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VoHsnuU DBCEMBER, i9n Number i



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Style No. 20




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VoLSl



DETROIT, MICHIGAN, DECEMBER 1922



Na 1



PBblic]i«4 monthly by the Amalgamated AsaocUtioii

of Street and Electric Railway Bmployea of America.

W. D. Mahon, Preaident,

260 Beat High Street, Detroit, Michigan



Bntered at the Poat Ofllce aa Second Claaa Matter.
Accepted for Mailing at aoedal ratea of poatage pro-
Tided for in Section 1103, Act of October 3rd, 1917.



Sabaeription price



S.75.



mTBRNATIONAL ASSOCIATION HEADQUARTERS BUILDING

Detroit, Bfich.

In response to many requests coming from Locals for a picture of the International Head-
qaarters Office Btiilmng, a picture of the building at 260 £. High St., Detroit, Mich.
OSS been supplied to each Local. Since the distribution of the pictures, there have come
retmests for a general description of the property. The International Headquarters
Bmlding is located in what is known as the ^fortnem outskir:t section of the downtown
district of Detroit, a step East of Woodward Avenue, upon a lot of 72 ft. frontage,
extending back 157 feet. The office btiilding standing upon the front of this lot is
W ft. front and 38 ft. deep. The ground floor, aside from the entrance areaway, and
vault, has three rooms, one at the left being the office of the Chief Clerk and book-
keeper. The other^ two rooms are general work rooms. The rear room is 18 x 36 ft.
This room is occupied bv stenographers and record clerks. • The right front room is
occupied by the Record and Subscription Department of the Motorman and Con-
ductor. On the second floor in front are two spacious office rooms. The west office
on the second floor is the private office of the International President. The East front
oflSce on the second floor is the private office of the First Int. Vice-President. In
the rear of these offices is a room 18 x 36 ft. utilized for conferences and General Execu-
tiTC Board Mee^iit^.* A o^ijiU office at ^he Wpst rear pf the second floor is occupied by
a dcrk in charee of :the Furteril, 'Djs^bibtj^, aifld OJc},' ^ge >and','^ofiding Departments.
Adiacent to this and operSnJ: frdn 'the lobby .cm" Jtlj,e "-second* "floor is the ladies'
toilet. Upon the third floor there are five office rooms and a filing room.

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Four



MOTORMA N AND COND UCTOR



ORGANIZATION IMPERATIVE IN
COLLECTIVE BARGAINING

The prime purpose of wage workers in
organizing is to establish an effective atti-
tude for collective bargaining.

It would seem unnecessary to in any way
detail to wage earners the advantages in
collective bargaining. Individual contracts,
or so-called master and servant contracts,
are what the wage workers understand they
must evade in order* to improve waees and
working conditions where groups of wage
earners are employed in the same trade.

The master and servant contract is the
contract sought to be retained by the em-
ploying concern that is opposed to the or-
ganizing of wage earners. This master and
servant contract either expressed or im-
plied, is the terms of employment of which
the employe has nothing whatever to say
or do. The applicant for employment
appears before the emplovment foreman,
superintendent or agent and asks for a job.
Where the master and servant contract is
expressed, it is so expressed in the applica-
tion placed before the applicant, to which
he 1^ must subscribe before he gets employ-
ment. That is his signature to the master
and servant a^eement. Usually, in that
application he is supposed to fill out blanks
that describe his character, what his previ-
ous occupation has been and in later years,
ofttimes as to whether he belongs to a union
and to what union. Whether the wages
and hours in employment are specified in
this master and servant agreement, or not,
he must subscribe that he will comply
with all of the rules and dictates of the em-
ploying concern, which comprise the wages,
the hours of service and the conditions
under which he works. That is the master
and servant agreement.

The collective agreement is an agreement
entered into by and between the employing
company and the entire i^roup of employes
who act collectively. This collective agree-
ment becomes the agreement conditions,
and the master and servant contract pro-
visions are superceded by it. The collective
agreement is made by representatives of
the employes as a group, and representa-
tives of the employing concern, usually the
Superintendent or Manager.

It will be seen that the collective agree-
ment requires an associating of the em-
ployes as a group for the purpose of formu-
lating the proposed collective agreement,
and the designating of agreement represen-
tatives to place the agreement before the
management of the emplo^^ng concern and
negotiate it. Whatever this associate char-
acter may be termed, it is a system of or-
ganization of wage earners. If either party
to the agreement ceases to exist, first, by
the company going out of business, secondly,
by the group of employes dissolving, then
the collective agreement ceases. The mo-
ment that the collective capacity of the
employes is dissolved, that moment -the
employes must rey^*^^^ td* tl!4 Smaiter
and servant method V JdC ,*afjf^t^<^.^ ^ ; In
some employments tKe* ^pj^hciTnt for em-



ployment is not required to sign an agree-
ment. He then enters employment under
an implied master and servant contract and
that implied master and servant contract
comprises the wages and working conditions
fixed from time to time by the employing
company or management. Usually, m su^
cases, nothing is said of wage rat^ unless
in reply to questions asked by the appli-
cant. Courts hold in such case, that the
regular wage paid by the concern is the
wage recoverable by the applicant.

Unless there is some character of strength
or force expressive in the associate char-
acter of the employes, the employer will
not respect the petition for collective agree-
ment unless the employer can dictate all
terms. In such case the associate character
of the employes is of no more consequence
to them in obtaining advantages in a col-
lective agreement than the ordinary shop
committee arrangement of non-union em-
ploying concerns. This shop committee
type of organization is known as the em-
ployer's "Employes' Association," and usu-
ally has as its material character that of a
rehef association. Under this system, em-
ployel^ are controlled by the emplojring
management, equally as effectively as under
the master and servant agreement plan, in
fact, more effectively. The management in
such cases arranges to secretly or openly
have control of the selection of the repre-
sentatives of the organization and uses these
representatives in keeping touch with the
pulse of all of the employes as a body,
and is thus able to discriminate against
any employe of strong character and elimi-
nate such employe from the service, thus
keeping under control the entire body.
Wage earners that give this subject a
moment's thought, comprehend this and
recognize that company associations of em-
ployes place the employes in a less favorable
attitude than as though no such organiza-
tion existed. Where no such organization
exists, and the employes become disrestful,
it can manifest itsdf by imminent or-
ganization, of which the non-union employ-
ing concern is ^ sensitive. Therefore, the
greatest protection to the non-union em-
ploying concern is the company organiza-
tion of employes that is always brought
passively or actively under the immediate
control of the management.

Wage earners observing their helplessness
through company organizations, as well as
under the master and servant agreement,
recognize that the forceful organization
must be that established and maintained
exclusively of any influence of the employ-
ing company. Such organizations have
force and such, to a great extent, was the
earlier order of organizations of wage
workers. When this step is gained, wage
workers understand that they can strengthen
their force by affiliation with other like or-
ganizations, wherein the organizations fed-
erate and thus the trade union movement is
established. '-

*• iy^'XriJieiio^Oh iflovement, or this fed-
^.ii/tteft«**ch^^1^' dS organizations of wage

'earners, has been created on the principle



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MOTORMAN AND COND UCTOR



FUm



of the fullest of respect for trade autonomy,
with a comnutment of each organized group,
and each organized craft to assist the other
in obtaining the nearest possible to the
wages and working conditions resultant
from the deliberations of the immediate
group or craft. This adds the full force of
the federated groups in support of the in-
dividual group seeking changes in wages and
working conditions. Non-union employing
concerns understand this, hence the com-
pany organizations and hence the bitter
antagonisms of organized labor.

Thus we see that the contention reverts
to the question of establishing collective
agreement relations in employment. This
subject is the contention in all litigation
seeking injunctions restraining labor. No
injimction is ever granted except on this
one principle, and is intended for and aimed
at the destroying of the force of wage
earners, thereby rendering them incapable
of collective bargaining.

The purpose of wage earners in organiz-
ing is to obtain to as nearly as possible a
plane of equality with employing concerns
in bargaining to fix wages and working con-
ditions. The individual wage worker is not
on that plane or equality. For instance,
where one hundred wage earners are em-
ployed, the individual wage earner cannot
go up to the employing agent of the con-
cern, Superintendent or Manager, and insist
upon a special agreement that will improve
his wages and working conditions. Neither
can the applicant for employment place
before the employer of such a concern a
prescribed contract that, if signed by the
employing agent would carry to him better
wages and working conditions than prevail
to the already employed. The helplessness
of wa^e earners in such individual moves is
recognizable by every wag^ earner. The
apphcant woula not receive employment and
the employe that would endeavor to super-
cede his master and servant agreement by
an agreement prepared by himself, would
be told to seek employment elsewhere, or
be content with what the company has
dictated.

Were it not for the force that establishes
collective agreements there would be no
opposition to wage earners joining the trade
anion movement. It requires no strikes or
suspensions of work of ^oups of employes
to establish a relief assoaation. In fact the
employer will assist in the establishing of
such associations, and assist to such an
extent that he will gain control. But the
employer does not go out and organize his
employes into trade unions of a nature that
win seek to establish collective agreements
in employment./ The non-union employing
companies, many of them, however, compel
their employes to join company organiza-
tions and will presume to those employes
that they are working under a collective
agreement. But such employes know that
tney arc not working under the trade union
eoUective agreement, wherein they had voice
in fixing the wages and working conditions.
The ovly system of organization that yields
this force and privilege, is the organization



formed by the wage earners, independent of
the employing concern. Such organization
is the trade union.

When the trade union collective agree-
ment is placed before the management of an
employing concern, the management knows
that the officers or committee chosen by the
employes to present sudi collective agree-
ment, are acting more in the attitude of
messengers and do not appear as dictators,
or as representing themsdves individually.
They are presentmg a code or schedule o^
wages and working conditions that have re-
sulted from the joint, deliberations of the
wage earners they represent. The manage-
ment immediately recognizes the force be-
hind the proposed collective agreement. He
cannot oismiss the committee from the
service for acting as messengers except that
he may assume that their dismissal is the
dismissal of the entire roster of employes,
which condrbion constitutes a lockout. In
such case th employes well understand
that such employer cannot substitute in-
employment a true member of the or-
ganized labor movement. The wage earners
m the organized labor movement are
pledged to support those wage earners who
are thus locked out. They not only sup-
port them by remaining away from the em-
ployment, and using their influence in de-
terring the business of the employing con-
cern, but they assist the wage earners
financially to sustain in their endeavor to
establish collective bargaining. The greater
the organization of labor, the greater this
force. Student wage earners, comprehensive
wage earners, understand this force. That
is why wage earners organize and federate*

Collective agreements are not at all times
expressed in written an4 signed contracts,
often groups of wage earners have obtained
wages and working conditions through con-
ferences with employing concerns that are
verbal in their nature of made known by
bulletin, and are made a matter of record
on the minutes of the organization, through
reports of the negotiating officers and com-
nuttees. When these rules and wages are changed,
the committees are again ^ dispatched to the
management with the action of the employes'
orgamzation to again negotiate and they
are there with the force of the organization
behind them, and they obtain a considera-
tion that they could not otherwise obtain.
The result may be the issuance of another
bulletin or the posting of another order, the
direct result of collective bargaining. These
results are as much collective agreements,
as though written down and signed by both
parties. They are the results "of the €orce of
the organized character of the wage earners,
and their known strength from being fed-
erated with other unions. Such manage-
ments are cautious not to violate such un-
derstandings. Ofttimes this system of col-
lective bargaining works much more to the
advantage of the wage earners than being
tied for a period with certain set wages and
conditions fixed as represented in written,
signed collective agreements. The or-
ganized force of the wage earners may be at
any time applied to change, verbal,.
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Six



MOTORMA N ANDCOND UCTOR



day conditions for betterment, and usually
in such cases committees and officers repre-
senting the wage earners are kept more
busily employed in •making advances in
wages ana working conditions than in
cases where these provisions are fixed
definitely through yearly conferences or
annual collective agreements. However, it
has been observed that in the course of
time, even the employing concern grows to
prefer the annual agreement. This comes,
of course, after the wage earners have
demonstrated their purpose in maintaining
in their organized character. Usually such
employing concerns are hopeful of the early
dissolution of the organized character of the
employes. When they find |;hat this is not
likely, and that their wage earners are per-
sistent in maintaining their organization,
then such employing concerns yield to the
annual written agreement, upon which they
look with greater favor, and naturally so,
than they do upon the process of continu-
ous interruptions caused m constantly seek-
ing changes as. characteristic of day to day
verbal collective agreements.

Any condition of employment that results
from conference of the committees and
officers of the ^employes acting collectively
with the employing management, is a collec-
tive agreement, regardless of whether it is
written and signed, or whether it is oral.
It is manifested as a feature of employment.

The so-called closed shop is not material
in the effecting of collective agreements.
While the collective agreement applies only
to the wage earners that are associated to-
gether, the wage earner that keeps aloof
from the organization of his assoaate em-
ployes cannot escp^ any better wages, or
working conditions than those obtained
through the collective effort of his associate
employes. Of course, he has not con-
tributed to the force that obtains ^e wages
and working conditions, and in standing out
alone, to that measure he has contributed
as a hindrance or as a lessening of the force
that has obtained results for ful of the em-
ployes, himself include. Such an element,
however, is of the minority. That element
of wage earners are necessarily in the min-
ority, otherwise there wouldn't be sufficient
force to establish collective agreement. The
associate character of the majority of the
employes is necessary in all instances to
effect collective agreements. No minority
is of consejquence, except that in its measure
the minority lessens the force of the ma-
jority in obtaining improvements in em-
ployment.

The employe who withholds his member-
ship]^from the organization is in some meas-
ure in some way defective and not up to the
standard of mental process of his organized
associate employes. His associate employes
naturally recognize this and look upon lum
as mentally defective. Usually it is the in-
fluence of fearfulness — in all cases deter*
iorating selfishness. Such an employe is
marked. He may develop to a mental
understanding and to a courage to affiliate.
Usually his measure of force is so infini-

simal to be of little consequence to the



employing concern, or the organized ele-
ment of the wap;e earners on the job. He
is rather a subject for s^^mpathy than re-
sentment. Were one to give him credit for
being complete as a man, he would accept
it as dlEmfying his attitude. Often such
individuus can stand out aloof from their
feUow wage earners and assume a defiant
attitude towards them, when they are
really the last men on the job who would
dare assume a defiant attitude towards the
employing concern or its management.

Organization is imperative for collective
bargaining. And it must be of a nature
independent of the forces opposing organi-
zation.



THB AMBRICAN FEDERATION OF

LABOR NON-PARTISAN POLITICAL

ACHISVBMENT



Preadent Sam Gompers of the A. F. of I
upon receipt of a compiled report of the
hfon-Partisan Political Campaign Committee
of the A. F. of L., said:

"There never was such a complete and
satisfactory vindication of the wisdom of
Labor's non-partisan political policy. It was
proven on November 7 as never before that
Labor's proper course is to be partisan to
principles and not to political organization."

The Non-Partisan Political Campaign
Committee of the A. F. of L. in its report,
in part says:

''In December, 1921, by direction of the
Executive Council of the A. F, of L., circu-
lar letters were sent to all State Federations
and Central Bodies warning the wage earn-
ers of the country of the reactionary forces
that were guiding federal legislation. These
bodies were urged to appoint legislative
committees to keep a record of the votes on
measures of interest to Labor and the
public.

"March 8, 1922, circular letters were sent
to all State and Central Bodies in which it
was urged that all municipal and state non-
partisan political campaign committees
should become more actiye and confer with
farm and other organizations for harmonious
action at primaries and on election day.

"April 4, 1922 another circular was ad-
dressed to them informing them that it was
vital that a vigorous campaign be con-
ducted to place in the national congress and
the state legislatures men without regard to
political amliations who would serve the
dictates of justice and not the autocratic
domination of the exploiting interests.

"July 29, 1922, a special circular was sent
to some 40,000 non-partisan political cam-
paign committees urging them to give the
widest publicity possible to the following
principles:

"1. No freedom loving citizen should vote
for any candidate who will not pledge him-
self to oppose any form of compulsory labor
law.

"2. No justice loving citizen should vote
for any candidate for any office who will
not pledge himself to oppose injunction and
contempt proceedings as a substitute for

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MOTORMA N ANDCOND UCTOR



Seven



"Z, No freedom loving citizen should
vote for any candidate who will not pledge
himself to vote for legislation abolishing
child labor."

"Early in the year, 1922, conferences
were held with representatives in Washing-
ton of the various Farmers' Organizations.
During the campaign the committee was
repeatedly asked by the farmers if certain
candidates for Congress were acceptable to
Labor. A remarkable feature of this ques-
tioning showed that in every instance the



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