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FIFTY-FOURTH



ANNUAL REPORT



y

AMERICAN COLONIZATION SOCIETY;



WITH THE



PROCEEDINGS OF THE ANNUAL MEETING



AND OF THE




BOABD OF DIRECTORS,

January 17 and 18, 1871.



WASHINGTON CITY:

COLONIZATION BUILDING, 450 PENNSYLVANIA AVENUE.

1871.



mats of tilt BocUtr).



President.
1853. Hon. John H. B, Latkobe.

Vice Presidents.



1833.
1835.
1838.
1838.
1838.
1838.
1840.
1840.
1841.
1843.
1845.
1845.
1848.
1848.
1849.
1849.
1850.
1851.
1851.
1853.
1853.
1853.
1853.
1853.
1853.
1854.
1854.
1854.



Moses Allen, Esq., New York.
Rev. James O. Andrew, D. D., Ala.
Hon. Henry A. Foster, New York.
Robert Campbell, Esq., Georgia.
Hon. Peter D. Vroom, New Jersey.
Hon. James Garland, Virginia.
Hon. Willard Hall, Delaware.
Gerard Ralston, Esq., England.
Thomas R. Hazard, Esq., R. I.
Hon. Lucius Q. C. Elmer, N. J.



1854. Rev. Levi Scott, D. D., Delaware.
1854. Rev. Ralph R. Gurley. D. C.
1854. Rev. Rob't Paine, D. D., Mississippi.
1854. Rev. Rob't J. Breckinridge, D. D., Ky.
1854. Rev. Thomas A. Blorris, D. D., Ohio.
1854. Rev. Edward R. Ames, D. D., Md.
1854. Rev. James S. C. Finley, Illinois.
1854. Hon. John F. Darby, Missouri.
1854. Rev. Nathan L. Rice, D. D., Missouri.
1854. Hon. Joseph B. Crockett, California.



Rt. Rev. Chas. P. Mcllvaine, D. D., O. 1857. Richard Hoff, Esq., Georgia.



Hon. Joseph R. Underwood, Ky.
Rev. Thomas C. Upham, D. D., Me.
Hon. Thomas W. Williams, Conn.
Rev. John Early, D. D., Virginia.
Rev. Lovick Pierce, D. D., Georgia,
John Bell. M. D., Pennsylvania.
Rev. Robert Ryland, D. D., Ky.
Hon. Frederick P. Stanton, D. C.
Hon. Horatio Seymour, New York.
Hon. George F. Fort, New Jersey.
Hon. Ralph I. Ingersoll, Conn.
Rev. Howard Malcom, D. D., Penn.
Rev. John P. Durbin, D. D., N. Y.



1859. Hon. Henry M. Schieffelin, N. Y.
18G1. Rev. John Maclean, D. D., LL.D., N. J.

1861. Hon. Ichabod Goodwin, N. H.
18G1. Hon. William E. Dodge, New York.

1862. Robert H. Ives, Esq., Rhode Island.
1862. Rev. Thomas DeWitt, D. D., N. Y.

1866. Hon. James R. Doolittle, Illinois.

1867. Samuel A. Crozer, Esq., Pennsylvania,
1869. Hon. William C. Alexander, N. J.
1869. Hon. Fred. T. Frelinghuysen, N. J.
1869. Rev. S. Irenseus Prime, D. D., N. Y.
1809. Rev. Benj. L Haight, D. D., N. Y.



1869. James B. Hosmer, Esq., Conn.
Edward McGehee, Esq., Mississippi. 1870. Robert Arthington, Esq., England.
Rev. Osmon C. Baker, D. D., N. H. 1871. Daniel Huey, Esq., Illinois.
Rev. Edmund S. Janes, D. D., N. Y. 1871. Hon. Dudley S. Gregory, N. J.
Rev. Matthew Simpson, D. D., Penn.



The figures before each name indicate the year of first election.



AMERICAN COLONIZATION SOCIETY.



LIFE DIRECTORS.

1840. Hon. Thomas W. Williams Conn. 1857. Daniel Huet, Esq HI.

1840. Thomas R. Hazard, Esq R. I. 1858. Dr. Charles B. New Miss.

1840. Rev. Leonard Bacon, D. D Conn. 1858. Rev. John Orcutt, D. D Conn.

1841. Francis Griffin, Esq Miss. 1858. Rev. Joseph Tract, D. D Mass.

1845. Rev. John B. Pinney.LL.D N. Y. 1860. Hon. William Nash Vt.

1845. Rev. Wm. McLain, D. D D. C. 1864. Dr. Alexander Gut Ohio.

1846. Herman Camp, Esq N. Y. 1868. Edward Coles, Esq Pa.

1851. Rev. John Maclean, D. D., LL.D..iV^. J. 1870. Chauncet Rose, Esq Ind.

1852. William Silliman, Esq La. 1870. Henrt Rose, Esq N. Y.

1852. James Hall, M. D Md. 1870. Rev. Joseph F. Tuttle, D. D Ind-

1852. Hon. Millard Fillmore N. Y. 1870. Joseph Henrt, LL.D D. C.

1853. Alexander Duncan, Esq B. J. 1870. Dr. Charles H. Nichols D. C.

1853. Hon. Albert Fearing Mass. 1870. Rev. Benj. I. Haight, D. D N. Y.

1854. Rev. Ralph R. Gurlet D. C. 1870. Rev. S. Iren^us Prime, D. D N. Y.

1855. George Law, Esq N. Y. 1871. Daniel Price, Esq N.J.



DELEGATES APPOINTED BY AUXILIARY SOCIETIES FOR 1871.

Vermont Colonization Societt. — George W Scott, Esq., Hon. George F. Edmunds,
Hon. Luke P. Poland.

Rhode Island Colonization Societt. — Rev. Alexis Caswell, D. D.

Connecticut Colonization Societt. — Rev. William W. Turner, Hon. James T. Pratt,
Hon. L. F. S. Foster, William S. Charnley, Esq.

Massachusetts Colonization Societt. — Hon. G. Washington Warren, Rev. Dudley C.
Haynes, Dn Henry Lyon, Rev. John W. Chickering, D. D., Joseph S. Ropes, Esq.

New York Colonization Societt. — Rev. John N. McLeod, D. D., Almon Merwin, Esq.,
Rev. Samuel D. Alexander, D. D., Jacob D. Vermilye, Esq., James C. Holden, Esq.,
Rev. Thomas D. Anderson, D. D.

New Jerset Colonization Societt.— Rev. William H. Steele, D. D., Rev. Elijah R.
Craven, D. D., F. Wolcott Jackson, Esq.

Pennstlvania Colonization Societt. — Eli K. Price, Esq., Rev William E. Sehenck,
D. D., Rev. Alexander Reed, D. D., Rev. Samuel E. Appleton, Rev. Thomas S. Malcom,
Arthur M. Burton, Esq.

Ohio Colonization Societt. — Hon. Columbus Delano.



FIFTY-FOURTH ANNUAL REPORT

OP THE

AMERICAN COLONIZATION SOCIETY.



JANUA-RY ir, is-ri.



The American Colonization Society, which meets to-duy
on its Fifty-Fourth Anuiversary, is called to temper its rejoic-
ings over the work accomplished with grief for the loss of two
of the Vice Presidents of the Society.

OBITUARY.

The death of Eichard T. Haines, Esq., of Elizabeth, ]^ew
Jersey, August 21, removes from the counsels and service of
this Society one of its earnest and faithful friends. As Presi-
dent of the New Jersey Auxiliary, and its occasional Delegate
in the National Board of Directors, his sagacity and wisdom
shone brightly. He passed away at the age of seventy-five
years, having an honorable name in all his relations and duties
in life, and as an active and devout Christian.

Eev. Ebenezer Burgess, D. D., who died at his residence in
Dedham, Massachusetts, December 5, aged eighty years, was
the first to go to Africa as an Agent of this Society, being the
chosen associate of Eev. Samuel J. Mills, "of blessed memory,"
in a mission to select a suitable location for a colony. Exam-
ining the Western Coast from the end of March to the end of
May, 1818, the two explorers selected Sherbro Island, a point
near the present northwestern boundary of the Ecpublic of
Liberia, at which place the emigrants by the "Elizabeth," the
first ship dispatched under the auspices of the Society, were



6 FIFTY-FOUETH ANNUAL EEPOET

The Treasury .

landed early in the year 1820. The attention of Dr. Burgess
was given to the subject of African Colonization while a young
man in College, and he is stated to have thus early "opposed
the plan for colonizing north of the Ohio, because white men
would want that country, and argued that the colony must be
in Africa." He lived to see his sagacious prediction most won-
derfully verified, and the Society, in whose very beginning he
had taken so honorable a part, become one of the leading phi-
lanthropic Christian organizations of the United States, and
Liberia, with a territory geographically about as large as New
England, and exercising the attributes of an independent Re-
publican Government, recognized and in treaty relationship
with nearly all the leading Powers of the world. A contribu-
tion of $1,000, in 1840, to constitute himself a Director for Life
of the Society, attested his ever-increasing interest in our work.
With sincere sorrow the decease is here recorded of the
Rev. Benjamin P. Stone, D. D., of Concord, New Hampshire,
November 20, in his seventieth year. His name has long
appeared as an officer of the New Hamj)shire Colonization So-
ciety, and to his faithfulness has been due much of its efficiency.
Other associations, in his own State and elsewhere, will miss
his diligence, his wise counsels and support. His love for our
cause was evinced in the fact that he left the American Colo-
nization Society a bequest of $10,000.

THE TREASUKY.

RECEIPTS.

The balance in the Treasury, January 1, 1870, was $1,048 01

The receipts for the succeeding twelve months have been —

From donations and collections 15,225 48

From legacies 5,315 00

From earnings of ship Golconda 1,315 12



AMEEICAN COLONIZATION SOCIETY.



Auxiliary Relations .



From other sources, including $3,241 55 from sale of invested
funds 17,758 27

Making the resources of the year $40,661 88

PAYMENTS.

The payments have been —

For the passage of emigrants from their homes to the port of
embarkation, and for their support on the voyage and their

acclimation and settlement in Liberia 5.795 96

For repairs and sailing the ship Golconda 10,381 29

For improvements in Liberia 4,606 45

For taxes, insurance, and repairs of Colonization Building 1,381 55

For salaries of Secretaries and Agents, and their traveling ex-
penses ; paper and printing the African Kepository and An-
nual Report, stationery, postage, &c 17,797 21

Disbursements $39,962 46

Balance in Treasury, January 1, 1871 699 42

Total $40,d61 88



Unless the contributions of the present year shall exceed
those of last year, there can be no choice but to contract emi-
gration, and this, too, at a time when numbers of the people
of color desire passage to Liberia, and when there is so much
demand for the means of making improvements in that Ee-
public.

AUXILIARY RELATIONS.

Public meetings in behalf of the Society have been held, and
eloquent addresses delivered by distinguished gentlemen in
several of the more prominent towns and cities in New York
and New Jersey, under the direction of the Traveling Secre-
tary, Eev. Dr. Orcutt, acting in New York with the sanction
and co-operation of the New York Colonization Society; and
also in some of the principal cities in Massachusetts, Ehode



8 FIFTY-FOUETH ANNUAL EEPORT

Emigrants Sent Forth.

Island, and Connecticutj by the District Secretary, Eev. D. C.
Haynes.

Two Societies, auxiliary to the American Colonization So-
ciety, have been organized during the year: the Ohio Coloniza-
tion Society, at Columbus, with the venerable Bishop Mcll-
vaine as President; and the Ehode Island Colonization Society,
at Providence, Eev. A. Caswell, D. D., President of Brown
University, at its head.

An arrangement was consummated in February whereby the
Massachusetts Colonization Society constituted and appointed
the American Colonization Society its sole agent for the pur-
pose of collecting funds in the State of Massachusetts, and
receiving and disbursing the same in the prosecution of its
legitimate work. The plan has proved convenient, economi-
cal, and eflficient for all concerned.

The Pennsylvania Colonization Society continues to engage
with zeal in the promotion of our gi-eat enterprise, and the
recent contribution of $2,800 to this Society for the passage
and acclimation of emigrants at Brewerville, demonstrates alike
its eflSciency and liberality.

EMIGRANTS SENT FORTH.

Our packet ship, which was stated in our last Eeport to have
sailed on her fifth voyage for Liberia, arrived at Monrovia De-
cember 19, 1869, after a pleasant passage of thirty-five days
from Hampton Eoads. Discharging her passengers and cargo
with unusual quickness, she returned to Baltimore, via St.
Thomas, West Indies, February 18.

Our receipts and resources not appearing to justify the ex-
pense of dispatching an expedition in the spring, and the pros-
tration of American shipping interests preventing a paying



AMEEICAN COLONIZATION SOCIETY. 9

Emigrants Sent Forth.

charter for her, the Golconda remained at Baltimore until she
was dispatched on her sixth or fall voyage for Liberia.

The applicants for passage in September last reached twelve
hundred names, from whom two hundred and fifty persons
were carefully selected, and author! t}' given them to make
good any failures which it was likely would occur, to be ready
to embark on the 1st November.

The necessary supplies were duly purchased, and the Gol-
conda carefully prepared for the accommodation of the num-
ber of persons just mentioned, and she was promptly taken in
tow of a steam-tug on the regular day fixed for her departure
from Baltimore. The Golconda anchored off Fortress Monroe
on Friday, November 4. The same day the emigrants from
North Carolina were conveyed to her by a steamer from. Ports-
mouth, Virginia, and the next morning she spread her sails
direct for Moniovia.

More active and powerful oj^position to emigration was never
before exerted than on this occasion. The most ingenious un-
favorable reports were freely circulated as to the principles
and work of the Society, and as to the condition and pi'ospects
of Liberia, all with the purpose of frightening the weak-minded
and intimidating the hesitating among those who thought of
removing to Africa. Three expected parties of twenty-five
persons each entirely failed, owing to the unfounded charges
referred to, and, it is feared, to more potent ai'gunients brought
to bear directly upon their leaders. But, notwithstanding all
opposition and the inability of some of the men to sell their
crops of corn and cotton, one hundred and ninety-four emi-
grants remained true to their convictions, and joyfully and
thankfully availed themselves of the opportunity for proceed-
ing to the land of their ancestors. Of these, two were from



10 FIFTY-FOUETH ANNUAL EEPOET

Emigrants Sent Forth.

New Haven, Connecticut; eighty-one from Plymouth, North
Carolina; and one hundred and eleven from Windsor, North
Carolina. They were persons of good moral character, able
and robust, willing to work, and animated with the highest
religious enthusiasm to participate in the great mission of their
fellow-laborers who preceded them.

Sixty-three, or nearly one-third of the entire number, were
professors of religion in good standing. Twenty-nine of the
adult males reported themselves as farmers, one as a house-
carpenter, and one as an engineer. One hundred and twenty-
six were under twenty-one years of age, and sixtj^-cight were
twenty-one years old and upwards. Eighty-nine were males,
and one hundred and five were females. The company was
mostly made up of families, and was liberally provided with
clothing, bedding, farming tools, and other useful articles.

All are to land at Monrovia, where two are to settle with an
aunt already residing there ; sixty-seven are to locate at
Brewerville ; and one hundred and twenty-five at Arthington^
St. Paul's river.

Among the cabin passengers were the Eev. James M. Priest,
for twenty-seven years pastor of the Presbyterian church at
Sinou, an ex- Vice President of Liberia, and a Delegate from
the Presbytery of West Africa to the last General Assembly of
the Presbyterian Church which met at Philadelphia, accompa-
nied by his wife; Mrs. Freeman, wife of Pi'of Martin H. Free-
man of Liberia College, and their two children ; Dr. John
A. Parm, a native Liberian, who had just completed his educa-
tion at the Medical School of Dartmouth College ; and two
other Liberians, returning to their homes at Monrovia.

The number of persons colonized during 1870 exceed, by
thirty-four, those of the year 1869, and make a total of 2,588



AMEEICAN COLONIZATION SOCIETY. 11

Apj> Heat ions .

since the close of the war, in 1864. The whole number sent to
Africa by the Society is 14,574. The number of recaptured
Africans who have been furnished an asylum in Liberia is
5,722. Making a grand total of 20,296.

APPLICATIONS.

Some of those who were unable to go by the last trip of the
Golconda have made application to be sent to Liberia during
the present year. Others of the people of color in North Caro-
lina, and in Georgia, Florida, Texas, and Kentucky, desire to
settle in that Republic. These already number several hun-
dred persons, and thousands are believed to be looking thither
for an earthly home.

It seems proper to remark, that all the applicants for pas-
sage since the abolition of slavery in this country have been
self-moved in their choice, the Society having made no special
effort to induce emigration. A large proportion of those now
enrolled are rej^resented to be the followers of Christ, and
prompted by the love of souls, as well as a desire to improve
the temporal and social condition of themselves and their chil-
dren.

The people of color arc now not only free, but at liberty to
select their own sphere of labor, of duty, and of privilege. If
any of them, on reflection, choose to work, vote, and achieve
success in Africa, who can object? And, if they prefer to carry
the English language, civilization, and the Gospel to their be-
nighted kinsmen, who shall question their right or wisdom?
Are not these noble impulses on their part, and ought they
not to be promptly and liberally responded to? And is it not
due to them and to Africa to help forward as many suitable
persons as voluntarily desire to go, especially when they are



12 FIFTY-FOURTH ANNUAL EEPORT

App li cation s .

needed there more than here, and when this country is receiv-
ing immigrants at the rate of hundreds of thousands every
year?

In the eloquent language of the Rev. Dr. T. C. Upham : " It
will not satisfy the African heart that the negro is recognized
as a man, that he is an American citizen, that he has the right
of suffrage, that he has a seat in the Senate ; but with all the
rights of an American, and educated in the best institutions of
the country, he will find the God who has saved him opening
bis interior vision to behold the glory of being a co-worker in
proclaiming the truths of freedom and justice, of civilization
and Christianity, throughout the length and breadth of Africa."

Among the applications is one of a very peculiar and inter-
esting character, being an appeal from some twenty-six native
Africans to be returned to their own country. It will be re-
membered that the 3'acht Wanderer landed, in December, 1858,
a company of some three hundred slaves near Savannah, Geor-
gia; that they were immediately scattered through the neigh-
boring States; and that the efforts of the Federal Government
to obtain possession of them, and to execute the law upon the
guilty parties, proved unavailing.

Quite recently the Eev. A. D. Phillips, a successful Missionarj'-
of twelve years' residence in the Yoruba country, while preach-
ing to a congregation of colored people at Mobile, Alabama, re-
peated, as he was in the habit of doing, the Lord's prayer in Yo-
ruba. At its conclusion several men and women shouted with
joy, and, after service, addressed him in the same African dialect.
He learned from them that while trading from the Yoruba
towns to Porto Novo, on a road between Abeokuta and Ikatu,
West of Abeokuta, a party of Dahomans, who were lying in
ambush, kidnapped them and ran them off into a town on the



AMEEICAN COLONIZATION SOCIETY. 13

Ap2J lie ation s .

Coast, supposed to be Whydab, and tbey were taken on the
Wanderer.

Mr. Phillips states that the majority of these Yorubans were
traders, in good circumstances, at the time of their capture, and
that they have not intermarried with the other colored people
about them, hoping to get back to their own country. They
are said to have become communicants of the Baptist Church,
are thrifty and enterprising, and are anxious to return to their
old homes, that they may meet their families again, and make
known some of the advantages of civilization and the riches
of the Gospel.

Another petition for the means of reaching Liberia, is in be-
half of some of the colored residents of one of the most favored
of the "West India Islands. It proceeds from nineteen of the
former residents of Barbados, who were colonized in that Ee-
public, in 1865, by this Society. They say:

"We have individually received letters from our families and
friends, representing their condition, asking us for aid, and ex-
pressing their ardent desire to come to Liberia. But we are
few in number, and not yet advanced sufficiently far in busi-
ness nor farming to be able to render them any pecuniary aid.
We think best to make known their request to you, and ask you
if, as individuals or as a Society, you can assist us to aid them, or
directly yourselves aid them to come to this country. We are
confident that they are the right sort of men for this country.
They are men who understand tropical agriculture. They have
been accustomed all their lives to growing the same products that
are indigenous to this soil and climate, and they can bring with
them an experience which no other class of emigrants can. They
are greatly needed here, to assist in developing the vast re-
sources of agricultural wealth which are now dormant in this



14 FIFTY-FOUETH ANNUAL EEPOET

Arthington and Brewerville.

fertile country, needing only the skillful hand of culture. Besides,
we wish our friends and relatives to be encouraged in coming
here, because they can here enjoy liberty, equality, and social
and political privileges to a greater degree than they can
in the West Indies, while at the same time they will assist to
build up a great negro nationality on the Western Coast of
Africa, and redeem, civilize, and Christianize millions of our
race, now sunken in the lowest grades of heathenism."

Not having the pecuniary ability to meet the urgent requests
of the people of color of the United States, the Society is unable
to respond favorably to the petitions of those residing in the
West Indies who long for a government of their own, and
where nothing can interfere with any measure of imjDrovement
and elevation to which they may aspire.

ARTHINGTON AND BREWERVILLE.

Intelligence has been regularly received in relation to the
emigrants who were landed in Liberia December, 1869. Good
health has been graciously continued them, and they have
cleared their lands, erected their houses, and, at the latest date
(December 9) were supplying the Monrovia market with veg-
etables of their own raising. Indeed, they are stated to have
made more satisfactory progress for the time they have been
in the country than it is usual for strangers to make.

Disappointment may be felt that the settlements of Arthing-
ton and Brewerville, which they were designed to begin, were
not located nearer to each other and as far inland from the
Coast as it was intended they should be. But the party from
Windsor, North Carolina, decided, after examination, to take
land and commence Arthington on an elevated site on the
northern bank of the St. Paul's river, about a mile above the



AMEEICAN COLONIZATION SOCIETY. 15



Arthington and Brewerville.



Lutheran Missionary station of Muhlenberg; and the company
from Jamesville, North Carolina, chose to locate at Brewerville,
about three miles below Virginia, and two miles back from the
same river, or ten miles from Monrovia.

The leader of the last-named party, Mr. John B. Munden»
thus wrote, under date of May 30 :

"All the members of the Brewer company are in Brewerville,
and we have been on our place for over a month. We have
got planted down potatoes, eddoes, cassadas, and various gar-
den seeds. I hope you will send out the emigrants from the
county of Martin, and let them come to Brewerville. All of
the members say 'thanks be to the God of heaven,' and every
one is satisfied."

From a letter written by Mr. Alonzo Hoggard, the leader of
the company from Windsor, North Carolina, dated Arthington,
July 16, the following extracts are taken :

<' I take my pen in hand to write you all the truth of this
country. I am satisfied here in this place. I have no more
use for America. I have cucumbers, watermelons, turnips,
snaps, Indian corn, ginger, arrowroot, pepper, plaintains, ban-
nanas, pawpaws, chickens, three hogs, and a log-house 13-(-15,
to which I expect to build a large addition right away. I have
one acre of land in rice, one in cassada, and one in potatoes. I
have also fifty coffee plants. The larger portion of the emigrants
who came with me are doing about as well. I am at home. I
don't waut to move any more. Thank God, I am satisfied here.
I have the promise of a school, and I want a church built here.


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