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English Colonization









'Of all the results of English HLtoi<y c nc,iie;'is canvparablt/o ;the creation of
this enormous, prosperous, in great part homogeneous Realm, and it can be
paralleled by nothing in the history of,^n}othr Jb'tfkieVo ; JP::ofre&:$o S/^ELEY.


743 & 745 BROADWAY


[All rights reserved]


IN this Manual the broad principles laid down in
the General Plan of the Series have been kept in view,
expressing, as they do, the method of lecturing upon the
subject adopted by the writer as a University Extension
Lecturer in the years 1880-1890. The actual course of
events is sketched in a general way, and afterwards the
more important phases of the history are treated separately.
The history is studied in the light of Political Science,
Political Economy and Ethnology, and, at the same time,
with close reference to the observations and opinions
of travellers, statesmen, and colonists; while Poetry and
Fiction have also been recognised.

The fact that so many problems of Imperial interest are
still being worked out, and that this particular time is one
of great activity and considerable change, has proved a
difficulty. Some questions still open will be solved, or the
conditions which give rise to them will be altered, before
this century closes, and others will, no doubt, be opened.
It is hoped that the treatment here given will enable
the student to follow these developments with increased
interest, and to place them in proper connexion with the
history of the Empire and of Colonization generally.




France and Spain, before they were single kingdoms, circa 1400 . . 7

Spain. Dominion of Charles V in Europe 19

Dominion of Charles V in America "19

The Early Partition of America 28

The Thirteen Colonies, 1664-1783 48

India. As left by Clive, 1767 62

As left by Wellesley, 1805 62

,, As left by Lord Hastings, 1823 63

,, As left by Dalhousie, 1856 63

As left by Lord Dufferin, 1888 64

British Empire, 1690 86

,, ,, 1790 88

,, ,, 1890 90

South Africa in 1890 (coloured) To face p. 110

The Partition of Africa (coloured) To face p. \T.Z

West Indies. Leeward and Windward Islands 147

Fifty Years' Growth of the Trade of the British Empire . . .172
Trade of European Countries with their Dependencies . . . .173

Distribution of the Trade of the United Kingdom 186

Distribution of the Trade of India 187

Map and Diagram comparing population of Australia and British Isles 209
The Growth of Aryan Predominance (coloured) . . \
The Races of Mankind before the European Expansion *r Between 218, 219
(coloured) j





European Civilization i

The British Empire 8



Portugal 15

Spain 18

England 22



With Spain 27

With Holland 29

With France 32





viii Contents.




i. West Indies 87

2. Australia 97

3. Canada 101

4. Africa 105

5. Scattered Acquisitions 116



i. Forms and Methods 123

2. Confederation. . . . . . 145

3. Imperial Federation 149





i. Native Peoples 191

2. Negro Slavery 192

3. Coolie Labour 196

4. Convict Labour . . . . . . 199

5. Free Emigration 202









The Movements of Civilization. European Civilization.
The British Empire.

THE civilization of. mankind has passed through many
alternate phases of diffusion and concentration. There appear
always to have been what we may regard as small areas
of light gleaming out from wide fields where illumination
was faint and dull. In the very early childhood of the
race uniformity may have prevailed, but as soon as anything-
of the nature of what is usually known as history began,
divergences appeared. Men moved away from the cradle
and nursery in Central Asia, dispersing into different zones :
and afterwards it is probable that Ocean and Land made
some exchanges of territory, fresh islands and peninsulas
appearing and aiding in the cleaving of the Human Family
into Races. Some were to settle down, some to make
progress, and some, it would seem, to degenerate. The
chief centres of civilization appear to have been: (i) the
basins of the Chinese rivers, (2) the Ganges plain, (3) the
Euphrates valley, (4) the Eastern coast of the Mediterranean,
and (5) the valley of the Nile. In these, men had settled homes,
agriculture and rudimentary manufactures were pursued,

.2- Introduction. [CH. I.

property was established ; in short, there were here sufficient
human relations, both industrial and legal, to form the basis
of States, when in other regions men were still in tribes and
hordes. Whilst in these favoured districts men were ploughing
fields and building cities and temples, elsewhere there were
such peoples as the Tartar occupants of the elevated lands
of Asia, without any progressive civilization, making inroads
into the settled countries, but vanishing again, having ac-
complished nothing; and such peoples as the Australian
aboriginals, the Hottentots and Bushmen of Southern Africa,
and the Negro tribes in incessant restlessness and unpro-
gressive change. To Chinese civilization we can only allude,
but we must not quite forget it : for it existed throughout
historic times, and there is reason for believing that it
was more perceptible in its influence upon other nations
in early times than afterwards, until again quite lately. But
its influence was scanty and indirect at most, and did not
penetrate far westward during the centuries when the
European nations were being formed. The Indian region
will concern us more closely because the barrier between it
and Europe was often passed, and, by means of intermediate
nations, it had some important influence. With the peoples
who inhabited the valleys of the Nile and the Euphrates, and
the coast of Phoenicia, we had closer connexion, as they
contributed some important elements to our own civilization.
From the history of Nineveh and Babylon, of Tyre and her
colonies, and of Persia, we pass to that of the cities, islands,
and colonies of Greece, and then to that of the great State
into which Rome welded the peoples of Western Asia,
Southern Europe, and Northern Africa. When this welding
had accomplished its purpose, the centre of progress moved
slightly more to the North and West, and in the country
between the Carpathians and the Atlantic was developed the
first civilization that seems likely to be common to the
whole human race.

The world to-day shows us our race still ranged in great
masses, but all in some contact. The Chinese mass of
400 millions, the Indian mass of 300 millions, the European

CH. I.] The Movements of Civilization. 3

mass of 300 millions, having accomplished their separate
developments in isolation, have been brought into touch with
one another, and, with the looser fragments of the Malay
races, the African tribes, and the Polynesians, are now being
moulded into a single community of mankind. In all this
change the history of Europe is of pre-eminent importance.
If at first man found it easier to deal with Nature in the
warmer zones of the earth's surface, he has since found that
his own capacities were called into more intense activity in
the temperate regions. ' The true theatre of History,' says
Hegel, 'is the temperate zone.' It has always been found
that long sojourning in the tropics enervates : at this moment
the dwellers in the Ganges valley would be at the mercy of
Afghan and Nepaulese mountain-nations were it not that we
have undertaken to guard them. Again and again the cooler
climes have sent their wholesomely nurtured hordes to reap
the fruits of the labours of enfeebled nations dwelling in the
milder regions, either to return with spoil, or to be mingled
with the conquered ; themselves after a time of brief pros-
perity to be subjected to a like treatment in their turn.
It is in Europe that the greatest progress has been attained :
in this temperate region permanence has been at last secured,
and from it the unifying influences have sprung. And it is
this that constitutes our subject : the diffusion of European
civilization over the face of the inhabited and habitable
world. All other movements were but preparatory, as it were,
for this. The Celts and Pelasgians spread into Europe,
other Aryans passed into India, the Saracens made a new
Northern Africa, and the effects of these movements are
permanent : but in the outward movement of Europeans we
have what there is some ground for regarding as the last
great movement of all, the final settlement of Man upon
the earth. Here first we find

(i) A knowledge of the whole surface of our planet. In
its general aspects this knowledge is final : the shape of the
earth, the proportion of land to water ; its mountains, its
great river-basins, its islands, all are marked down. Man
surveys his home at last.

B 2

4 Introduction. [CH. I.

(ii) An increase of practical mastery over the surface of
the globe, amounting to a transformation : the ocean is a high
road ; space-obstacles yield to steam, and time-obstacles to

(iii) A recognition, both scientific and popular, of the
oneness of the Human Family. There may still linger in
some quarters doubt as to unity of origin, and in others as to
unity of destiny, but on the whole the science and the senti-
ment of Europe are now based on the idea of a single

(iv) For rendering this recognition widely effectual in action
a material base is laid in the commercial and industrial
organization which now regards, even if it does not yet
actively embrace, the whole globe. A freedom and supple-
ness of organization are obtained, which allow men to move
to and fro on the earth, and under the form of ' Capital '
much wealth is available for world-wide use.

(v) A character of finality is won for physical science ; not
as to its limits or its actual content, but as to the reality of
the truths in actual possession : regions have been secured
absolutely. And thus knowledge has a world-wide signifi-
cance ; there is science which is the science for all. Litera-
ture must vary in its right to command allegiance ; Art
must vary; Moral Science has its 'schools' ; but Physical
Science is positive and for the world.

(vi) A religious basis is disclosed transcending peoples
and nations and languages, ' lofty as the love of God and
ample as the wants of man.' Religious ideas which embrace
Humanity in their scope are making way, and thousands of
men and women place Religion above Nationality and devote
themselves to the union of all men in Faith and Hope.

Thus we are now in presence of a great consolidation.
The world is becoming a single home, and the races of
Mankind a single family.


It has been in Europe that the preparation for this final
stage or epoch has taken place. By means of the nations

CH. i.] The Movements of Civilization. 5

cradled there the scattering of men is being counteracted :
not indeed altered as a fact, but as a cause of differentiation
and division. Upon the differences developed in separa-
tion, unity is now being superimposed. The races which
cannot bear this are doomed ; the Maori and the Red
Indian seem unable to live in the whiter light, or, at least,
are in peril of losing their hold on individuality. Those
which can respond to the call out of isolation, and can fit into
the world-wide scheme, live on and prosper ; the Negro, for
example, seems likely to be always the African branch of the
family : although inferior to the leaders, they can accept a
lead and find new life under guidance. Where the Chinese
the heaviest mass of all will come, is a problem which
cannot yet be solved.

It was not till the fifteenth century that Europe was
ready to take the first steps towards assuming the guidance
of the world. By this time she had won three physical
instruments of first-rate importance for the work : (i)
The Mariner's Compass, which gave guidance over the
open sea, and made water less separating in effect than
mountain : just as* the Mediterranean had joined North
Africa to Europe in one stage of navigating appliances,
the Ocean was to join all the Continents together; (2)
the Printing Press, which recorded and communicated the
results of efforts as they took effect, and made the growing
knowledge a common possession; (3) Gunpowder, which
enabled small bands of Europeans easily to force their way
against whole nations and tribes of the twilight and the
darkness. And in the moral sphere, Europe had herself -been
' schooled ' for the work ; disciplined by war, trained by
commerce, moralized by religion.

The European nations who took part in the movement
fall into two groups J : the LATIN Portuguese, Spaniards,

1 To define more exactly the area occupied by the expanding
races, it must be remembered that the fifteenth century witnessed the
withdrawal of South-Eastern Europe from Christendom, when the
Ottomans took Constantinople (1453), and also the addition of

6 Introduction. [CH. I.

French, and Italians ; and the GERMANIC Germans,
Dutch, Scandinavians, and British. The Celts were mostly
absorbed in the other nations, and no distinct function,
if any, can be assigned to them ; while the Slavs had
no part. Of the two groups, not all the nations were
ready. The Italians, not yet disciplined effectively into
nationality, continued to plod along old lines of connexion
with the East ; but they contributed very considerably
in the way of science and art to the powers of the other
nations. The German states were occupied with internal
interests ; and the Scandinavian nations, although for many
years they had been contributory to a slight diffusion by the
cold highways of Greenland and the North-West seas, had but
little energy to spare for enterprises of a tentative kind.
The work fell, therefore, to five nations Portugal, Spain,
France, Holland, and Britain. The centres of activity were
in Lisbon, in Madrid and Seville, in Paris, in Amsterdam,
in London and Bristol.

Some facts of European history illustrate the preparation
of the races for an era of colonization. First, the internal
consolidating of the five nations had attained a final stage.
SPAIN had in 1474 become a single nation : the kingdoms of
Leon and Castile had been united with Aragon, while the whole
peninsula had been cleared of the Moor ; so that Charles V
wielded the resources of Spain, Naples, Sicily, Sardinia,
Milan, and the Netherlands. Meanwhile the Spaniard was
the outcome of the discipline of eight centuries of warfare
with the Moors, warfare of a peculiar kind, not by armies
but by the guerilla method. In FRANCE the year of the
loss to Europe of Constantinople (1453) was the very date
from which the modern French kingdom begins, when
Aquitaine was joined to the central realm : the duchy of
Burgundy was added in 1479, and that of Brittany in 1491 ;
while a new height of moral and intellectual attainment
was in view, to be reached not more than a century later,
the 'age of Louis XIV.' As for the DUTCH it may be

South-Western Europe, when the Moors were driven from Spain
(finally iri 1492).

CH. I.]

The Movements of Civilization.

sufficient to say that in the sixteenth century they found
themselves developed enough to desire and to deserve
their independence, and strong enough to win it. In
BRITAIN, Feudalism was broken ; the middle class was


gaining power : England and Scotland were on the eve
of union, and Ireland had been thoroughly subjected
(Poynings' Law, 1479). Our maritime capacities were well
established, and we were moving towards the new high-
water mark of our Elizabethan period.

8 Introduction. [CH. i.

Secondly, in relation to one another these nations were
drawing off from endeavours after mutual absorption, and
taking up instead the position of competitors for a prize
outside themselves : in their international policy the ' balance
of power ' idea was coming to the front.

A view of the whole situation, therefore, makes it clear
that just as the voyage of Columbus was no sudden and
isolated enterprise, but the greatest of a succession of efforts
in navigation and discovery, so this new expansion was by
no means casual and unprepared for. There was no dis-
covery of a new world in the sense that a new world was
given to an unenquiring race ; and no outgoing of peoples in
whom enterprise and energy and the discipline which gives
success, were now first to appear. As Hegel says, the crossing
of the Alps by Julius Caesar was an event of the same order
as the crossing of the Atlantic by Christopher Columbus.
By both events new spheres were opened out for peoples ready
to unfold capacities which were pressing for development.

NJ Colonization.

The spread of nations has sometimes proceeded by
migration, i. e. by a whole tribe or nation changing its
abode ; sometimes by overflow into adjacent territories ;
sometimes by the emigration of companies of people quitting
the national territory and taking up their abode elsewhere.
This last is what is meant usually by * COLONIZATION/
' A colony,' says Dr. Johnson, is ' a number of people
drawn from the mother-country to inhabit some distant
place.' So expressed the general idea is caught ; but the
definition is too wide. It applies to people who live in
foreign states, for we speak of the British ' colony ' in Moscow,
the American 'colony' in Paris. But we regard this as
metaphor. The true definition must include the limitation
' remaining in political connexion with the mother-country or
assuming political independence.' This last is the Greek
sense of the term : the colony was not politically sub-
ordinate, but a strong sentiment of attachment was sym-

CH. I.] Colonisation. 9

bolized by the continuous keeping up of a sacred fire lighted
in the first instance from the sacred hearth of the old
home. The Romans had military colonies, of the character
of garrisons, providing at once rewards for military service,
occupation for disbanded armies, and order in newly con-
quered countries. The Phoenicians, with their seat first at
Tyre then at Carthage, had trading colonies or factories, held
for a time more or less in dependence. It is by colonization
in the sense (i) of establishing new homes and (2) of as-
suming direction of native populations, chiefly with industrial
or commercial ends in immediate view, that European ex-
pansion has been effected. America is the great example
of the first kind, the subjugation of the natives not being
of sufficient proportionate importance to make the element
of conquest or rule prominent, except in Mexico and some
parts of South America. India is the great example of the
second kind.

We also, when speaking broadly, include under the term
' colonies,' places occupied for Imperial purposes. These
are usually islands, harbours, or promontories ; the raison
tfetre of their occupation is the attainment of some naval
or military advantage for the empire.

Concentrating now our attention on England's share in
what has been accomplished, let us glance rapidly at the
condition of the English nation when its colonizing function

In the England of Queen Elizabeth and James /we see a
state, with territories distinctly defined by water-boundaries,
consolidated after centuries of strife out of the various petty
dominions which had divided these islands of Great Britain
and Ireland. The seven kingdoms of the Heptarchy,
the princedom of Wales, and the various chieftaincies of
Ireland, had for some time been united ; the long-standing
alliance with certain duchies on the continent had been
more or less reluctantly renounced, and these had gone
to their natural place in the French kingdom, while Scot-
land was just entering through union with England into the
open field of history. The Reformation was in full tide of

io Introduction. [CH. I.

strength, and that not only in the sphere of ecclesiastical
order and religious belief, and in renewal of continuity with
the thought and art of Greece and Rome, but also in the
freshness and vigour of independent endeavour to think, to
admire, and to find aims and ends for conduct. The Church
of England had received a certain degree of settlement, and
the points of difference between those who could accept it and
those who could not were being defined. The teaching of
Erasmus, and Colet, and Ascham, and Cheke was operating
in the Universities and in the new Grammar Schools ; and
Bacon was preparing the methods of knowledge for a wider
and freer use.

Our population at this time was some five millions : Harri-
son, a contemporary, tells us that 1,172,674 men were enrolled
as able to bear arms in 1574 and 1575, and he adds that this
was probably about two-thirds of the actual number. In 1603
there were two million male communicants, including a few
recusants ; which fairly agrees with the above estimate. The
people were engaged in a vigorous and, on the whole, a pro-
gressive industrial life. True, difficulty was arising from the
increased practice of taking advantage of the excellence of our
land as pasture, and the good quality of our cattle, to ex-
change cultivation for grazing, and so to employ less labour
in agriculture. But our manufactures of broad-cloths, ker-
seys and friezes, of metal wares, of beer and of fells, were in-
creasing, and our mercantile pursuits were rapidly requiring
more money and more men. The looms of Norwich and of
the West of England were prosperous, and Yorkshire towns
were coming fast into importance ; the ports of London, Bris-
tol, Hull and Boston, and many others now insignificant, were
occupied by busy mariners. Harrison gives it as his opinion
that our shipping was incomparable for ' strength, assurance,
nimbleness, and swiftness of sailing,' and he fortifies his
position by foreign testimonies. The Queen had 24 ships,
there were 135 merchant ships of over 100 tons, and 656 of
between 100 and 40 tons. Abroad, our merchants were
penetrating, o'n the heels of travellers of whom not a few
were Englishmen, to the Levant, to the Baltic, and even to

CH. 1.3 British Empire. II

Cathay and Tartary. We had colonies, or ' factories ' as
they were called, at Florence and Pisa, at Moscow, and in
Norway, Sweden, and Denmark, which were so numerous
and well-established as to have their own laws, administered
by ' aldermen,' under treaties with the sovereigns of those
states : all our trade was done in English ships. Looking
outside, however, we saw that the New World was far from
being an unoccupied field into which we might freely
extend our activities. The Eastern routes were in the
hands of Portugal or Holland, while the best portions of
America were appropriated by the most powerful of the
nations, Spain. The King of Spain held Mexico, Florida,
Peru, and the largest of the West Indian islands ; the mid-
Atlantic and the Caribbean Gulf were regarded as his high-
way. The Brazils were in the hands of Portugal. If we
were to grow it was clear that we must fight for room, and
at the outset there was but faint prospect of much success.
But the impulse was there, and the energy, and the intelli-
gence, sufficient, as the event proved, to give us the supreme
place in the outward movement.

What the result has been is briefly shown in a conspectus
of the British Empire in the reign of Queen Victoria. The
EMPIRE now consists of:

IRELAND under a Crown and Parliament with a single
Executive administration. This kingdom is the head and
the heart of the whole organism, and the centre of a commerce
in which the whole civilized world has concern.

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Online LibraryAlfred CaldecottEnglish colonization and empire → online text (page 1 of 23)