s., 102-111; Bischof:

Chemical Geology.

(1.) Most active in primeval ocean. Sketch of reactions. (W. 59-61.)
(2.) Always in progress to some extent. Submarine emanations. Certain

mineral springs. Evaporation. (De la Beche, 106.)
(3.) Mostly calcareous. Often gypseous and saline. In the primitive sea

partly aluminous and silicious.

2. Organic Deposits. (De la Beche, 112-64 ; D. 59-62, 606-626.)

(1.) In bulk. (D.614.) Exuviae of molluscs. L. 153,) Foraminifera. (D.
477,671 ; L. 453-4; Bailey, Smithsonian Contributions, ii., and^m. Jour. II., xvii.,
176, xxii., 282 ; Pourtales : Trans. Am. As$o., 1850., 84, and Rep. Coast Survey, 1853,
1858, Letter to Prof. Bache, 17 May, 1862.) Vitalized stony growths.
Corals. (D. 59, 617-26 ; L. 138-53 ; Dana : Corals and Coral Islands.)



14

3. Pulverized. - About reefs. Disintegrated exuviae. (D.

615, 621.)
3. Fragmental deposits. (D. 667.)

(1.) Of Littoral origin. (D.647; L.31,36.)
(2.) Of Fluviatile origin. (D. 647 ; L. 20, 22.J

II. Cementing Materials. Carbonate of lime. (D. 692.)

Silica. (D.693, 725.) - Oxyd of iron. (D. 695.)

III. Coloring Materials, - Yellow, red and black iron oxyds.

- Iron silicate. - Maganese. (D. 759.)

IV. Sediments in relation to Distance from Shore.

1. Littoral deposits coarser.

2. Deep-water deposits finer. (L.,40.) Diminished in volume.

3. Deep-water deposits often calcareous. (D. 671.)

4. Local variations in the same sheet of sediments. (D. 80, 666-7.

Conglomerates, sandstones, aluminous sandstones, Shales, calcar-
eous shales, limestones. (D. 667, 669-72.) Cross-bedding,
(D. 82, 83; Hayden, Rpp., 1874, pi., vi,) These variations
well illustrated in North America. (D. 670, 671, et passim.)

5. Effect of slow submergence or emergence. - - Extension of lit-

toral deposits. (D. 672-3.)

V. The Sedimentary Cycle. (W. 133-6, 1870; Newb.: Geol. 0., ii.,

82-3, 1874; Proc. A. A. A. S., 1874, 185-96; Edward Hull: Q. Jour.
G. /S'., xviii., 127-46, 1862 ; Geol. Mag.,.v. 143 ; Quar. Jour Sci., vi.,
353 ; Dawson : Q. J. G. S., xxii., 101-3, 1865 ; Acadian Geol., 135 ;
Address before Nat. Hist. Soc., Montreal, 1865 ; Compare Hunt:
Geol. Can., 1863, 576-8 ; Am. Jour. Sci., II., xxxv., 1863, 167 ; Eaton:
Geol. Text Book, 1832, and Am. Jour., II., xxiii., 281 ; Worthen :
Geol. Ill, i., 112-3, 1866.

1. Graduated intensity of action through each period.

2. Deposits graduated accordingly. Coarse Fragmeutal, Fine

Fragmental, Calcareous, Calcareo-fragmental. (D. 80.)

3. Each system and group presents a cycle of sediments. Illus-

trate. (W. 134.)

4. Prominence of the Limestone mass in each cycle. This a

conspicuous landmark for identification, (W. 135-6.)

VH. THE REIGN OP TRILOBITES, OR THE LOWER SILURIAN
AGE.

See official Geological Reports, especially those of New York, Ohio, Illinois, Canada.
Murchison : The Silurian System, and Siluria.

On the general subject of Palaeontology see NICHOLSON : Manual of Palxcmtology, and
PICTKT : Paleontologie, 4 vols. and Atlas of 110 plates.



15

For list of lower Silurian Fossils, see Miller : The Americun Palseozoic Fossils, 1877 ;
Bigsby : Thesaurus Siluricus, 1868.

For complete bibliography, see C. A. White's, Bibliography of North American Inver-
tebrate Paleontology, 1878, Hayden Survey, " Miscellaneous Publications;" No. 10, 1878, and
Supplement to Bibliography, from " Bulletin " of the Survey, vol. 5, No. 1, 28 Feb. 1879.
I. Lower Silurian Bocks.

1. General aspect. Mineral constitution and condition.

2. Relations to the Eozoic. (L. 281.) Unconforinability.

Sections. (D. 166; W. 84; L. 277; Campbell: Am. Jour. Sci.,-
xviii., 19, 121.)

3. Groups : Primordial, Canadian and Trenton. (D. 163.) Place

of the Galena limestone. (D. 196, 197.)

4. Exposures : (1.) St. Johns, N. B. Georgia, Vt.; Braintree, Mass.; Minn.; Wis.;

Lake Superior. (W.- 82-93; Foster and Whitney; Geol. L. Sup.; Brooks; Geol.

Mich.; Black Hills, Dak. (N. H. Winchell : Ludlow's Sep. on Black Hills, 1874,


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