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trict of Columbia, or in restraint of trade
or commerce between any such territory and
another, or between any such territory or
territories and any state or states or the
District of Columbia or with foreign na-
tions, or between the District of Columbia
and any state or states or foreign nations,
is hereby declared illegal. Every person who
shall make any such contract or engage in
any such combination or conspiracy shall be
deemed guilty of a misdemeanor, and on
conviction thereof shall be punished by fine
not exceeding $5,000 or by imprisonment not
exceeding one year or by both said punish-
ments, in the discretion of the court.

Section 4. The several Circuit courts of
the United States are hereby invested with
jurisdiction to prevent or restrain viola-
tions of this act; and it shall be the duty
of the several district attorneys of the
United States, in their respective districts,
under the direction of the attorney-general,
to institute proceedings in equity to P"e-
vent and restrain such violations. Such

ju -i ( cdings may be by way of petition set-
ting forth the case and praying that such
violation shall be enjoined or otherwise
prohibited. When the parties complained
of shall have been duly notified of such pe-
tition the court shall proceed, as soon a>
may be, to the hearing and determination
of the case: and pending such petition and
before final decree the court may at any
time make such temporary restraining or-
der or prohibition as shall be deemed just
in the premises.

Section 5. Whenever it shall appear to
the court before which any proceeding un-
der section 4 of this act may be pend-
ing that the ends of justice require that
other parties should be brought before the
court, the court may cause them to be
summoned, whether they reside in the dis-
trict in which the court is held or not; and
subpeenas to that end may be served in
any district by the marshal thereof.

Section 6. Any property owned under any
contract or by any combination or pursuant
to any conspiracy (and being the subject
thereof) mentioned in section 1 of this
act and being in the course of transporta-
tion from one state to another or to a for-
eign country shall be forfeited to the United
States and may be seized and condemned
by like proceedings as those provided by
law for the forfeiture, seizure and condem-
nation of property imported into the United
States contrary to law.

Section 7. Any person who shall be in-
jured in his business or property by any
other person or corporation by reason of
anything forbidden or declared unlawful
by this act may sue therefor in any Cir-
cuit court of the United Slates in the dis-
trict in which the defendant resides or 1
found, without- respect to the amount in
controversy, and shall recover threefold the
damages by him sustained gnd the cost of
suit, including a reasonable attorney's fe; 1 .

Section 8. That the word: "person" or
"persons" wherever used in this act be
deemed to include corporations and associa-
tions existing under or authorized by th
laws of either the United States, the laws
of any or the territories, the laws of any
state or the laws of any foreign country.


The essential portion of the act approved
June 11, 1891. as amended by the act ap-
proved June 10, 1897, for the punishment of
persons, copartnerships or corporation's
forming pools, trusts and combines is as

"If any corporation organized under the
laws of this or any other state or country
for transacting or conducting any kind of
business in this state or any partnership or
individual or other association of persons
whosoever shall create, enter into, become
a member of or a party to any pool, trust,
agreement, combination, confederation or
understanding with any other corporation,
partnership, individual or other person or
association of persons, to regulate or fix
the price of any article of merchandise or
commodity, or shall enter into, become a
member of or party to any pool, agreement,
contract, combination or confederation to
fix or limit the amount or quantity of any
article, commodity or merchandise to be
manufactured, mined, produced or sold in

this state, such corporation, partnership or
individual or other association of persons
shall be deemed and adjudged guilty of a
conspiracy to defraud and lie subject to in-
dictment and punishment as provided in
this act: Provided, however, that in the
mining, manufacture or production of arti-
cles of merchandise, the cost of which is
mainly made up of wages, it shall not be
unlawful for persons, firms or corpoi aliens
doing business in this state to enter into
joint arrangements of any sort, the princi-
pal object or effect of which is to maintain
or increase wages."

The punishment for the first violation of
this act by a corporation is fixed by a fine
of not less than $500 nor more than $2.000;
for the second offense not less than $2.000
nor more than $5.000: fo? a third offense not
less than $5, 000 nor more thtin $10,000. Any in-
dividual convicted of violating the act 'may
lie punished by a 1'ne of not less than $'>oo
nor more than $1.000 or by confinement in the
county jail not to exceed one year, or both.



St. riorro, the chief city of the island of
Martinique, ill the Lesser Antilles, was
totally destroyed by an eruption o'f the vol-
cano Mont Pelee on the 8th of May, 1902.
The inhabitants, numbering about 25,000,
were killed almost instantly. One man con-
lined in a dungeon and a very few others
who were on the seashore were the sole
survivors. ./STll the shipping in the harbor
with the exception of the steamer Roddam
was destroyed. The Roddam managed to
get to sea with most of those on board dead
and the remainder badly crippled. Several
villages and many plantations in the vicin-
Hy of the volcano were also overwhelmed.
The total loss of life on the island of Mar-
tinique was officially estimated at 30.000.

Mont Pelee had been inactive for many
years, but on the 3d of May it began to
throw out dense clouds of smoke and
steam. Detonations and subterranean rum-
blings were heard and fine gray ashes be-
gan to fall. The first loss of life occurred
on the plantation Guerin on the 5th of May
and a general exodus of the people of St.
Pierre was prevented only By using the

On the morning of the 8th of May a few
minutes before 8 o'clock a great cloud of
black ashes and steam shot out from the
summit of the mountain, followed imme-
diately by a similar outburst from an-
other crater about 1,500 feet lower down
in the direction of St. Pierre. Jets of
fire issued from both vents and succeed-
ing the flame came the sound of loud det-
onations. The cloads at first, rose and
spread out, then descended, while flashes
of what seemed to be lightning unaccom-
panied by thunder played about the sum-
mit. The mass of smoke and vapor from
the lower crater followed the slope of the
mountain and rushed upon St. Pierre with
the speed of a tornado. At the same time
the gas or gases of which the cloud was in
part composed became ignited and in the
explosion which took place the whole city
was leveled with the ground. The inhabi-
tants had no chance to escape. They were
either crushed to death under the debris of
the stone buildings or were burned to
death by the flaming gas.

Contrary to the first reports there was no
fall of lava and the city was not over-
whelmed by volcanic mud. The ashes,
which fell in great abundance, did no harm
to human life, nor did the earthquakes pre-
ceding the eruption result in any damage be-
yond causing the submarine cables to snap.
The destruction, according to the report of
Robert T.. Hill and other scientists who in-
vestigated the matter, was wrought entire-
ly by the explosion of a gas the precise
nature of which they could not ascertain.

Within a few days after the disaster the
authorities gathered up the remains of such
of the victims as were not buried too deep-
ly in the ruins and burned tnem. The few-
wounded survivors, most of whom were
picked up by the French warship Suchet at
points on the coast near St. Pierre, were
conveyed to Fort de France. Food and cloth-
ijig in large quantities were sent from the
United States and other countries with the
result that there was no suffering for the
necessaries of life. The American congress
appropriated $200,000 for relief purposes.

Another eruption of Mont Pelee, even
more violent than that of May 8, took place
at 9:10 o'clock on the evening of Aug. 30.

The area of destruction involved Morne
Rouge, Haute Tours de Bourdon, Basse
Poiute, Morne Balai and Ajoupa Bouilion.
The village of Le Carbet was overwhelmed
by a tidal wave. The total loss of life
was 1,060. All the phenomena of the first
great eruption were repeated in the second.
Simultaneously with the eruption of Mont
Pelee the volcano known as La Soufmere
on the British island of St. Vincent, which
is adjacent to Martinique on the south, he-
came violently active and emitted great
quantities of ashes and steam and gas,
causing explosions similar to those whicn
destroyed St. Pierre. The exact number of
lives lost on the plantations and in the
villages near the mountain was never ac-
curately determined, but it is thought to
have been in the vicinity of 1.600. Many of
the victims were Caribs, a picturesque tribe
of native Indians which was practically
wiped out of existence. The ashes fell in
large quantities all over the island and for
a time it was feared that the cities of
Kingstown and Georgetown would be de-
stroyed, but they escaped all damage.


Jan. 16 Earthquake partially destroys the
city of Chilpaneingo, in the state of
Guerrero, Mexico; many lives lost by
collapse of a church. Shocks felt in
City of Mexico on same day.
24 Two shocks of earthquake felt in St.


Feb. 14 Sbainaka, Transcaucasia, destroyed
by an earthquake and volcanic erup-
tion; loss of life estimated at 5,000;
houses destroyed, 4,000.

March 4 Tidal waves on coast, of Central
America at Acajutla cause the death
of many persons; fifty-three bodies re-

10 New -Hebrides shaken.
12 Kyankari, Asia Minor, destroyed by

earthquake; four killed, 100 injured.
April 18 Quezaltenango andi Amatithui, Gua-
temala, destroyed by earthquake; more
than 1,000 persons killed, 4,000 maimed
and 30,000 made homeless; nearly all
houses wrecked.

May 6 EartBquake shocks felt in Barce-
lona, Saragossa and other Spanish
cities; also in southern France.
18 Earthquake in southern Portugal.
19 Slight earthquake shock in San ff ran-

20 Several earthquake shocks felt in St.

Augustine, Fla.

June 2 Two villages in Bolivia destroyed
by eruption of volcano in territory of
Chico; seventy-five persons killed.
7 City of Retalhuleu in Guatemala re-
ported destroyed by eruption "of vol-
cano Tacana; 1,000 lives said to have
been lost.

July 27 Earthquake shocks felt in southern
California and throughout a large part
of the Mississippi valley.
31 Several buildings destroyed by an

earthquake in Los Alamos, Gal.
Aug. 13-15 Torijima, a small Japanese
Island, overwhelmed by a volcanic
eruption between Aug. 13 and 15; all
the inhabitants, numbering 150, killed.
21 Severe earthquake shocks in Mindanao,
Philippine islands; twenty or more
natives killed.


22 - Sept. 3 Series of earthquakes in east
Turkestan results in the loss of more
than 1,000 lives and the destruction of
several small towns.

Sept. 22 Series of heavy earthquake shocks
and a tidal wave cause heavy loss in
Guam; two natives killed.


Cotopaxi, Ecuador, June 26, 1877; 1,000 lives

Ischia, July 28, 1883; eruption of Mount

-Etna followed by earthquakes; between

2,000 and 3,000 killed.
Java, Aug. 26, 1883; violent eruption of the

volcano Krakatoa; 36,000 lives lost.
Martinique, in August, 1767; 1,600 lives lost.
Martinique, Jan. 11, 1839; 700 lives lost.
Pompeii and Herculaneum destroyed by

eruption of Mount Vesuvius in the year

79; 20,000 lives lost.


Abruzzi, Nov. 3, 1706; lives lost, 5,000.

Aleppo, Sept. 5, 1822; 20,000.

Algiers, 1716; 20,000.

Aquila. Italy , Feb. 2, 1703; 5,000.

Arequip"a and other towns in Peru and

Ecuador, Aug. 13-15, 1868: 25,000.
Baalbec, Syria, Oct. 30, 1759; 20,000.

Calabria, Dec. 16, 1868; 10,000.

Canton, China, May 26-27, 1830; 6,000.

Cape Haytieu, Santo Domingo, May 7, 1S42;

Catania and other towns in Sicily, Septem-
ber, 1693; 100,000.

Catania, 1137: 15,000.

Charleston, S. C., Aug. 31, 1886; forty-one
lives lost; damage, $5,000,000.

Cilicia, 1268; 60,000.

Cuzco and Quito, Feb. 4, 1797; 40,000.

Grand, Cairo, 1754; 40,000.

Japan, Jan. 27. 1892; 4,000.

Jeddo, Japan, 1703; 200,000.

Kaschau, Persia, June 7, 1755; 40,000.

Lima and Callao, Peru, Oct. 28, 1746; 18,000.

Lisbon, Feb. 26, 1531; 30,000.

Lisbon, Nov. 1, 1755; 50.000.

Manila, P. I., July 2-3, 1863; 1,000.

Naples, Dec. 5, 1456; 40,000.

Naples, July 30, 1625; 70.000.

Naples, Nov. 29, 1732; 1,940.

Palermo, Sept. 1, 1726; 6,000.

Pekin, Nov. 30, 1731; 100,000.

Port Royal, Jamaica, June 7, 1692; 3,000.

Quito, March 22, 1859; 5,000.

San Jose de Cucuta, Colombia, May 16-18.
1874; 14,000.

Schamaki, 1667; 80,000.

Scio, April 3, 1881; 4,000.

Southern Europe, along Riyiera, Feb. 23,
1887; 2,000.


and name. Elected.

.Liegouve, Ernest, b. 1807 1855

Ollivier, Emile, b. 1826 1870

Mezieres, Alfred, b. 1826 1874

Boissier, Gaston, b. 1823 1876

Sardou, Victorien, b. 1831 1877

Audiffret-Pasquler, Due de, b. 1823.. 1878

Rousse, Edmoud, b. 1816 1880

Sully-Prudhouime, Rene, b. 1839 1881

Perraud, Adolphe, b. 1828 1882

Coppee, Francois, b. 1842 1884

Halevy, Ludovlc, b. 1834 1884

Grearu, Octave, b. 1828 1S86

Haussonville, Comte de, b. 1843 1888

Claretie, Jules, b. 1840 1888

Vogue, Melchior. Vicomte de. b. 1848.1888

Freycinet, Charles de. b. 1828 1890

Viaud, Julien (Pierre Loti), b. 1850.. 18al

Lavisse, Ernest, b. 1842 1892

Thureau-Dangan, Paul, b. 1837 1893

Brunetiere, Marie Ferdinand, b. 1849.1893

Sorel, Albert, b. 1842 1894

Heredia, Jose, b. 1842 1894

Borget, Paul, b. 1852 1894

Houssaye, Henri, b. 1848 1894

Lemaitre, Julee, b. 1853 1896

No. and name. Elected

26. Thibault, Jacques (Anatole France),

b. 1844 ..1896

27. Beauregard, Marquis de, b. 1835 1896

28. Paris, Gaston, b. 1839 1896

29. Theuriet, Andre, b. 1833 1896

30. Vandal, Albert, b. 1853 1896

31. Mun, Albert, Comte de, b. 1841 1897

32. Hanotaux, Gabriel, b. 1853 1897

33. Guillautne, Eugene, b. 1822 1898

34. Lavedan. Henri, b. 1859 1898

35. Deschanel, Paul, b. 1856 1899

36. Hervieu, Paul, b. 1857 1900

37. Faguet, Emile, b. 1841 1900

i(8. Berthelot, Eugene, b. 1827 1900

39. Rostand, Edmond, b. 1868 1901

40. Vogue, Charles de, b. 1829 1901

The Academic Franchise, or French
academy, was Instituted in 1635. It is a
part of the Institute of France, and Its
particular function is to conserve the French
language, foster literature and encourage
genius. The members are forty In number
and are popularly known as the "forty im-


Prince Henry of Prussia, attended by a
large suite, came to the United States in
February, 1902, to witness the launching of
the yacht Meteor, which had been con-
structed for his brother, Emperor William
of Germany, by a firm of American ship-
builders. The visit was made the occasion
of a demonstration of national good will
toward his country and during his brief
stay he was made the recipient of many
honors from the government, states, mu-
nicipalities, associations and individuals.

The prince arrived in New York Feb. 23
and sailed for home March 11. Dates of
the principal events of his visit follow:

Received by the president, Feb. 24; at-
tends the launching, 25; at merchants' and
press banquets in New York, 26: McKinley
memorial exercises and trip to Mount Ver-
non, 27; at Annapolis, 28; departure (or
southern and western trip, March 1; at
Chattanooga and Lookout mountain, 2; in
St. Louis and Chicago, 3; in Chicago and
Milwaukee, 4; at Niagara falls, 5; in Bos-
ton, 6; at Albany and West Point, 7; in
New York. 8 and 9: in Philadelphia, 10.
Banquets, balls, receptions, drives and pres-
entations of addresses were features of
the programme at nearly every stopping



In nearly all the state conventions of the
two leading political parties in 1902 the
tariff and trust questions were brought to
the front. Republicans generally treated
them as distinct issues, but democrats made
them one by insisting that the tariff fos-
tered trusts. Broadly speaking, the policies
most emphatically insisted upon by each
party were these:

Republican Preservation of the principle
of protection; regulation of trusts and in-
dustrial combinations and enforcement of
existing antitrust laws.

Democratic Tariff for revenue only; abo-
lition of all duties on articles or commodi-
ties handled by trusts or combinations; en-
forcement of existing antitrust laws and
enactment of additional laws.

Incidentally such questions as reciprocity
with Cuba, Canada and other countries, ar-
bitration in labor disputes, government own-
ership of public utilities, direct election of
United States senators by the people, ship
subsidies, imperialism and militarism re-
ceived some attention, but they were over-
shadowed to such an extent by the tariff-
trust issue as to be of comparatively little
importance in the campaign.


The following extracts from a few of the
republican state platforms exemplify tne
general position of the party on the sub-
ject o'f the tariff and the trusts:

MASSACHUSETTS "The greatest national
issue is the maintenance of prosperity. The
integrity of the protective principle must
be preserved. The principle is required to
maintain the highest scale of American
wages and the supremacy of the American
workshop. * * * Nearly everything which
has been achieved for the benefit of human-
ity, especially under free governments, has
been achieved through co-operation and
combination. We recognize the right and
the necessity of such co-operatton. Labor
has the right to combine for its own, de-
fense and protection, to secure good wages,
reasonable hours for work and the health
and safety of the workmen. Capital has
the right to combine to accomplish results
too great for individual effort, to promote
economy in administration and in manufac-
ture and to entitle it to encounter success-
fully like combinations in foreign countries
for the possession of foreign markets. These
combinations of labor and capital, by what-
ever name they are called, are the natural
results of modern economic development
and are entitled to the due protection of
the law so long as they are innocent and
law-abiding. They must also obey the law
and submit to legal restraint if they be-
come pernicious, dangerous to the public
safety or tyrannical, or if they undertake
to interfere with individual liberty. No so-
called trust must be permitted to use its
power to crush out lawful competition or
to defraud unwary investors by fictitious
or fraudulent issues of stock not represent-
ing real value."

CONNECTICUT "We believe, with Lincoln,
Garfield. Blaiue, McKinley and Roosevelt,
in a protective tariff that wisely fosters
American industries and safeguards Amer-
ican wages. We oppose a general revision
of the tariff at this time as both inoppor-
tune and unnecessary. If, in any schedule.

import duties are found that have been
notoriously perverted from their true pflr-
pose to the inordinate enrichment of cor-
porations monopolistic in fact or in tend-
ency we look to a republican congress to
apply, in its wisdom, the needed corrective
without impairing the principle of protec-

MICHIGAN "We continue our abiding
faith in the protective tariff and are op-
posed to all efforts to destroy it or emascu-
late it or weaken its beneficent operations."

INDIANA "While we favor such modifica-
tions of the tariff schedules as from time
to time are required by changing con-
ditions, we insist that such changes shall
be made in line with the fundamental prin-
ciple of protection."

ILLINOIS "We approve of the republican
policy of protection under which our Indus-
tries have developed, agriculture has been
benefited and labor has been given steady
employment at constantly increasing wages,
and we approve of all organizations that
will benefit the condition of labor and re-
sult in the common good of the toiling
masses. We condemn all conspiracies ana
combinations to restrict business, to create
monopolies, to limit production or to con-
trol prices, and favor such legislation as
will effectually restrain and prevent all
such abuses, protect and promote competi-
tion and secure the rights of producers,
laborers and all who are engaged in indus-
try and commerce, and we approve and
commend the efforts of President Roosevelt
to enforce laws against illegal combinations
in restraint of trade and pledge him our
hearty support in all his efforts to protect
the people from oppressive combinations of

COLORADO "We believe these questions
should be solved along lines of regulation
against abuses and not by radical legisla-
tion destructive of business interests."

PENNSYLVANIA "We reaffirm our un-
swerving loyalty to the republican princi-
ple of a protective tafiff and deprecate any
suggestion under existing circumstances of
a general revision of the existing tariff
law. Under its beneficent operation we are
in the enjoyment of unparalleled prosper-
ity. Capital and labor are both remunera-
tively employed, our home market has
largely increased, we have secured our fair
share of the markets of the world with the

fromise f still further conquests therein,
laving reduced taxation within three years
to the amount of $115,000,000, we are still
in receipt of ample revenues; having con-
ducted an expensive war inaugurated four
years ago, we have paid all of its costs and
still find the national treasury to-day rich-
er by $33,000,000 than it was before the war
began. We believe It to be the dictate of
wisdom to let well enough alone and not
to imperil business Interests by any sug-
gestion of present interference with reve-
nue legislation."


IOWA "We stand by the historic policy
of the republican party in giving protec-
tion to home industries and point for its
ample vindication to the extraordinary ra-
pidity witli which our (national resources
nave been developed and our industrial and
financial Independence secured. We favor



such changes in the tariff from time to
time as become advisable through the prog-
ress of our industries and their changing
relations to the commerce of the world.
We indorse the policy of reciprocity as the
natural complement of protection and urge
its development as necessary to the realiza-
tion of our highest commercial possibili-

MINNESOTA "We favor such modifications
in our tariff schedules as are now or may
from time to time be required by changing
conditions to remove any burdens from ooir
people and to hold and extend our trade
among the nations."

OHIO "We recognize the necessity of co-
operation in order to meet new conditions
in the industrial world and to compete suc-
cessfully for the world's markets; but all
combinations that stifle competition, con-
trol prices, limit production or unduly in-
crease profits or values, and especially when
they raise the prices of the necessaries of
life, are opposed to public policy and should
be repressed with a strong hand."


Reciprocity with Cuba, the conduct of the
war and the civil government in the Phil-
ippines, the prosecution of illegal industii. 1
combinations and other policies of the ad-
ministration were indorsed by all the re-
publican conventions except the one in Cali-
fornia, which opposed reciprocity with
Cuba. Theodore Roosevelt was specifically
named by most of them as the party's can-
didate for the presidency in 1904.

Online LibraryAlice Bertha GommeChicago daily news national almanac for .. (Volume 1903) → online text (page 31 of 89)