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and successive variations, since such a transformation could
only be w^'ought out through an indefinite scries of interme-
diate forms, of which no trace has been found in any country
(pp. 246-267).



142 APPENDIX.

X. Comparative Resume contrasting Facts with

Theory.

Sucli a comparison is best set fortli by a diagrammatic ar-
rangement shown on the opjDosite page, which we reproduce,
and leave to speak for itself. The first column gives the
names of the zoological groups, arranged in the order of rank.
In the next two columns the actual development of the groups
is represented by the relative lengths of the black lines. In
the fourth column the development of the groups in the first
phase of the Primordial Fauna is shown as it should be, ac-
cording to theories of evolution, while the fourth column shows
it as it is. In the last column are given the totals of species
known in the first phases of the Primordial Fauna of the
Silurian.

XI. Conclusions from the preceding Studies.

At the beginning of this discussion we alluded to the won-
derful confirmation of certain astronomical previsions by the
facts of observation. The theories, then, on which such pre-
visions are based must be in harmony with the reality.

By contrast, we have now established, as the final result of
our studies, that direct observation contradicts radically all
previsions of jjaleontological theories on the subject of the
comiDOsition of the first phases of the Primordial Fauna of the
Silurian.

In fact, the special study of each of the zoological elements
which constitute these phases has demonstrated to us that
the theoretic previsions are in complete discordance with the
facts observed by paleontology. These discordances are so
numerous and so pronounced, that the composition of the real
fauna seems to have been calculated by design for contradict-
ing every thing which the theories teach us respecting the
first appearance and primitive evolution of the forms of ani-
mal life upon the earth.



APPENDIX.



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Ui APPENDIX.

These results, moreover, are in perfect harmony with those
heretofore deduced from studies on the first appearance and
the distribution of cephalopods in the Silurian countries.

It remains to learn whether the discordances demonstrated
ought to be imputed solely to the essential principle of the
theories of filiation and transformation, or proceed in any part
from then- point of departure in paleontology, that is, from
the supposed animal nature of Eozoon. This is a question
whose solution we leave to those interested.

For us, we persist in thinking that science ought to main-
tain itself strictly within the sphere of observed facts, and rest
completely independent of every theory which would tend to
tempt it into the sj)here of the imagination.



INDEX.



AmOGENESIS, 101.

Acceleration iu embryouic develop-
ment, 43.
Acephals wanting in Primordial, 131.
Agassiz on specific derivation, 44.
Agnostus, 66, 13S, 140.
Analysis of the Essaj', 11.
Ancient opinions, 116.
Anticipation of environment, SI, 8G,

Apes in relation to man, G2.

Aphides, 53.

Appetency, 40.

Archceojiteri/x, 35, 85.

Archegenesis, 101.

Archegenesis viewed as creation, 116.

Archetypes, 23.

Archetypes, correlation to, 77-92.

Ascidians, 63.

Astronomical facts, 19.

Atheistic admissions, 104.

A trypa reticularis, 59.

Barnakd's admissions, 113.
Barraude on paleontological facts, 05,

1-25.
Barrande versus Darwin, 125.
Bible, how vindicated, 114.
Bohemilla, 140.

Brachiopods according to Morse, 134.
Brachiopods in Primordial, 134.
Breaks in the chain of affinities, 62.
Breaks in the geological series, 03.
Buchanan on theism of evolution, US.
Burbauk and Perry on Eozoi'm, 05.

Camrrian fossils, 141.
Causes, efficient and conditioning, 90,
97.



Cephalopods wanting in Primordial,

135.
Cercaria, 53.

Chapman on Darwinism, 42.
Christlich's errors, 26.
Co-existence, facts of, IS, 2S.
Conclusions, 121.
Co7ioce2Jhali(es, 00, 139.
Conspectus of development theories,

44.
Cooling, extensive effects of, 19-22.
Cooling of terrestrial matter, 24.
Cope on derivation of species, 43, 51.
Correlation to archetypes, 77.
Correlation of physical and vital forces,

97.
Creation by fdiation, 115.
Credibility of filiativc derivation, 115.
Criterion of a law of nature, 127.
Cross-breeding, 31.
Crustaceans iu relation to derivaliou,

129.
Cuvier on development, 39, 50.

Dana on comprehensive types, 35, 70.

Darwinism, 30, 41,42, 47.

Darwin on origin of species, 30.

Darwin on theism of development, 119.

Dawson's severity, 112.

Deinosauria in relation to develop-
ment, OS.

De Maillet on transmutation, 37.

Derivation perhaps a mode of crea-
tion, 115.

Developmental co-ordinations imply
intelligence, 110.

Developmcntists before Darwin, 3S.

Diagram contrasting facts aud theo-
ries, 143.



U6



INDEX.



Discordances shown by trilobites, 136.
Distribution vertically of Primordial

fossils, 128.
Divine agency in nature, 109.
Domesticated animals, 55.

Efficient and conditioning causes,

96, 9T.
Egyptian mummies, 56.
Elephant, 72.

Embryo of man branchiate, 87.
Embryology and derivation, 29, 42, 45.
Embryology of trilobites, 138.
Embryonic affinities, 29.
Environment of animals and plants,

30.
Eozoon, 33, 64, 65, 127, 130, 132.
Eozobn related to polyps, 132.
Equidce in relation to development,

89.
Evolution, comparison of theories of,

48-51.
Evolution, definition of, 15.
Evolution, doctrine of extended, 15,

41.
Evolution in the organic world, 27,

110.
Evolution in the physical world, 18-26,

105.
Evolution of ideas, 36.

Facts as opposed to derivation, 53.
Facts of co-existence, 18, 28.
Facts of succession, 23, 32.
Family types of Primordial fossils, 139.
Ferris on derivation of species, 44, 53.
Finitude of the physical series, 105.
Fishes historically considered, 68.
Foraminifera wanting in Primordial,

130.
Forces of matter are what? 108.
Foster on theism of evolution, 118.
Functional relations, SO.
Fundamental types, 33.

Gaps in the chain of affinities, 62, 63,

129, 139.
Gaps in the geological record, 63, 129,

131.



Gar-pikes, 86.

Gegeubaur on Darwinism, 41.

Genetic relationships argued, 45.

Geographical distribution of Primor-
dial fossils, 12S.

Geological facts bearing on evolution,
IS, 32, 59, 63.

Geological succession of types, 32.

Germs in the air, 102.

Giraffe, 72.

Gray on development, 40.

Gray on theism of development, 120.

IIakokel on Darwinism, 41, 48.

Ileterogenesis, 101.

Ileteropods wanting in Primordial,

135.
Hijrparion, 90.
Hrppothcriiim, 90.
Holmes, on God in nature, 121.
Homologies, 77, 78, S3, 85, 87, 89, 90.
Hooker on development, 40.
Hooker on plant-distribution, 75.
Horses, American, 82, 89.
Horses, wild, 81.

Humboldt on habits of monkeys, 74.
Huxley on derivation of sjjecics, 40,

55.
Huxley on man and apes, C2.
Huxley on molecules, 96.
H'lxley on final causes, 120.
Hyatt on origin of species, 42, 51.
Hybridity, 32, 55.

Ideal concepts in organization, 79, SO,
S3, 87.

Identical forms and diverse influ-
ences, 82.

Identical influences and deficient re-
sults, 74.

Identical influences and various re-
sults, 76.

Imperfection of the geological record,
64.

Incandescent cosmical vapor, 23.

Incipient organs, 73.

Incongruities of natural selection, 94.

Instinct and intellect, 30.

Intelligence of brutes fixed, 58.



INDEX.



147



Intellit^ent plama in nature, ST. I Os coccygi?, R5.

Intolerance of changed coudilions, 70. Ostracods, 07, 140,



Introduced specie?, 82.
Intuitions, 113.

King and Kowney on Eozoon, G5.
Kollikcr ou development, 43, 53.

LABYBINTnODONTS, 78, 88.

Lamarckiauism, 38, 46, 100.
Lamarck ou development, 38, 56.
Lapide ou creation, lit.
Lepidosteidce, 87.
Logan on Archean strata, 126.
Lyell on variability of species, 54.
Lyman ou tlieism in science, 120.

Max in relation to development, 40.

Marsh on Siredon, 51.

M'Cosh ou theism of evolution, 118.

Metaphysical objections, 02.

Microdiscns, 138.

Migrant species, 66, 128.

Migration under changed conditions,

70.
Mind and struggle for existence, 95.
Mivart ou derivation of species, 44,

52.
Mivart ou theism in development, 121.
Molluscs in Primordial, 130.
Monad life, 102.
Morse ou brachiopods, 134.
Mummies from Egypt, 5G.

Nattjual selection conservative, 100.

Natural selection not a cause, 96.

Nebular theory, 23.

Kecturus; 85, 86,

Numbers demanded by Darwinism, 98.

Objections distributed, 99.

Objectious to derivative theories, 53.

Opinion of Moses on archegeuesis, 117.

Opinions of ancients, IIG, 117.

Opinions of priests of Middle Ages,
117.

Opinions, recent, ou tlie'.sna of evolu-
tion, lis.

OroJnpjnis, 90.



Owen on development, 43, 52.

Owen on theism of development, 119.

PAP.AnoxiPE8, 06, 69, 128, 137, 139, 140.
Parallelism of genealogical lines, 61.
Parsons ou derivation of species, 43,

52.
Parthenogenesis a misnomer, 53.
Phases of the Primordial fauna, 128.
Physical cause a definite quantitj', 92.
Physical forces act in cycles, 94.
Physical influences antagonizing, 71.
Physiological forces and development,

71.
Planets, conditions of, 20.
Plants, distribution of, 75.
Polyps wanting in Primordial, 132.
Porpoise, 79, 80, 82.
Primitia, 67, 140.
Primordial causation, 107.
Primordial fauna, 120, 127.
Primordial state of matter, 23.
Primordial zone, C6, 126.
Prolonged embryonic development,

42.
Proto1dpx>us, 90.

Protozoa rare in Primordial, 130.
Pterodactyl, 77.
Pteropods in Primordial, 135.

Rf.abon an admissible authority, 107.

Reconciliation between scieuce and
religion, 109.

Reptiles in relation to development,
68.

Retardation of embryonic develop-
ment, 51.

Retrogression, SO, 138,

Reversal of graduated order, 08.

Rudimentary organs, 84-87.

SoiF.NTiFic truths not to be gainsaid,

112.
Self-existence demanded, 106, 107,
Silurian fossils, 04, 125,
Simplest types still survive, 70.
Siredon lichenoidci^, 51.



14.8



INDEX.



Spencer on evolution, 15.

Spiritual concepts and the struggle for

existence, 95.
Splint bones in the horse, S9.
Spontaneous generation, 101.
Spore, tenacity of life of, 103.
Spores in the air, 102.
Stars, conditions of, 21.
St. Aquinas on creation, IIT.
St. Augustine on creation, 117.
St. Hilaire on development, S9.
Stone Age, Relics of, 5S.
Strophomeiia rhomboidalis, 60.
Structural relationships, 33.
Struggle for existence, 39, 131.
Succession, facts of, 23, 32.
Suddenness of acquisition, 91.
Superphysical force indicated, T3, SI.

Tadpole, SI, 86.

Theism and derivation, 105.

Theism and spontaneous generation,
116.

Theistic bearings of doctrine of evo-
lution, 104.

Theology beyond the reach of phys-
ical science, 104, 107.

Theories of development, 30.

Theories of development, conspectus
of, 44.



Theory, nebular, 23.

Thorax of trilobites, 133,

Trilobites in relation to development,

CO, 67, 69, 128, 136.
Trilobites, predominance of, 130.
Types and archetypes, 28.
Types, comprehensive, 35, 88.
Types, fundamental, 33.
Tj'pes, generic, unchanged, 61.
Types, prophetic, 34, 88.
Types, retrospective, 35.
Types, synthetic, SS.

Unity independent of can?e of evoln-

tion, 111.
Unity of cosmical phenomena, 19-22.
Unity of geological phenomena, 19.

Vahiability of species, 31, 54-01.
Varying action of organic forces, 93.
"Vestiges of Creation" on develop-
ment, 42.
Vital forces, 97, 103.

Wallace on derivation of species, 39.

Wallace on theism of development,
119.

Wheeled vehicles homologically con-
sidered, 90.

Will, the only ultimate cause, lOS.



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Online LibraryAlexander WinchellThe doctrine of evolution; its data, its principles, its speculations, and its theistic bearings → online text (page 9 of 10)