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into their careers and capacity to keep
them of the same high relative excellence
throughout their careers.

The measure providing for the reorgan-
ization of the militia system and for se-
curing the highest efficiency in the national
guard, which has already passed the house,
should receive prompt attention and ac-
tion. It is of great importance that the
relation at the national guard t." the mili-
tia and volunteer forces of the United
States should be defined and that in place
of our present obsolete laws a practical
and efficient system should be adopted.

Provision should be made to enable the
secretary of war to keep cavalry and artil-
lery horses, worn out in long performance
of duty. Such horses'" fetch but a trifle
when sold, and rather than turn them out
to the misery awaiting them when thus
disposed of it _would be better to employ
them at light work around the posts ami
when necessary to put them -painlessly to
death.

THE NAVY.

For the first time in our history naval
maneuvers on a large scale are being held
under the immediate command of the ad-
miral of the navy. Constantly increasing
attention is being paid to the gunnery of
the navy, but it is yet far from what it
should be. I earnestly urge that the in-
crease asked for by the secretary of the
navy in the appropriation for improving the
marksmanship be granted. In battle the
only shots that count are the shots that
hit. It is necessary to provide ample funds
for practice with the great guns in time
of peace. These funds must provide not
only for the purchase of projectiles but
for allowances- for prizes to encourage the
gun crews, and especially the gun pointers,
and for perfecting an intelligent system
under wuich alone it is possible to get
srood practice.

There should be no halt in the * work
of building up the navy, providing every
year additional fighting craft. We are a
very rich country, vast in extent of terri-
tory and great in population; a country,
moreover, which has an army diminutive
indeed when compared with that of any
other first-class power. We have deliberately
made our own certain foreign policieswhich
demand the possession of a first-ciass navy.
The isthmian canal will greatly increase
the efficiency of our navy if the navy is
of sufficient size, but if we have an inade-
quate navy then the building of the canal
would be merely giving a hostage to any
power of superior strength. The Monroe
doctrine should be treated as the cardinal
feature of American foreign policy, but it
would be worse than idle to assert it un-
less we intended to back it up, and it can
be backed up only by a thoroughly gjjod
navy. A good navy is not a provocative of
war; it Is the surest guaranty of peace.

Each individual unit of our navy should
be the most efficient of its kind, as regards
both material and personnel, that is to be
found in the world. I call your special
attention to the need of providing for the
manning of the ships. Serious trouble
threatens us if we cannot do better than
we are now doing as regards 1 securing the
services of a sufficient number of the high-
est type of sailormen, of sea mechanics.
The veteran seamen of our warships are



THE PRESIDENT'S MESSAGE.



207



of as high a type as can be found in any
navy which rides tu waters of the world.
They are unsurpassed in during, in reso-
lution, in readiness, in thorough knowledge
of their profession. They deserve every
consideration that can be shown them.
But there are not enough of tuem. It
is no more possible to improvise a crew
than it is possible to improvise a warship.
To build the finest ship, with the deadliest
battery, and to send it afloat with a raw
crew, no matter how brave they were in-
dividually, would be to insure disaster if a
foe of average capacity were encountered.
Neither ships ncrr men can be improvised
when war has begun.

We need a thousand additional officers
in, order properly to man the ships now
provided for and under construction. The
classes at the naval school at Annapolis
should be greatly enlarged. At the same
time that we must add the officers where
we need them we should facilitate the re-
tirement of those at the head of the list
whose usefulness has 1 become impaired.
Promotion must be fostered if the service
is to be kept efficient.

The lamentable scarcity of officers and
the large number of recruits and of un-
skilled men necessarily put aboard the new
vessels as they hve been commissioned
has thrown upon our officers, and especially
on the lieutenants and junior grades, un-
usual labor and fatigue an'dl has gravely
strained their powers of endurance. Nor
is there sign of any immediate let-up in
this strain. It must continue for some
time longer, until more officers are gradu-
ated from Annapolis and until the recruits
become trained and skillful in their duties.
In these difficulties Incident upon the de-
velopment of- our war fleet the conduct of
all our officers has been creditable to the
service and the lieutenant and junior
grades in particular have displayed an abil-
ity and a steadfast cheerfulness which en-
title them tp the. ungrudging thanks of all
who realize the disheartening trials and
fatigues to which they are of necessity
subjected.

There is not a cloud on the horizon at
present. There seems not the slightest
chance of trouble with a foreign power. We
most earnestly hope that this state of
things may continue; and the way to In-
sure its continuance is to provide for a
thoroughly efficient navy. . The refusal to
maintain such a navy would invite trouble,
and if trouble came would insure disaster.
Fatuous self-complacency or .vanity, or
short-sightedness in refusing to prepare for
danger, is both foolish and wicked in such
a nation as ours; and past experience has
shown that such fatuity in refusing to rec-
ognize or prepare for any crisis in advance
is usually succeeded by a mad panic of
hysterical fear oqce the crisis has actually
arrived.

POSTAL AFFAIRS.

The striking Increase in the revenues of
the postofflce department shows clearly the
prosperity of our people and the increas-
ing activity of the business of the country.

The receipts of the postoffice department
for the .fiscal year ended June 30 last
amounted to $121,848.047.26, an increase of
$10,216,853.87 over the preceding year, the
largest increase known in the history of
the postal service. The magnitude of this
increase will best appear from the fact
that the entire postnl receipts for the year
1860 amounted to but $8,518,067.



Rural free-delivery service is no louger
in the experimental stage; it has become a
lixed policy. The results following its in-
troduction have fully justified the congress
in the large appropriations made for its
establishment and extension. The average
yearly increase in postofflce receipts in the
rural districts of the country is about 2
per cent. We are now able, by actual re-
sults, to show that where rural free-
delivery service has been established to such
an extent as to enable us to make com-
parisons the yearly increase has been up-
ward of 10 per cent.

On Nov. 1, 1902, 11,650 rural free-delivery
routes had been established and were in
operation, covering about one-third of the
territory of the United States available for
rural free-delivery service. There are now
awaiting the action of the department pe-
titions and applications for the establish-
ment of 10,748 additional routes. This
shows conclusively the want which the es-
tablishment of the service has met and
the need of further extending it as rapidly
as possible. It is justified both by the
financial results and by the practical bene-
fits to our rural population; it brings the
men who live on the soil into close re-
lations with the active business world; it
keeps the farmer in daily touch with the
markets; it is a potential educational force;
it enhances the value of farm property,
makes farm life far pleasanter and less
isolated and will do much to check the un-
desirable current from country to city.

Jt is to be hoped that the congress will
make liberal appropriations for the con-
tinuance of the service already established
and for its further extension.

IRRIGATION.

Few subjects of more importance have
been taken up by the congress in recent
years than the inauguration of the system
of nationally aided irrigation for the arid
regions of the far west. A good beginning
therein has been made. Now that this
policy of national irrigation has been
adopted the need of thorough and scien-
tific forest protection will grow more rap-
Idly than ever throughout the public-land
states.

Legislation should be provided for the
protection of the game and the wild crea-
tures generally on the forest reserves.
The senseless slaughter of game, which can
by judicious protection be permanently pre-
served on our national reserves for the peo-
ple as a whole, should be stopped at once.
It is, for instance, a serious count against
our national good sense td'permit the pres-
ent practice of butchering off such a stately
and beautiful creature as the elk for its
antlers or tusks.

So far as they are available for agricul-
ture, and to whatever extent they may be
reclaimed under the national irrigation law,
the remaining public lands should be held
rigidly for the home-builder, the settler
who lives on his land, and for no one else.
In their actual use the desert-land law, the
timber and stone law and the commutation
clause of the homestead law have been so
perverted from the Intention with which
they were enacted as to permit the acqui-
sition of large areas of the public domain
for other than actual settlers and the con-
sequent prevention of settlement. More-
over, the approaching exhaustion of the
public ranges has of late led to much dis-
cussion as to the best manner of using
these public lands fn the west which are



CHICAGO DAILY NEWS ALMANAC AND YEAR BOOK FOR 1903.



suitable chiefly or only for grazing. The.
sound and* steady development of the west
depends upon the building up of homes
therein. Much of our prosperity as a nation
has been due to the operation 01 the home-
stead law. On the other bund, we should
recognize the fact that in the grazing
region the man who corresponds to the
homesteader may be unable to settie per-
manently if allowed to use only the same
amount of pasture laud that his brother,
the homesteader, is allowed to use of arable
land. One hundred and sixty acres of fairly
rich and well-watered soil, or a much small-
er amount of irrigated laud, may keep a
family in plenty, whereas no one could get
a living from 160 acres of dry pasture land
capable of supporting at the outside only
one head of cattle to every ten acres. In
the past, great tracts of the public domain
have been fenced in by persons having no
title thereto, in direct defiance of the law-
forbidding the maintenance or construction
of auy such unlawful inclosure of public
land. For various reasons there has been
little interference with such inclosures In
the past, but ample notice has now been
given the trespassers and all the resources
at the command of the government will
hereafter be used to put a stop to such
trespassing.

In view of the capital importance of
these matters I commend them to the ear-
nest consideration of the congress, and if
the congress rinds difficulty in dealing wifB
them from lack of thorough knowledge of
the subject I recommend that provision be
made for a commissioji of experts specially
to investigate and report upon the com-
plicated questions inv6lved,

LEGISLATION FOR ALASKA,

I especially urge upon the congress the
need of wise legislation for Alaska. It is
not to our credit as a nation that Alaska,
which has been rf>urs for thirty-five years,
should still have as poor a system, of laws
as is the case. No country has a more
valuable possession in mineral wealth, in
fisheries, furs, forests and also in land
available for certain kinds of farming and
stock .growing. It Js a territory of great
size and varied resources, well fitted to
support a large permanent population. Alas-
ka needs a good land law and such pro-
visions for homesteads and pre-emptions as
will encourage permanent settlement. We
should shape legislation with a view not
to the exploiting and abandoning of the
territory but to the building up of homes
therein. The land laws slwuld be liberal
in type, so as to hold out inducements to
the actual settler, whom we most desire
to see take possession of the country. The
forests of Alaska should be protected, and,
as a secondary but still important matter,
the game also, and at the same time it is
imperative that the settlers should be al-
lowed to cut timber, under proper regula-
tions, for their own use. Laws should be
enacted to protect the Alaskan salmon fish-
eries against the greed which would de-
stroy them. They should Pe preserved as
a permanent industry and food supply.
Their management and control should be
turned over to the commission of fish -and
fisheries. Alaska should have a delegate in
the congress. It would be well if a con-
gressional committee could visit Alaska and
investigate its needs on the ground.
THB INIDIANS.

In dealing with the Indians our aim
should be their ultimate absorption into the



body of our people. But in many cases this
absorption must and should be very slow.
In portions of the Indian Territory the
mixture of blood has gone on at the same
time with progress in wealth and education,
so that there are plenty of men with vary-
ing degrees of purity of Indian blood who
are absolutely indistinguishable in point of
social, political and economic ability from
their white associates. There are other
tribes which have as yet made no percep-
tible advance toward such equality. To try
to force such tribes too fast is to prevent
their going forward at all.- Moreover, the
tribes live under widely different condi-
tions. Where a tribe has rn;>de considerable
advance and lives on fertile farming soil It
is possible to allot the members lauds in
severally much as is the case with white
settlers. There are other tribes where such
a course is not desirable. On the arid
prairie lands the effort should be to induce
the Indians to lead pastoral rather than
agricultural lives and to permit them to
settle in villages rather than to force them
into isolation.

The large Indian schools situated remote
from any Indian reservation do a special
and peculiar work of great importance. But,
excellent though these are, an immense
amount of additional work must be done on
the reservations themselves among the old
and above all among the young Indians.

The first and most important step toward
the absorption of the Indian is to teach
him to earn his living; yet it is not neces-
sarily to be assumed that in each commu-
nity all Indians must become either tillers
of the soil or stock raisers. Their industries
may properly be diversified and those who
show special desire or adaptability fur in-
dustrial or even commercial pursuits should
be encouraged so far as practicable to fol-
low each his own bent.

Every effort should be made to develop
the Indian along the lines of natural apti-
tude and to encourage the existing native
industries peculiar to certain tribes, such
as the various kinds of basket weaving,
canoe building, smith work and blanket
work. Above all, the Indian boys and girls
should be given confident command of collo-
quial English and shpuld ordinarily be pre-
pared for a vigorous struggle with the con-
ditions under which their people live, rather
than for immediate absorption into some
more highly developed community.

The officials who represent the govern-
ment in dealing with the Indians work un-
der hard conditions and also under condi-
tions which render it "easy to do wrong
and very difficult to detect wrong. Conse-
quently they should be amply paid on the
one hand and on the other hand a particu-
larly high standard of conduct should be
demanded from them, and where miscon-
duct <?an be proved the punisEment should
be exemplary.

AGRICULTURE.

In no department of government work in
recent years has there been greater success
than in that of giving scientific aid to the
farming population, thereby showing them
how most efficiently to help themselves.
There is no need of insisting upon its im-
portance, for the welfare of the farmer is
fundamentally necessary to the welfare of
the republic as a whole. In addition to
such work as quarantine against animal
and vegetable plagues and warring against
them when here introduced, much efficient
help has been rendered to the farmer by



THE PRESIDENT'S MESSAGE.



the introduction of new plants specially
titled for cultivation under the peculiar
conditions existing in different portions of
the country- New cereals have been estab-
lished in the semiarid west. For instance,
the practicability of producing the best
types of macaroni wheats in regions of an
annual rainfall of only ten inches or there-
abouts has been conclusively demonstrated.
Through the introduction of new rices in
Louisiana and Texas the production of rice
in this country has been made to about
i i (iual the home demand. In the southwest
the possibility of regrassing overstocked
range lauds has been demonstrated; in the
north many new forage crops have been
introduced, while in the east it has been
shown that some of our choicest fruits
can be stored and shipped in such a way
as to find a profitable market abroad.

I again recommend to the favorable con-
sideration of the congress the plans of the
Smithsonian institution for making the
museum under its charge worthy of the
nation and for preserving at the national
capital records not only of the vanishing
races of men but of the animals of this
continent, which, like the buffalo, will soon
become extinct unless specimens from
which their representatives may be re-
newed are sought in their native regions
and maintained there in safety.

THE DISTRICT OF COLUMBIA.

The District of Columbia is the only part
of our territory in which the national 'gov-
ernment exercises local or municipal func-
tions and where in consequence the gov-
ernment has a free hand in reference to
certain types of social and economic legis-
lation which must be essentially local or
municipal in their character. The govern-
ment should see to it, for instance, that the
hygienic nd sanitary legislation affecting
Washington is of a high character. The
evils of slum dwellings, whether in the
shape of crowded and congested tenement-
house districts or of the back-alley type,
should never be permitted to grow up in
Washington. The city should be a model
in every respect for all the cities of the
country. The charitable and correctional
systems of the district should receive con-
sideration at the hands of the congress to
the end that they may embody the results
of the most advanced thought in these
fields. Moreover, while Washington is not
a great industrial city, there is some in-
dustrialism here, and our labor legislation,
while It would not be important in itself,
might be made a model for the rest of the
nation. We should pass, for instance, a
wise employer's liability act for the Dis-
trict of Columbia, and we need such an act
in our navy yards. Railroad companies in
the district ought to be required by law to
block their frogs.



The safety-appliance law for the letter
protection of the lives and limbs of rail-
way employes, which was passed in isyn,
went into full effect on Aug. 1, 1901. It
has resulted in averting thousands of cas-
ualties. Experience shows, however, the
necessity of additional legislation to per-
fect this law. A bill to provide for this
passed tBe senate at the last session. It
is to be hoped that some such measure may
now be enacted into law.

There is a growing tendency to provide
for the publication of masses of documents
for which there is no public demand and
for the printing of which there is no real
necessity. Large numbers of volumes are
turned out by the government printing
presses for which there is no justification.
Nothing should be printed by any of the
departments unless it contains something
of permanent value, and the congress could
with advantage cut down very materially
on all the "printing which it has now be-
come customary to provide. The excessive
cost of government printing is a strong ar-
gument against the position of those who
are inclined on abstract grounds to advo-
cate the government's doing any work
which can with propriety be left in private
hands.

Gratifying progress has been made dur-
ing the year in the extension of the merit
system of making appointments in the
government service. It should be extended
by law to" the District of Columbia. It is
much to be desired that our consular sys-
tem be established by law on a basis pro-
viding for appointment and. promotion only
in consequence of proved fitness.

Through a wise provision of the congress
at its last session the white house, which
had become disfigured by incongruous ad-
ditions and changes, has now been restored
to what it was planned to be by Washing-
ton. In making the restorations the utmost
care has been exercised to come as near
as possible to the early plans and to sup-
plement these plans by a careful study of
such buildings as that of the University of
Virginia, which was built by Jefferson. The
white house is the property of the nation,
and so far as is compatible with living
therein it should be kept as it originally
was, for the same reasons that we keep
Mount Vernon as it originally was. The
stately simplicity of its' architecture is an
expression of the character of the period
in which it was built and is in accord with
the purpose it was designed to serve. It is
a good thing to preserve such buildings as
historic monuments which keep alive our
sense of continuity wifh the nation's past.

The reports of the several executive de-
partments are submitted to the congress
with this communication.

THEODORE ROOSEVELT.

White House, Dec. 2, 1902.



INVENTION OF THE AUTOMOBILE.



No one man can be said to have invented
the automobile. The machine as it is to-
d'ay is the product of many mkids in many
countries. Horseless vehicles date back
almost to the time when steam became a
motive power, and as long ago as 1802
Richard Trevithick, an Englishman, con-
structed a machine which made a trip of
ninety miles over country roads. In 18b3
Delamare-Deboutteville and Malandln of
Paris invented a tricycle propelled by com-
pressed gas and a year later used petro-



leum for generating power. Messrs. Pan-
hard and Levassor were the first to invent
a really practical petroleum motor. This
was in 1890, since which time the develop-
ment of the various types of road motors
has been rapid, particularly in France.
Electricity as a motive power for road ma-
chines was first used in the early 80s,
but it was not until about 1898 that it be-
gan to be looked upon as a rival of pe-
troleum.



270 CHICAGO DAILY NEWS ALMANAC AND YEAR BOOK FOR 1903.


CLIMATOLOGY OF THE UNITED STATES.

The following table of average rainfall, highest and lowest temperatures, based upon
observations of thirty-two or fewer yearsut selected stations in the several states and territories
of the United States, was compiled from the records of the weather bureau for The Chicago
Daily News Almanac by the United States weather bureau, Washington. D.C. :


STATIONS.


Alt. i(h.\ iVo.
<iealerfl\ of
(feet}, i/ears


TEMPEKATfUE.


Av.pre-
ciiiita-
linn.


Max


Year.


Ml.


Year-




!2
162
20
4.833
137
297
9
10
5.183
4,690
10
12
8
22
1,033-
21
314
603
582
706
1,195
632
V43
2,484
394
2
179
5
11
8
11
582
579
628
711
904
94
455
4,013
2.477
2.803
1.042
4.335
179
9
18
510
6.151
6.954
725
32
1.638
1.855
516
594
11
482
9
697
16
10
3.1 '.Hi
1,186
933
271
1,718
6
4,248
11
739
17
1,883
616
634
6.054


11
15
27
23
32
31
31
14
30
32
31
32
24
32
31
32
23

11
24
25
28
31
32
31
30
32
32
32
30
32
32
32
22
31
32
23
22
28
32
24
9
29
29
32
13
30
24
32
28
20
32
32
31
25
S3
32
23
32
17
28
32

. 3 ?

32
29
St
16

22
14

n

32


102
107
80
103
118
1U6
100
101
105
103
100
104
104
100
100
105
106
103
107
106
104
109
107
108
107
102
107
93
97
104
101
98
101
108
104



Online LibraryAlice Bertha GommeChicago daily news national almanac for .. (Volume 1903) → online text (page 56 of 89)