American Academy of Political and Social Science.

American waterways online

. (page 1 of 30)
Font size
QR-code for this ebook

S; -i



I



f




OF THK

University of California.



Class



AMERICAN WATERWAYS



THE ANNALS



AMERICAN ACADEMY



POLITICAL AND SOCIAL SCIENCE



ISSUED BI-MONTHLY



VOL. XXXI, No. 1. JANUARY, 1908.




Editor: EMORY R. JOHNSON

ASSOCIATE editors: L. S. ROWE, SAMUEL McCUNE LINDSAY

CARL KELSEY, JAMES T. YOUNG, CHESTER

LLOYD JONES, WARD W. PIERSON



PHILADELPHIA

American Academy of Political and Social Science

36th and Woodland Avenue

igoS






^^P






CONTENTS



PAGE

OUR NATIONAL INLAND WATERWAYS POLICY i ,

President Roosevelt — (Memphis Address).

PRESENT STATUS OF THE PANAMA PROJECT 12

Brigadier-General Henry L. Abbot, U. S. A., Retired. Late Mem-
ber of the Comit^ Technique, sometime Consulting Engineer
of the New Panama Canal Company; late Member of the
IT. S. Board of Consulting Engineers.

LEGISLATIVE PROGRAM CONGRESS SHOULD ADOPT FOR

IMPROVEMENT OF AMERICAN WATERWAYS 36

Hon. Joseph E. Ransdell, LL.D., Member of Rivers and Harbors
Committee of Congress from Lotusiana, and President of
the National Rivers and Harbors Congress.

THE USE AND DEVELOPMENT OF AMERICAN WATERWAYS . . 48

Hon. Francis G. Newlands, U.S. Senator from Nevada, and Vice-
Chairman of the Inland Waterways Commission.

THE DELAWARE RIVER 67

Hon. J. Hampton Moore, Member of Congress from Pennsylvania,
and President Atlantic Deeper Waterways Association.

ENGINEERING FEATURES OF CHESAPEAKE AND DELA-
WARE, AND NORFOLK-BEAUFORT WATERWAYS 73

Major C. A. F. Flager, Corps of Engineers, U. S. Army.

CAPE COD CANAL 81

Wm. Barclay Parsons, C.E., New York.

ATLANTIC COASTWISE CANALS: THEIR HISTORY AND

PRESENT STATUS 92

G. D. Luetscher, Ph.D., New York.

THE ANTHRACITE-TIDEWATER CANALS 102

Chester Lloyd Jones, Ph.D., Instructor in Political Science, Uni-
versity of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia.



C 0)1 tents iii

PAGE

THE NEW YORK CANALS 117

Professor John A. Fairlie, Universitj^ of Michigan, Ann Arbor,
Michigan .

TRANSPORTATION ON THE GREAT LAKES. 128

Walter Thayer, Eastern Manager Erie and Western Transporta-
tion Company, Philadelphia.

THE IMPROVEMENT OF THE OHIO RIVER 139

John L. Vance, President Ohio Valley Improvement Associa-
tion .

MISSISSIPPI IMPROVEMENTS AND TRAFFIC PROSPECTS 146

R. B. Way, Ph.D., Assistant Professor of Political Science and
History, Beloit College, Beloit, Wis.

WATER POWER IN THE MISSISSIPPI VALLEY 164

Calvin O. Althouse, Instructor in Department of Commerce,
Central High School, Philadelphia.

THE IMPROVEMENT OF THE MISSOURI RIVER AND ITS USE-
FULNESS AS A TRAFFIC ROUTE. 178

Lawrence M. Jones, President Missouri Valley Improvement

Association.

COLUMBIA RIVER IMPROVEMENT AND THE PACIFIC NORTH-
WEST .: 189

Frederick G. Young, Ph.D., Professor of Economics and Sociology, .
University of Oregon, Eugene, Ore.

RECLAMATION OF ARID WEST BY FEDERAL GOVERNMENT 203

Hon. Arthur P. Davis, Chief Engineer U. S. Reclamation Ser-
A'ice.

THE RELATION OF FORESTS TO STREAM CONTROL 219

Hon. Gifford Pinchot, LTnited States Forester.

THE INLAND WATERWAYS OF GREAT BRITAIN AND THE
PLANS UNDER CONSIDERATION FOR THEIR IMPROVE-
MENT 228

Urquhart A. Forbes, Esq., London, England.

THE PRESENT SIGNIFICANCE OF GERMAN INLAND WATER-
WAYS 246

Professor Walther Lotz, University of Munich, Germany.



19261S



BOOK DEPARTMENT

Conducted by Chester Lloyd Jones

Notes, pp. 263-287.

REVIEWS

Barker — The Political Thought of Plato and Aristotle (p. 287) . . .C. L. Jones

Cambridge Modern History, Vol. X (p. 288) W. E. Lingelbach

Casson — The Romance of Steel (p. 290) W. S. Tower

Doyle — English Colonies in America (p. 291) H. V. Ames

McBain — DeWiit Clinton and the Origin of the Spoils System in

New York (p. 293) W. T. Root

Osgood — The American Colonies in the Seventeenth Century,

Vol. Ill (p. 294) D. Y. Thomas

Ross — Sin and Society (p. 295) H. R. Mussey

Schuster — Tlic Principles of German Civil Law (p. 295) C. L. Jones

Small — .4 Jam Smith and Modern Sociology (p. 296) H. R. Mussey

Smith — The Industrial Conflict (p. 297) .M. O. Lorenz

Speed — The Union Cause in Kint-.tcky, 1860-1865 (p. 298) H. V.Ames



LIST OF CONTINENTAL AGENTS

France: L. Larose, Rue Soufflot 22, Paris.

Germany: Mayer & IMiiller, 2 Prince Louis Ferdinandstrasse, Berlin, N. W.

Italy: Dirccione del Giornale degli Economisti, via Monte Savello, Palazzo

Orsini, Rome.

Spain: Libreria Nacional y Extranjera de E. Dossat, antes, E. Capdevillc,

9 Plaza de Santa Ana, Madrid.



Copyright, 1908, by the American Academy of Political and Social Science.
All rights reserved.




OUR NATIONAL INLAND WATERWAYS POLICY^

Under any circumstances I should welcome the chance of
speaking at Memphis in the old historic State of Tennessee, rich
in its glorious past and in the certainty of an even greater future;
but I especially congratulate myself that I am able to speak here
on an occasion like this, when I meet not only the citizens of
Tennessee, but many of the citizens of Mississippi and Arkansas
and of other states as well ; and when the chief executives of so.
many states are gathered to consider a subject of momentous
interest to all. The Mississippi Valley is a magnificent empire in
size and fertility. It is better adapted to the development of
inland navigation than any other valley in either hemisphere; for
there are 12,000 miles of waterway now more or less fully
navigable, and the conditions are so favorable that it will be easy
to increase the extent of navigable waterways to almost any
required degree by canalization. Early in our industrial history
this valley was the seat of the largest development of inland navi-
gation in the United States, and perhaps you will pardon my
mentioning that the first steamboat west of the Alleghenies was
built by a Roosevelt, my great-grandfather's brother, in 181 1, for
the New Orleans trade, and in that year made the trip from
Pittsburg to New Orleans. But from various causes river and
canal transportation declined all over the United States as the
railroad systems came to their full development. It is our business
to see that the decline is not permanent ; and it is of interest to
remember that nearly a century ago President Madison advocated
the canalization of the Mississippi.

In wealth of natural resources no kingdom of Europe can
compare with the Mississippi \^alley and the region around the
Great Lakes, taken together, and in population this huge fertile
plain already surpasses all save one or two of the largest Euro-
pean kingdoms. In this empire a peculiarly stalwart and master-
ful people finds itself in the surroundings best fitted for the full
development of its powers and faculties. There has been a great

iFrom address delivered by Tresident Roosevelt to the Deep Waterway Coa-
vention at Memphis, Tenn., October 4, 1907.



2 The .liuials of the .luicricaii Academy

growth of manufacturing" centers in the valley ; the movement is
good if it does not go too far; but I most earnestly hope that this
region as a whole will remain predominantly agricultursl. The
people who live in the country districts, and who till the small
or medium-sized farms on which they live, make up what is on
the whole the most valuable asset in our national life. There can
be just as real progress and culture in the country as in the city ;
especially in these days of rural free delivery, trolleys, bicycles,
telephones, good roads, and school improvements. The valley of
the Alississippi is politically and connnercially more important
than any other valley on the face of the globe. Here more than
anywhere else will be determined the future of the United States
and indeed of the whole western world ; and the type of civiliza-
tion reached in this mighty valley, in this vast stretch of country
lying between the Alleghenies and the Rockies, the Great Lakes
and the Gulf, will largely fix the type of civilization for the w^hole
Western Hemisphere. Already, as our history shows, the West
has determined our national political development, and the funda-
mental principle of present American politics, political equality,
was originally a w'estern idea.

The wonderful variety of resources in different portions of
the valley makes the demand for transportation altogether excep-
tional. Coal, lumber, corn, wheat, cotton, cattle — on the surface of
the soil and beneath the soil the riches are great. There are
already evident strong tendencies to increase the carrying of
freight from the northern part of the valley to the Gulf. Through-
out the valley the land is so fertile as to make the field for the
farmer peculiarly attractive : and where in the west the climate
becomes dr\er we enter upon the ranching country; while in addi-
tion to the products of the soil there are also the manufactures
supplied in innumerable manufacturing centers, great and small.
Cities of astonishing growth are found everywhere from the Gulf
to the Great Lakes, from the Alleghenies to the Rockies ; most of
them being situated on the great river which flows by your doors
or upon some of its numerous navigable tributaries. Xew mineral
fields are discovered every year : and the constantl}' increasing
use of all the devices of intensive cultivation steadily adds to the
productive power of the farms. Above all, the average man is
honest, intelligent, self-reliant, and orderly, and therefore a good



Our Katio)iaI Inland ITatcnvays Policy 3

citizen ; and farmer and wageworker alike — in the last analysis the
two most important men in the community — enjoy a standard of
living, and have developed a standard of self-respecting, self-
reliant manhood, which are of good augury for the future of the
entire Republic. No man can foresee the limit of the possibility
of development in the Mississippi Valley.

Such being the case, and this valley being literally the heart

of the United States, all that concerns its welfare must concern
f
'likewise the whole country. Therefore, the Mississippi River and

its tributaries ought by all means to be utilized to their utmost
possibility. Facility of cheap transportation is an essential in our
modern civilization, and we cannot afford any longer to neglect
the great highways which nature has provided for us. These
natural highways, the waterways, can never be monopolized by
any corporation. They belong to all the people, and it is in the
power of no one to take them away. Wherever a navigable river
runs beside railroads the problem of regulating the rates on the
railroads becomes far easier, because river regulation is rate regu-
lation. When the water rate sinks, the land rate cannot be kept
at an excessive height. Therefore it is of national importance to
develop these streams as highways to the fullest extent which is
genuinely profitable. Year by year transportation problems become
more acute, and the time has come when the rivers really fit to
serve as arteries of trade should be provided with channels deep
enough and wide enough to make the investment of the necessary
money profitable to the public. The National Government should
undertake this work. Where the immediately abutting land is
markedly benefited, and this benefit can be definitely localized, I
trust that there will be careful investigation to see whether some
way can be devised by which the immediate beneficiaries may pay
a portion of the expenses — as is now the custom as regards certain
classes of improvements in our municipalities ; and measures should
be taken to secure from the localities specially benefited proper
terminal facilities. The expense to the Nation of entering upon
such a scheme of river improvement a- that w^hich I believe it
should undertake, will necessarily be great. Many cautious and
conservative people will look askance upon the project, and from
every standpoint it is necessary, if we wish to make it successful,
that we should enter upon it only under conditions which will



4 The Annals of the American Academy

guarantee the Nation against waste of its money, and which will
insure us against entering upon any project until after the most
elaborate expert examination, and reliable calculation of the pro-
portion between cost and benefit. In any project like this there
should be a definite policy, and a resolute purpose to keep in mind
that the only improvements made should be those really national
in their character. We should act on the same principle in im-
proving our rivers that we should follow in improving our harbors.
The great harbors are of consequence not merely to the immediate
localities, but to immense stretches of country; and the same is
true of the great rivers. It is these great rivers and great harbors
the improvement of which is of primary national interest. The
main streams should be improved to the highest practical degree
of efficiency before improvements are attempted on the branches,
and work should be undertaken only when completion is in sight
within a reasonable time, so that assured results may be gained
and the communities afifected depend upon the improvements.
Moreover, as an incident in caring for the river so that it may
become an efficient channel of transportation, the United States
Government should do its full part in levee building, which, in
the lower reaches of the river, will not only give a channel for
commerce, but will also give protection to the adjacent bottom
lands.

Immense sums have already been spent upon the Mississippi
by the States and the Nation, yet much of it remains practically
unused for commerce. The reasons for this fact are many. One
is that the work done by the National Government at least has not
been based upon a definite and continuous plan. Appropriations
by Congress, instead of assuring the steady progress and timely
completion of each piece of work as it was undertaken, have been
irregular and uncertain. As a direct consequence, far-reaching
plans have been discouraged and continuity in execution has been
made impossible. It is altogether unlikely that better results will
be obtained so long as the method is followed of making partial
appropriations at irregular intervals for works which should never
be undertaken until it is certain that they can be carried to com-
pletion within a definite and reasonable time. Planned and orderly
development is essential to the best use of every natural resource,
and to none more than to the best use of our inland waterways. In



Our Kational Inland JVafcrzi'ays Policy 5

the case of the waterways it has been conspicuously absent. Be-
cause such foresight was lacking, the interests of our rivers have
been in fact overlooked, in spite of the immense sums spent upon
them. It is evident that their most urgent need is a farsighted
and comprehensive plan, dealing not with navigation alone, nor
with irrigation alone, but considering our inland waterways as a
whole, and with reference to every use to which they can be put.
The central motive of such a plan should be to get from the
streams of the United States not only the fullest but also the most
permanent service they are capable of rendering to the Nation as
a whole.

The industries developed under the stimulus of the railroads
are for the most part permanent industries, and therefore they
form the basis for future development. But the railroads have
shown that they alone cannot meet the demands of the country for /
transportation, and where this is true the rivers should begin to
supplement the railroads, to the benefit of both, by relieving them
of certain of the less profitable classes of freight. The more
farseeing railroad men, I am glad to tell you, realize this fact, and
many of them have become earnest advocates of the improvement
of the Mississippi, so that it may become a sort of inland sea-
board, extending from the Gulf far into the interior, and I hope
ultimately to the Great Lakes. An investigation of the proposed
Lakes-to-the-Gulf deep waterway is now in progress under an
appropriation of the last Congress. We shall await its results
with the keenest interest. The decision is obviously of capital
importance to our internal development and scarcely less so in
relation to external commerce.

This is but one of the many projects which it is time to con-
sider, although a most important one. Plans for the improvement
of our inland navigation may fairly begin with our greatest river
and its chief tributaries, but they cannot end there. The lands
which the Columbia drains include a vast area of rich grain fields
and fruit lands, much of which is not easily reached by railways.
The removal of obstructions in the Columbia and its chief tribu-
taries would open to navigation and inexpensive freight transpor-
tation fully 2,000 miles of channel. The Sacramento and San
Jaoquin rivers with their tidal openings into San Francisco Bay are
partly navigable now. Their navigation should be maintained and



6 The Annals of the American Academy

improved, so as to open the marvelously rich valley of California
to inexpensive traffic, in order to facilitate both rate regulation
and the control of the waters for other purposes. And many other
rivers of the United States demand improvement, so as better to
meet the requirements of increasing production from the soil,
increasing manufacture, and a rapidly growing population.

While thus the improvement of inland navigation is a vital
problem, there are other questions of no less consequence con-
nected with our waterways. One of these relates to the purity of
waters used for the supply of towns and cities, to the prevention
of pollution by manufacturing and other industries, and to the
protection of drainage areas from soil wash through forest cover-
ing or judicious cultivation. With our constantly increasing
population this question becomes more and more pressing, because
the health and safety of great bodies of citizens are directly
involved.

Another important group of questions concerns the irrigation
of arid lands, the prevention of floods, and the reclamation of
swamps. Already many thousands of homes have been established
on the arid regions, and the population and wealth of seventeen
states and territories have been largely increased through irriga-
tion. Yet this means of national development is still in its infancy,
and it will doubtless long continue to multiply homes and increase
the productiveness and power of the Nation. The reclamation of
overflow lands and marshes, both in the interior and along the
coasts, has already been carried on with admirable results, but in
this field, too, scarcely more than a good beginning has yet been
made. Still another fundamentally important question is that of
water power. Its significance in the future development of our
whole country, and especially of the West, is but just beginning
to be understood. The plan of the City of Los Angeles, for ex-
ample, to bring water for its use a distance of nearly 250 miles —
perhaps the boldest project of the kind in modern times — promises
not only to achieve its purpose, but in addition to produce a water
power sufficiently valuable to pay large interest on the investment
of over $23,000,000.

Hitherto such opportunities for using water to double purpose
have not always been seized. Thus it has recently been shown that
water enough is flowing \mused over government dams, built to



Our National Inland IVatcrz^'ays Policy 7

improve navigation, to produce many hundreds of thousands of
horsepower. It is computed that the annual value of the availahle
but unused water power in the United States exceeds the annual
value of the products of .all our mines. Furthermore, it is calcu-
lated that under judicious handling the power of our streams may
be made to pay for all the works required for the complete devel-
opment and control of our inland waterways.

Forests are the most efifective preventers of floods, especially
when they grow on the higher mountain slopes. The national
forest policy, inaugurated primarily to avert or mitigate the
timber famine which is now beginning to be felt, has been effective
also in securing partial control of floods by retarding the run-off
and checking the erosion of the higher slopes within the national
forests. Still the loss from soil wash is enormous. It is computed
that one-fifth of a cubic mile in volume, or one billion tons in
weight of the richest soil matter of the United States, is annually
gathered in storm rivulets, washed into the rivers, and borne into
the sea. The loss to the farmer is in effect a tax greater than all
other land taxes combined, and one yielding absolutely no return.
The Department of Agriculture is now devising and testing means
to check this enormous waste through improved methods of agri-
culture and forest management.

Citizens of all portions of the country are coming to realize '
that, however important the improvement of navigation may be,
it is only one of many ends to be kept in view. The demand for
navigation is hardly more pressing than the demands for reclaim-
ing lands by irrigation in the arid regions and by drainage in the
humid lowlands, or for utilizing the water power now running to
waste, or for purifying the waters so as to reduce or remove the
tax of soil waste, to promote manufactures and safeguard life.
It is the part of wisdom to adopt not a jumble of unrelated plans,
but a single comprehensive scheme for meeting all the demands
so far as possible at the same time and by the same means. This
is the reason why the Inland Waterways Commission was created
in March last, largely in response to petitions from citizens of the
interior, including many of the members of this Congress. Broad
instructions were given to the Commission in accordance with this
general policy that no plan should be prepared for the use of any
stream for a single purpose without carefully considering, and so



r



8 The Annals of the American Academy

far as practicable actually providing for, the use of that stream for
every other purpose. Plans for navigation and power should pro-
vide with special care for sites and terminals, not only for the
immediate present, but also for the future. It is because of my
conviction in these matters that I am here. The Inland Water-
ways Commission has a task broader than the consideration of
waterways alone. There is an intimate relation between our
streams and the development and conservation of all the other
great permanent sources of wealth. It is not possible rightly to
consider the one without the other. No study of the problem of
the waterways could hope to be successful which failed to con-
sider also the remaining factors in the great problem of conserving
all our resources. Accordingly, I have asked the Waterways Com-
mission to take account of the orderly development and conser-
vation, not alone of the waters, but also of the soil, the forests,
the mines, and all the other natural resources of our country.

Many of these resources which we have been in the habit of
calling inexhaustible are being rapidly exhausted, or in certain
regions have actually disappeared. Coal mines, oil and gas fields,
and iron mines in important numbers are already worked out. The
coal and oil measures which remain are passing rapidly, or have
actually passed, into the possession of great corporations, who
acquire ominous power through an unchecked control of these
prime necessities of modern life ; a control without supervision of
any kind. We are consuming our forests three times faster than
they are being reproduced. Some of the richest timber lands of
this continent have already been destroyed, and not replaced, and
other vast areas are on the verge of destruction. Yet forests,
unlike mines, can be so handled as to yield the best results of use,
without exhaustion, just like grain fields.

Our public lands, whose highest use is to supply homes for
our people, have been and are still being taken in great quantities
by large private owners, to whom home-making is at the very best
but a secondary motive subordinate to the desire for profit. To
allow the public lands to be worked by the tenants of rich men for
the profit of the landlords, instead of by freeholders for the live-
lihood of their wives and children, is little less than a crime against
our people and our institutions. The great central fact of the
public land situation, as the Public Lands Commission well said, Is



Our National Inland IVatcrzcays Policy 9

that the amount of pubHc land patented by the government to indi-
viduals is increasing out of all proportion to the number of new