Alice Bertha Gomme.

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from the republic of Colombia, as provided
In section 2 hereof, he Is authorized to
pay for the property of the New Panama
Canal company $40.000,000 and to the repub-
lic of Colombia such sum as shall have
been agreed upon, and a sum sufficient for
both saiil purposes is hereby appropriated
out of any money in the treasury not other-



wise appropriated, to be paid on warrant
or warrants drawn by the president.

"The president shall then through the
isthmian canal commission hereinafter
authorized cause to be excavated, construct,
ed and completed, utilizing to that end as
far as practicable the work heretofore
done by the New Panama Canal company
of France and its predecessor company, a
ship canal from the Caribbean sea to the
Pacific ocean. Such canal shall bv of suf-
ficient capacity and depth as shall afford
convenient passage for vessels of the lar-
gest tonnage and greatest draft now in u>e
and such as may be reasonably anticipated,

sa"e for vessels of the largest tonnage
and greatest draft now in use and sucn as
may be reasonably anticipated, and shall
be supplied with all necessary locks and
other appliances to meet the necessities of
vessels passing through the same from
ocean to ocean, and he shall also construct
such safe and commodious harbors at the
termini of said canal as shall be necessary
for the safe and convenient " use thereof,
and shall make such provisions for defense
as may be necessary for the safety and
protection of said harbors and canal, and
such sum or sums of money as may be
agreed upon by such treaty as compensa-


and shall be supplied with all necessary
locks and other appliances to meet the
necessities of vessels passing through the
same from ocean to ocean, and he shall
also cause to be constructed such safe and
commodious harbors at the termini of said
canal and make such provisions for defense
as may be necessary for the safety and pro-
tection of said canal and fiarbors. That
the president is authorized for the purposes
aforesaid to employ such persons as he may
deem necessary and to fix their compensa-

"Section 4. That should the president lie
unable to obtain for the United States a
satisfactory title to the property of the
New Panama Canal company and the con-
trol of the necessary territory of the repub-
lic of Colombia and the rights mentioned
In sections 1 and 2 of this act with'n
a reasonable time and upon reasonable
terms, then the president, having first ob-

tion to be paid to Nicaragua and Costa
Rica for the concessions and rights here-
under provided to be acquired by the United
States are hereby appropriated out) o any
money in the treasury not otherwise appro-
priated, to be paid on warrant or warrants
drawn by the president.

"The president shall cause the said
isthmian canal commission to make such
surveys as may be necessary for said canal
and harbors to be made, and in making
such surveys and in the construction of said
canal may employ such persons as he may
deem necessary and may fix their compen-

"In the excavation and construction of
said canal the San Juan river and Lake
Nicaragua or such parts of each as may be
made available shall be used.

"Section 5. That the sum of $10,000,000
i is hereby appropriated', out of. any money
! in the treasury not otherwise appropriated,


(The locks indicated are those proposed by the United States isthmian canal commission.
The black portion of the outline shows work done by the French canal company.)

tained for the United States perpetual con-
trol by treaty of the necessary territory
from Costa Rica and Nicaragua upon terms
which he may consider reasonable for the
construction, perpetual maintenance, opera-
tion and protection of a canal connecting
the Caribbean sea with the Pacific ocean
by what is commonlv Vnnwn as tl:e Nica-
ragua route, shall th ongh the said 'sthmiMn
canal commission cause to be excavated and
constructed a ship canal and waterway
from a point on the shore of the Caribbean
sea near Greytown, by way of I ake Nica-
ragua, to a point near Brito on the Pacific
ocean. Said canal shall he of sufficient ca-
nacity and depth to afford convenient pas-

toward the project herein contemplated by
either route so selected.

'And the president is hereby authorized

to cause

he presi
to be e

ntered into such contract

or contracts as may be deemed necessary
for the proper excavation, construction,
completion and defense of said canal, har-
bors and defenses by the route finally de
termined upon under the provisions of thl?
act. Appropriations therefor shall from
time to time be hereafter made not to ex-
ceed in the aggregate the additional sum
of $135,000.000 should the Panama route be
adopted. ;, r $1SO 000.000 should the Nica-
ragua route be adopted.

"Section 6. That in any agreement with



the republic of Colombia or with the states
of Nicaragua and Costa Uica the president
is authorized to guarantee (a said republic
or to said states the use of s:>id canal and
harbors, upon such terms as iu.,y be agreed
upon, for all vessels owned by said states
or by citizens thereof.

"Section 7. That to enable the president
to construct the canal and works appur-
tenant thereto as provTSed in this act there
is hereby created the isthmian canal com-
mission, the same to be composed of seven
members, who shall be nominated and ap-
pointed by the president, by and with the
advice and consent of the senate, and who
shall serve until tiie completion of said
canal, unless soouer removed by the presi-
dent, and one of whom shall be named as
chairman of said commission. Of the seven
members of said commission at least four
shall be persons learned and skilled in the
science of engineering, and of the four at
least one shall be, an officer of the United
States army and at least one other shall
be an officer of the United States navy,
the said officers respectively being either
upon the active or the retired list of the
army or of the navy. Staid commissioners
shall each receive such compensation as
the president shall prescribe until the same
shall have been otherwise fixed by the con-
gress. In addition to the members of Jbe
said isthmian canal commission the prTsl-
dent is hereby authorized through said
commission to employ in said service any
of the engineers of the United States army
at his discretion and likewise to employ
any engineers in civil life at his discretion
and any other persons necessary for the
proper and expeditious prosecution of said
work. The compensation of all such engi-
neers and other persons employed under
this act shall be fixed by said commission,
subject to the approval of the president.
The official salary of any officer appointed
or employed under this act shall be de-
ducted from the amount of salary or com-
pensation provided by or which shall be
fixed under the terms of this act. Said
commission shall in all matters be subject
I to the direction and control of the presi-
dent and shall make to the president an-
nually and at such other periods as may be
required, either by law or by order of the
president, full and complete reports of all
their actings and doings and of all moneys
received and expended in the construction
of said work and in the performance of
their duties in connection therewith, which
said reports shall be by the .president trans-
mitted to congress. And the said commis-
sion shall furthermore give to congress, or
either house of congress, suoh information
as may at any time be required either by
act of congress or by the order of either
house of congress. The president shall cause
to be provided and assigned for the use of
the .commission such offices as may. with
the suitable equipment of the same, be
necessary and proper in his discretion for
the proper discharge of the duties thereof.
"Section 8. That the secretary of the
treasury is hereby authorized to borrow on
the credit of the United States from time
to time, as the proceeds may be required
to defray expenditures authorized by this
act (such proceeds when received to be
used only for the purpose of meeting such
expenditures), the sum of $130.00(1,000 or so
much thereof as may be necessary, and to
prepare and issue therefor coupon or regis-
tered bonds of the United States in such

form as he may prescribe and in denomina-
tions of $20 or some multiple of tliat sum.
redeemable in gold coin at the pleasure of
the United States after ten years from
date of their issue and payable thirty years
from such date, and bearing interest pay-
able quarterly in gold coin at the rate
of 2 per centum per annum, and the bends
herein authorized shall be exempt from all
taxes or duties of the United States, as
well as from taxation in any form by or
under state, municipal or local authority.
Provided, that said bonds may be dis-
posed of by the secretary of the treasury at
not less than par under such regulations as
he may prescribe, giving to all citizens of
the United States an equal opportunity to
subscribe therefor, but no commissions shall
be allowed or paid thereon, and a sum not
exceeding one-tenth of 1 per centum of
the amount of the bonds herein authorized
is hereby appropriated out of any money in
the treasury not otherwise appropriated to
pay the expense of preparing, advertising
and issuing same.
"Approved, June 28, 1902."


The action of congress in passing the
Spooner substitute for the Nicaragua canal
bill adopted by the house resulted directly
from a supplementary report made by the
isthmian canal commission on the 18th of
January, 1902. In its first report, made
Nov. 16, 1901, the commission recommended
the Nicaragua route chiefly because the
price asked for the concessions, property
and rights of the French Panama Canal
company was considered unreasonable.
When on the 4th of January, 1902, the com-
pany offered to sell for $40,000,000, this ob-
jection was removed and after brief con-
sideration the commission announced that
in its opinion "the most practicable and
feasible route" for an isthmian canal to
be under the control, management and own-
ership of the United States was that known
as the Panama route.

In comparing the Nicaragua and Panama
routes the commission cited the advantages
and disadvantages of each substantially as
follows: In each case a canal with locks
would be required; the water-supply fea-
tures were satisfactory on both lines; both
dams by which the summit levels would be
sustained were practicable, while the plan
of regulating the summit level on the
Panama route was simpler than that on
the other; the absence of harbors on the
Nicaragua line would make th'e period of
preparation longer than on tne Panama
line, where harbors are already in existence
and where a railroad is in operation along
the whole route.

The Panama route is 49.09 miles long and
134.6 miles shorter than the Nicaragua route
from sea to sea, with fewer locks and less
curvature both in degrees and miles. The
estimated time for a deep-draft vessel to
pass through the Nicaragua canal was
placed at thirty-three hours, as against
twelve hours for Panama, these estimates
being the time of actual navigation and not
including delays for winds, currents or

Jf the passage were made without inter-
ruption about a day could be saved by the
Nicaragua over the Panama twre by ordi-
nary steamers handling commerce between
Pacific ports and ail Atlantic ports, and
about two days by steamers of the same
class trading between gulf ports and north


Pacific- ports. The time advantage of the
Nicaragua route- would be^ess in tne case
of fast high-pow-ered steamers, tne use.- of
which is increasing.

Between Atlantic ports and the west
coast of South America the Panama route
has the advantage of about two days, and
between the gulf ports and the west coast
of South America the Panama route has
the advantage of about one day. Tne trade
of the western coast of South. America iB
a very important one, which has hitherto
been In European hands. It was also the
sense of the commission that the total
time required for the construction of the
canal by the Panama route would be ten
years and eight years by the Nicaragua
route, with a greater probability of exi-
gencies causing delays on the latter than
on the former.

The offer received from the New Panama
Canal company to convey all its property,
including all its interest in the Panama
railroad, to the United States will make
the estimated cost of the two canals as
follows :

Nicaragua .. $189,864,062

Panama 184,222,358

The estimated annual cost of maintenance
and operation is $1,300,000 greater at Nica-
ragua than at Panama.

The value of the property offered by the
French company was estimated by the com-
mission to be:

Excavation done ....$27,474,033

Panama railroad stock at par 6.886,300

Maps, drawings and records 2,000,000

Add 10 per cent to cover omissions 3,639,667

Total $40,000,000

The commission making the report con-
sisted of Rear-Admiral J. G. Walker, Sam-
uel Pasco, Alfred Noble, George S. Mori-
son, Peter C. Halns, William H. Burr, O.
H. Ernst, Lewis M. Haupt and Emory R.


Attorney-General Knox, in a report made
public Oct. 25, decided that if the United
States should accept the offer of the New
Panama Canal company to sell the canal

for $40,000,000 it would receive through the
parties in interest a valid and uuincum-
bered title to the property. This conclu-
sion was arrived at after a thorough and
exhaustive examination of the situation In
Paris, first by a special attorney, Charles
W. Russell, and later by the attorney-gen-
eral himself.


New York to San Francisco, 5,299 nauti-
cal miles: to Yokohama, via Honolulu, 10,-
087; to Shanghai, via Honolulu, 11,007; to
Guayaquil, 2,864.

New Orleans to San Francisco. 4.698
miles; to Yokohama, via Honolulu, 9,484;
Shanghai, via Honolulu, 10,406; to Guaya-
quil, 2,263.

Liverpool to San Francisco, 8,038 miles;
to Yokohama, via Honolulu, 12,826; to
Shanghai, via Honolulu, 13,746; to Guaya-
quil, 5,603.

The Tehuantepec Isthmus National rail-
way across Mexico is 190 miles in lenstli
from ocean to ocean. Work on the line
has been rapidly pushed by the contractors,
who expect to complete it in the latter part
of 1903 or the first of 1904. They also expect
to finish the harbor works at each end at
about the same time. The cost of tie rail-
road improvements will be $3,000,000. Ihe
work at Salina Cruz consists of a break-
water or sea wall and that on the gulf side
of extensive dredging. The Pacific port
will then accommodate ten vessels along
the sea wall, while thirty or forty vessels
will easily ride in the Coatzacoaicoe har-
bor. When the entire work is completed
cargo can be taken from ship's tackle to
ship's tackle, from the Atlantic to the Pa-
cific, in twenty-four hours.

The distance in statute miles from Amer-
ican and English ports to San Francisco
and the orient by the Tehuantepec isthmus
road and the Panama railroad is estimated
by the hydrographic office to be:

Teli uantepec. Pcma ma
New York to San Francisco... 4,925 6,107

New York to Honolulu 6.566 7,705

New York to Hongkong 11,597 12,645

New York to Yokohama 9,984 11,211

New York to Melbourne 11,068 11.471

Liverpool to San Francisco.... 8,274 9,071

New Orleans to Acapulco 1,454 3.296

New Orleans to Mazatlan 2,027 3,983


Following is a list of articles of food
which persons inclined to stoutness or obes-
ity must avoid if they do not wish to take
on more flesh: Soups, sausage, fats, made
dishes, potatoes, macaroni, salmon, salt
fish, bluefish, eels, pork, veal, oatmeal,
hominy, rice, beets, carrots, cream, pars-
nips, puddings, pastry, cake, sugars, sweets,
malt or spirituous liquors, beers, sweet
wines and champagne.

Articles of food which may be taken:
Fresh fish, boiled; sweetbreads, chicken.

turkey, lean beef, mutton or lamb, tongue,
oysters, clams, cheese, boiled or poached
eggs, stale bread, dry toast or crusts, rusks,
zwiebach, spinach, lettuce, onions, cabbage,
asparagus, celery, cauliflower, radishes,
olives, pineapple, lemons and sour apples.
In the way of drinks one cup of coffee or
tea without milk or sugar or cream or one
glass of pure water taken slowly at the
end of the meal is allowable.

Lean persons who desire to gain in flesh
will of course reverse the programme.


There are fifty shipbuilding yards on the
Clyde, Scotland. In 1901 they launched 298
vessels having a total tonnage of 531.214,
as against 486,079 tons in 1900,491,074 in 1899

and 466.832 in 1898. Of the ships built in
1901, eighty-four were sailing vessels, most-
ly yachts and barges, and the remainder
steam craft.




The governments of Great Britain and
Japan, actuated solely by a desire to main-
tain the status quo and general peace in
the extreme east, being, moreover, special-
ly interested in maintaining the independ-
ence and territorial integrity of the empire
of China and the empire of Korea, and in
securing equal opportunities in those coun-
tries for the commerce and industry of all
nations, hereby agree as follows:

Article 1. The high contracting parties
having mutually recognized the independ-
ence of China and of Korea, declare them-
selves to be entirely uninfluenced by any
aggressive tendencies in either country.
Having in view, however, their special in-
terests, of which those of Great Britain re-
late principally to China, while Japan, in
addition to the interests which she pos-
sesses in China, is interested in a peculiar
degree politically, as well as commercially
and industrially, in Korea, the high con-
tracting parties recognize that it will be
admissible for either of them to take such
measures as may be indispensable in order
to safeguard those interests If threatened
either by the aggressive action of any other
power or by disturbances arising in China
or Korea, and necessitating the interven-
tion of either of the high contracting
parties for the protection of the lives and
property of its subjects.

Article 2. If either Great Britain or
Japan, in the defense of their respective in-
terests as above described, should become
involved in war with another power, the
other high contracting party will maintain
a strict neutrality and use its efforts to
prevent other powers from joining in hos-
tilities against its ally.

Article 3. If in the above event any other
power or powers should join In hostilities
against that ally the other high contracting
party will come to its assistance and will
conduct the war in" common and make
peace in mutual agreement with it.

Article 4. The high contracting parties
agree that neither of them will, without
consulting the other, enter into separate ar-
rangements with another power to the prej-
udice of the interests above described.

Article 5. Whenever, in the opinion of
either Great Britain or Japan, the above-
mentioned interests are in jeopardy, the
two governments will communicate with
one another fully and frankly.

Article 6. The present agreement shall
come into effect immediately after the date
of its signature and remain in force for
five years from that date.

In case neither of the high contracting
parties should have notified twelve months
before the expiration of the said five years
the intention of terminating it. it shall
remain binding until the expiration of one
year from the day on which either of the

high contracting parties shall have de-
nounced it. But if, when the date fixed
for its expiration amves, either ally is
actually engaged in war, the alliance shall,
ipso facto, continue until peace is con-

In faith whereof the undersigned, duly
authorized by their respective governments,
have signed this agreement and have af-
fixed thereto their seals.

Done in duplicate at London, the 30th
of January, 1902. LAN8DOWNE.



Feb. 1, 1902, Secretary of State John Hay
sent an identical note to Russia and Japan
asserting that an agreement whereby China
gives any corporation or company the ex-
clusive right or privilege of opening mines,
establishing railroads or in any other way
industrially developing Manchuria could but
be viewed with the gravest concern by the
government of the United States. Such an
agreement would be in violation of pledges
given by Russia to follow the policy of the
open door in China, would seriously affect
the rights of American citizens and imperil
China's sovereignty in this part of the

This note coming two days after the con-
clusion of the Anglo-Japanese treaty of al-
liance was interpreted to mean that the
United States, while in thorough sympathy
with the principles involved in the treaty,
preferred to act independently, thus follow-
ing out the traditional policy of avoiding
entangling alliances. The treaty was made
public Feb. 11 and the American identical
note Feb. 19.


On the 16th of March Russia and France
sent the following joint note to the powers:

"The allied Russo-French, governments are
wholly pleased to discern that the Anglo-
Japanese convention supports the essential
principles which, according to the reiter-
ated statement of France and Russia, con-
stituted and still constitute the foundation
of their policy. Both governments believe
that the support of these principles is also
a guaranty of their interests in the far

"They are compelled, however, not to lose
from view the possible Inimical action of
other powers, or a repetition of the disor-
ders in China, possibly impairing China's
integrity and free development to the det-
riment of their reciprocal interests. They
therefore reserve to themselves the right
to take measures to defend these inter-

In a prefatory statement it Is declared
that Russia desires tbe maintenance of the
status quo and the attainment of complete
tranquillity in the far east.


What is believed to be the highest balloon
ascent on record was made by Dr. R. Sur-
ing of the Royal Meteorological institute,
Berlin, and Mr. Berson. the aeronaut, on
the 31st of July, 1901. The start was made
from Berlin early in tho morning in a bal-
loon 80 feet in diameter, 260 feet in cir-
cumference, weighing 2,000 pounds and con-
taining 300,000 cubic feet of gas. The meas-
ured height attained was 35.000 feet, but

the actual height was about 1.000 feet more
than that. Dr. Suring became unconscious,
but his companion retained sufficient
strength to pull the valve and cause the
balloon to descend. At the highest alti-
tudes both aeronauts used stored oxygen
for breathing purposes. The descent was
made at Briesen after the trip had lasted 7
hours and 30 minutes.


Passed by the 51st congress and approved July 2, 18!)0.

Section 1. Every contract, combination in
the form of trust or otherwise, or conspir-
acy, in restraint of trade or commerce
among the several states or with foreign
nations, is hereby Declared to be Illegal.
Every person who shall make any such con-
tract or engage in any such combination or
conspiracy shall be deemed guilty of a mis-
demeanor, and, on conviction thereof, shall
be punished by fine not exceeding $5,000 or
by imprisonment not exceeding one year or
by both said punishments, in the discretion
of the court.

Section 2. Every person who shall monop-
olize or attempt to monopolize or combine
or conspire with any person or persons to
monopolize any part of the trade or com-
merce among the several states or with
foreign nations shall be deemed guilty of
a misdemeanor, and on conviction thereof
shall be punished by fine not exceeding
$5.000 or t>y imprisonment not exceeding
one year, or by both said punishments, in
the discretion of the court.

Section 3. Every contract, combination in
form of trust or otherwise, or conspiracy in
restraint of trade or commerce in any ter-
ritory of the United States or of the Dis-

Online LibraryAlice Bertha GommeChicago daily news national almanac for .. (Volume 1903) → online text (page 30 of 89)