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DEMOCRATIC PLATFORMS.

The democratic state platforms, with the
exception of two or three which ignon d
national issues, as was the case notably
in Michigan and Pennsylvania, demand, d
a tariff for revenue only and the aboil ti.n
of all duties on articles or commodities
handled by trusts. Legislation against
illegal combinations was demanded and tl e
policy of the administration in the Philip-
pines was generally condemned. The pi si-
tion of the democratic party on the tar'ff-
trust question is shown by these extracts
from typical platforms:

lLLiNOis - "Private. monopolies destroy
competition and control the price of mate-
rial, labor and finished product, thereby
robbing both producer and- consumer; w
therefore insist upon a rigid enforcement of
the present antitrust laws and favor such
further legislation, both federal and state,
as may be necessary to prevent such com-
binations. We denounce the republican tar-
iff as a prolific mother of trusts. We de-
mand a thorough revision of the tariff anil
the abolition of special privileges, and. as
the first, most obvious and most effective
means of eliminating special privileges
from our laws and of restoring to American
citizenship the equality which is its birth-
right, that every product of a tariff-pro-
tected, competition-destroying trust be
placed on the free list."

NEW YORK "Existing laws against trusts
must be enforced, more stringent ones must
be enacted, reasonable limitations and re-
strictions should be imposed upon the' ex-
tent to which wealth shall be permitted to
combine and virtually monopolize any
branch of industry or the production of any
article of merchandise, and the whole con-
stitutional power of congress over the sub-
ject of taxation, interstate commerce, the



mails and all modes of interstate communi-
cation should be exercised by the enact-
ment of comprehensive laws, and the va<t
legislative powers of the states should lie
invoked to the end that the people may
have adequate relief from present Intoler-
able trust conditions."

MASSACHUSETTS "Jn the place of the re-
nublican policy of fostering a;ul protecting



upon any legitimate corporate business
which is willing to sustain itself without
governmental favors and to submit to rea-
sonable governmental supervision and regu-
lation, but the supremacy of the state over
its corporate creatures must be asserted
and maintained, and they must conduct
their business with due regard to the vast
public interests in their charge. * * * The
present tariff is piotecting great trusts in
making exorbitant profits upon the necessi-
ties of our people, while selling their prod-
ucts to foreign markets at much lower juices
than the prices exacted here. We demand
the repeal of all tariff duties upon articles
whose production is controlled by trusts.
This is the one simple, practical and Im-
mediate remedy which will at least limit
the exactions of monopoly; it can be applied
while further legislation is being formu-
lated and discussed. The federal govern-
ment can at least allow the people to pur-
chase their coal and their meat, which have
been rising toward prohibitive prices, with-
out paying tribute to the coal trusts and
the meat trusts."

INDIANA "We denounce the republican
party for its surrender to and alliance with
the trusts, and we favor such, legislation
as will suppress and destroy all trusts or
combinations that control the production
and the price of commodities. We denounce
the Dingley law as the breeder of trusts
and demand that tariff duties shall be levied
for the purpose of revenue only and limited
by the needs of the . government honestly
and economically administered."

MINNESOTA "We would revolfe the tariff
benefits the trusts enjoy; we would refuse
the subsidy they seek, and we would en-
force the laws against them, sparing none. 1 '

THE KANSAS CITY PLATFORM.

The democratic state conventions indors-
ing the Kansas City platform of 1900 with
its free-silver plank included those of Ar-
kansas. Colorado, Idaho, Montana. Nebras-
ka, South Dakota, ftah, Washington and
Ohio. The Nebraska convention declared:
"\Ve, the democrats of Nebraska, in con-
vention assembled, reaffirm our faith In
the principles of the party as enuncialeu
in the last national platform as adopted at
Kansas City and we point to the vindica-
tion which that platform has received from
the events of the last two years."

The part of the Ohio democratic platform
indorsing the Kansas City policy was as
follows: "We hereby acknowledge and de-
clare our continued allegiance to "the demo-
cratic party of the n.-iti.n and on national
issues reaffirm and indorse the principles
laid down in its las! national platform
adopted at Kunsas City and which were
fully and ably represented in the presi-
dential campaign of 1900 by William Jen-
nings Bryan. Regarding those principles
as opposed to imperialism and colonialism,
as opposed to government by injunction, as



OK CRUDE PETROLEUM.



155



opposed In trusts and trust-fostering tariffs,
as ui>]Mis'il to liiiiHicial monopoly and as op-
posed to all ether legalized monopolies and
privileges, we condemn every effort to re-
pudiate or ignore them."

Among the conveni Sous Ignoring the Kan-
sas City platform were those of Connecti-
cut. Georgia, l\va, Indiana, Illinois, Massa-
chusetts, Minnesota. Michigan, New York,
Pennsylvania, Texas and Wisconsin. In
Iowa an attempt to reaffirm tne Kansas
City platform was defeated by a vote of
384 to 344 and in place of such reafflrmation
this declaration was adopted: "\Ve reaffirm
the fundamental principles of democracy as
promulgated by the great leaders from the
foundation of our government to the pres-
ent time."

THE COAL STRIKE.

References to the strike of the anthracite
coal miners in Pennsylvania and West Vir-
ginia were made in some of the party plat-
forms adopted late in the year. The most
radical utterance was that of the demo-
crats of New York at their convention in
Saratoga Oct. 1. It was declared:

"We advocate the national ownership and
operation of the anthracite coal mines by
the exercise of the right of eminent do-
main, with just compensation to the own-
ers. Ninety per cent of the anthracite coal
deposits of the world being in the state of
Pennsylvania, national ownership can but
be in the interest of the whole people.
Fuel, like water, being a public necessity,
we advocate national ownership and opera-
tion of the -mines as a solution of the prob-
lem which will relieve the country from
the sufferings which follow differences be-
tween labor and capital in the anthracite
mines. This course will insure peace in the
mining regions and remove the cause for
differences leading not only to suffering
but ofttimes to bloodshed and insurrection.
It will relieve t lie consumers of coal not
only in this state but throughout tne whole
country; Insure steady employment and
ample compensation to labor; transfer chil-
dren from the mines to the schools; insure,
strengthen and preserve the stability of
the business interests and popular institu-
tions of our country. Whatever differences
of opinion may exist over other proposi-
tions of public ownership, the propriety of
that policy as applied to anthracite coal
mines must be apparent to every citizen."

On the other hand, at the Massachusetts
republican state convention, held Oct. 3,
it was declared: "The conflict between the
miners and the mine owners in the anthra-
cite coal fields of Pennsylvania has paia-



iy/.ed Unit industry and brought trouble,
loss and distress in a Constantly increasing
measure upon the people of 'the United
States. The question is not a political one
and should not be made so to advance
party purposes. It is a calamity common
to us all, and the situation is too grave, the
prospect of loss and suffering by all condi-
tions of our people is too serious, to be
passed over in siience by any representa-
tive body of American citizens. We most
heartily approve the action of the president
of the United States in the effort he is mak-
ing to end this strike and give the people
the coal they so greatly need."

OTHER POLITICAL EVENTS.

HENDERSON'S WITHDRAWAL.
In consequence of the adoption of the
tariff revision plank in the Iowa state re-
publican platform David B. Henderson,
speaker of the house of representatives, de-
clined to accept a renomiuatiou to congress
by the republicans of his district (3d Iowa).
In a letter addressed to the chairman of
the notification committee and made public
Sept. 16 he said he believed many of the
people of the district and state thought he
did not truly represent their views on the
tariff question. "Believing this condition
to exist," he wrote, "and knowing that I
do not agree with' many of my people that
trusts, to which I am and have been op-
posed, can be cured or the people benefited
by free trade, in whole or in part, I must
decline to accept the nomination so gener-
ously and enthusiastically made."

NATIONAL LIBERAL PARTY.

The national liberal party was formed at
Cincinnati Jan. 26, 1902. It is composed of
freethinkers who desire the separation of
church and state to the extent of prohibit-
ing chaplains in the army and navy, in leg-
islative bodies and in all public institu-
tions, the taxation of church property arid
abandonment of sabbath observance.

UNITED STATES SENATOES.

Senators fV'illiam B. Allison and Jona-
than P. Dolliver, republicans, were re-
elected in Iowa; John F. Dryden, republic-
an, was elected to succeed the late W. J.
Sewell in New Jersey, and Russell A. Al-
ger, republican, was appointed to succeed
James McMillan, deceased, in Michigan;
James B. McCreary, democrat, was elected
in Kentucky, and Arthur Pue Gorman, dem-
ocrat, in Maryland; James P. Clarke, dem-
ocrat, won in the primaries in Arkansas,
and Albert J. Hopkins, republican, was In-
dorsed for election in Illinois.



PRODUCTION OF CRUDE PETROLEUM IN UNITED STATES.



[From Engineering and Mining Journal.]



The total production of crude petroleum
in the United States in 1901 was 69,389,194
barrels, being larger than that of any pre-
vious year. It was larger by 5.768.665 bar-
rels, or 9 per cent, than the production of
tb,e year 1900. The increase in the produc-
tion of 1900 over 1899 was 6,291.854 barrels,
or 11 i>er cent, and the increase in 1899 over
1898 was 3 per cent, or an average gain of
7.7 per cent for the last three years.

The Appalachian field produced 48.45 per
cent of the total output, the Lima-Indiana
tield 31.61 per cent, and all other fields 19.1:4
per cent, as compared, respectively, with



57.5 per cent, 34.34 per cent and 8.61 per
cent in 1900. The new fields of California,
Colorado, Kansas. Wyoming and Texas pro-
duced practically 20 per cent of the total
production of 1901, a gain of 11.4 in per-
centage over 1900, with the probability that
the southwest and west will have produced
35 per ceat of the total output in 1902.

The average price paid for all the petro-
leum marketed in the United States during
1901 was 95.7 cents per barrel, as compared
with $1.194 in 1900, showing a decrease of
23.7 cents per barrel, or 20 per cent the
lowest price since 1898.



CHICAGO DAILY NEWS ALMANAC AM) YEAH BOOK FOR 1903.



NOTED TRIALS OF 1902.



BURNS Florence Burns was accused of
the murder of Walter T. Brooks In the Glen
Island hotel, New York city, Feb. 14, 1902.
Her trial resulted In acquittal March 22, the

S residing justice declaring that the evi-
ence against her was insufficient.

MOLINEUX Roland B. Molinenx was
charged with causing the death in New
York city Dec. 28, 1898, of Katherine J.
Adams by means of poison. His trial be-
gan Nov. 14, 1899, and lasted until Feb. 10,
1900, when a verdict of guilty was returned.
Feb. 16 he was sentenced to death. An ap-
peal was taken and argued in June, 1900.
The case was taken under advisement and
on the 15th of October, 1901, a new trial
was granted by the Court of Appeals ia Al-
bany. The second hearing began Oct. 20.
1902, and resulted Nov. 11 in a verdict of
not guilty.

.MORRISON, JESSIE Defendant was charged
with the murder of Mrs. Olin Castle at
Eldorado, Kas., in June, 1900, jealousy be-
ing the motive alleged. The first trial re-
sulted In a disagreement and the second
in a verdict of manslaughter. Tne case
was appealed and the third trial began June
20, 1902, and resulted In another verdict of
guilty June 28.

NEELT C. F. W. Neely, B. G. Rathbone
and W. H. Reeves were convicted March
24, 1902, in Havana, Cuba, of embezzling
postoth'ce funds and stamps to the value of
$250,691. They were sentenced to ten years
in prison each and to pay fines aggregating
$127,541. Neely, who was credited with be-
ing at the head of the conspiracy, had
charge of the postal bureau, Reeves- was
chief of postal accounts and Rathbone was
director-general of Cuban posts. The frauds
were committed in 1899 and 1900. Reeves
was pardoned April 22 in consideration of
having turned state's evidence. Neely and
Rathbone were released June 11 under a
general amnesty to all American prisoners.

O'DONNELL, PATRICK H., ET AL. Patrick
H. O'Donnell, James T. Brady, John O'Don-
nell, William J. Gallagher, Cyrus S. Simon,
Herbert Rothery and Hammond T. Law-
rence were charged with" bribing jurors in
cases against the Union Traction company
in Chicago. They were Indicted April 26,
1902, and the trial began June 2. Seven
hundred veniremen were called and exam-
ined before a jury was secured. The trial
ended June 28 in a verdict of guilty. P. H.
O'Donnell and Brady, who were law part-
ners, were sentenced to pay a fine of $2.000
each; Gallagher was sentenced to imprison-
ment in the penitentiary; John O'Donnell
was* fined $500 and Lawrence and Rothery
were each fined $200. C. S. Simon, William
Gallagher, Chris Miller, Oscar C. Voorhees
and John Brown pleaded guilty July 19 and
were fined from $200 to $2,000 each.



PATRICK Albert T. Patrick was charged
with the murder of William Marsh Rice
in New York city Sept. 23, 19"00, after hav-
ing been made his residuary legatee and
having obtained from him checks for
$250,000 the day before his death. The trial
began, Jan. 20, 1902, and closed March 26
with a verdict of guilty. Ninety-six wit-
nesses testified and the cost of the trial
was about $100,000. Patrick was sentenced
to die In electric chair May 5.

RICHARDSON Mrs. Adclie L. Richardson
was accused of the murder of her million-
aire husband, Frank W. Richardson, a mer-
chant of Savannah, Mo., on Christmas eve,

1900. Her trial began at Plattsburg. Mo.,
Jan. 13, 1902, and ended Jan. 25 in net- ac-
quittal.

SULLIVAN Alexander Sullivan, lawyer,
was charged with conspiring to remove
Bailiff Lynch, a confessed jury-briber, fr.im
the reach of prosecution. The trial Uegan
Nov. 20, 1901, and ended Dec 23 in a ver-
dict of guilty, the punishment beii'g fixed
at a fine of $2,000. Sentence was formally
passed March 29, 1902.

WALLER Maj. Lyttleton W. T. Waller
of the United "States marine corps was
charged with shooting natives of the island
of Samar in the Philippines without trial,
contrary to the rules of war, in JJeceaib r

1901, and January. 1902. The major was
tried by court-martial March 17-April 13
and was acquitted by a vote of 11 to 2. It
was urged in his defense that he was act-
ing under the orders of Brig.-Gen. Smith
and that at the time of the alleged offense
he was suffering physically and mentally
from severe privations undergone on an ex-
pedition Into the interior of Samar.

WILCOX .Miss Nellie Cropsey, daughter
of a well-to-do resident of Elizabeth City,
N. C., disappeared from home on the night
of Nov. 20, 1901. Thirty-seven days later
her body -was found in the river not far
from her father's house. James Wilcox, a
former lover, was arrested on the charge
of having killed her. His trial began March
13, 1902, and ended in conviction on the 22d
of the same month.

WILLIAMS Capt. Edward Williams and
Luke Wheeler were indicted with others
Sept. 3, 1902, for conspiracy to defraud
Cook county of t-ixes amounting to $26.-
770.17 due on the Masonic Temple in Chi-
cago. Their trial began Oct. 6 and Oct.
25 a verdict was returned finding them
guilty. Wheeler's punishment was fixed at
two years in the county jail and the pay-
ment of a fine of $3,500. Williams was
given a fine of $1,500 and six months in jail.
Wheeler had a trial for forgery Sept. 26-
Oct. 4 In connection with tax-fixing, but
the jury failed to agree.



THE DANISH WEST INDIES.



On the 24th of January, 1902, a treaty
was signed at Washington by Secretary
John Hay and Constantin Brun, the Dan-
ish minister, for the sale to the United
States of the Danish Islands of St. Thomas,
St. John and St. Croix in the West Indies
for the sum of $5,000,000 in gold. The
treaty was ratified by the senate of the
United States Feb. 17 and by the lower
house of the Danish parliament March 14,



but the folksthing, or upper house, on the
23d of April voted to defer ratification un-
til after the elections in September. The
ministerial party was in favor of the treaty
and was apparently sustained by the peo-
ple, but when the matter came to a vote
Oct. 22 ratification was refused by a tie
vote .of 32 to 32. Prior to this action the
governments of both countries had extended
the time for ratification to July, 1903.



THE PHILIPPINE ISLANDS.



THE PHILIPPINE ISLANDS.



The Philippine islands were ceded to the
United States by Spain Dec. 10, 1898. Maj.-
Gen. Merrill was the first military gov- '
urnor. llt> \vas succeeded in AuiiUot, 1898. by
Maj.-Gen. E. S. Otis, who in turn was fol-
lowed May. 1900, by Maj.-Geu. Arthur Mac-
Arthur. The last named remained in office
until July 4, 1901, when the military author-
ity was transferred to Gen. A. U. cu.ifee.
My order of the president Gen. Chaffee was
relieved of his duties as military governor
July 4, 1902, and the office terminated. The
Philippine commission was at the same
time made the superior authority. Sept. 2
the islands were divided into three military
departments, to be known as the department
of Luzon, the department of Visayns and
the department of Mindanao, command d
respectively by Gei:s. James F. \v'atie, T. J.
Wint and Samuel S. Simmer.

OFFICIALS AND SAI.AUIES The government
of the Philippine islum s is at present in
the hands of a commission appointed by
the president of the United States, consist-
ing of \\iliiam H. Taft of Ohio, 1'rof. Denn
C. Worcester of Michigan. Luke E. Wright
of Tennessee, Henry C. Ide of Vermont and
Prof. Bernard Moses of California. They
have subdivided their duties as follows:

Governor William H. Taft.

Vice-Governor and Secretary of Commerce
and Police Luke E. Wright.

Secretary Interior Department D. C.
Worcester.

Secretary Justice and Finance H. C. Ide.

Secretary Public Instruction B. Moses.

Executive Secretary Arthur W. Ferguson.

Auditor Abraham L. Lawshe.

Treasurer Frank A. Branagan.

Superintendent of Education Fred W. At-
kinson.

Director-General of Posts C. M. Cotter-
man.

Attorney-General L. R. Wllfley.

Solicitor-General Gregorlo Araneta.

Collector of Customs W. M. Shuster.

Chief Justice Supreme Court Cayetano

Secretary to Commission-^Daniel R. Wil-
liams.

Governor Taft receives $20,000 a year
($15,000 as governor) and the other commis-
sioners receive $15,500 each ($10 500 being for
their services as heads of departments).
The salaries of other leading officials are:
Secretary to the commission, $3,500; secre-
tary to the governor, $7,500; auditor, $6,000;
collector of customs, $6,000; attorney -gen-
eral, $5,500; solicitor-general, $4,500; chief
lustice Supreme court, $7.500; associate Jus-
tices, $7.000; superintendent of public edu-
cation, $6,000; director-general of posts,
$6,000; treasurer, $6,000.

AREA AND POPULATION The total area of
the Philippine archipelago is estimated at
about 115.300 square miles and the popula-
tion at between 8,000,000 and 12,000,000. No
accurate surveys have been made of the
2,000 islands in the group and no census
has been taken since 1887, so that the fig-
ures are merely approximate. In May, 1901,
a sanitary census of Manila, taken under
the supervision of Lieut. Harry L. Gil-
christ, showed that the total population was
244,732, of which number 181,361 were Fili-
pinos. 51,567 Chinese, 8,562 Americans. 2,382
Spaniards and 960 of other nationalities.
American soldiers were not included in the
count.



PBODUCTS AND CLIMATE The chief prod-
ucts are hemp, sugar, coffee, tobacco leaf,
copra, cigars and indigo. Between 600,000
and 700, OuO bales of hemp are exported an-
nually. From 1S95 to 1899 the shipments of
hemp to the United States have bien: 1895,
273,918 bales; 1896, 290,327; 1897, 417,963; 1898,
338,124; 1899, 265,828.

The climate of the Philippine islands is
considered excellent, for the tropics. The
mean temperature in Manila ranges from
77 in January to 83 in May. June, July,
August and September comprise the rainy
mouths; March, April and May the hot and
dry and October, November, December.
January and February the temperate and
dry.

EDUCATION In all the peaceful provinces
rapid progress has been made in providing
schools and teachers. Nearly 500 men and
women were brought from the United States
in 1901 under three-year contracts to engage
in the work of educating the natives and
their children. It was found impracticable
to make any other language than English
the medium of imparting knowledge, as the
home dialects were too numerous and Span-
ish was not understood by many.
END OF THE WAR.

Though the office of military governor of
the Philippines was not terminated until
July 4, 1902, the war is generally regarded
as having come to an end on the 30th of
April preceding. After that date no en-
gagements took place in which civilized
Filipinos opposed the forces of the United
States. The following statistics of the war
were prepared in the adjutant-general's of-
fice in Washington: Number of engage-
ments between Feb. 4, 1899, and April 30,
1902, 2,561; troops transported to the
Philippines, 4,135 officers and 128,803 men;
average strength of the army. 40,000- killed
or died of wounds, 69 officers iand 936 en-
listed men; deaths from disease, 47 officers
and 2,535 enlisted men; deaths from acci-
dents, 6 officers and 125 enlisted men;
drowned, 6 officers and 257 enlisted men;
suicide, 10 officers and 72 enlisted men;
murdered, 1 officer and 91 enlisted men;
total deaths, 139 officers and 4,016 enlisted
men; wounded, 190 officers and 2,707 enlisted
men.

In reply to a resolution of the senate
Secretary of War Root gave the total cost
of the war as $170,326,586, divided by fiscal
years as follows: 1898, $2,686,850; 1899, $26.-
230,673; 1900. $50,869,753; 1901, $55,567,022;
1902 (to April 30), $34,499,022; outstanding
obligations, $473,073.

LEGISLATION BY CONGRESS.

NEW TARIFF LAW Two laws of much im-
portance to the Philippines were passed at
the first session of the 57th congress. The
first bill taken up was one providing a tem-
porary tariff for the islands. This was
passed by the house Dec. 18, 1901, and by
the senate Feb. 24, 1902. It provides that
articles imported into the Philippine archi-
pelago from the United States shall be re-
quired to pay the duties levied against
them by the Philippine commission and
paid on like articles imported Into the
archipelago from foreign countries and that
articles imported into the United States
from the Philippines shall pay a duty of
75 per cent of the rates fixed by the Diiigley
law, less any export taxes paid on the ar-



158



CHICAGO DAILY NEWS ALMANAC AND YEAR BOOK FOR 19U3.



tides sent from the Philippine archipelago-,
as required by the Philippine commission.
All articles now imported free iiuo th.-
United States shall be hereafter e..enipt
from export duties imposed in the Pi.ii-
ippines. The commerce passing between the
I'uited States and the Philippines is ex-
empted from the operation of the naviga-
tion laws of the United States until Ju.y
1, 1904. The duties and taxes collected in
pursuance of this act shall be paid into the
treasury of the Philippine islands and used
for their benetit. All articles manufactured
in bonded manufacturing warehouses of im-
ported materials or of materials subject
to internal-revenue tax when shipped from
the United States to the Philippines shall
be exempt from the internal-revenue tax.

CIVIL GOVERNMENT The second and mo:-e



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