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come in in July, or even later. If able to pass the obstruc-
tions in this river they ascend to various distances, many
of them more than a hundred miles from tide water, and
lie there until late in October, when they begin to spawn,
the female digging holes in the gravelly bottom of the
rapids and covering the eggs with gravel. A male at-



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174 American Fisheries Society

tends each female, fertilizing the eggs after they are laid
and meanwhile chasing away all intruding fishes. The
embryos begin their development at once and continue
all winter, hatching for the most part in April.

The first spawning of a Penobscot salmon is apparently
at the age of four years and a half. She then returns
leisurely to the sea, generally reaching it the next spring
or early sunmier, in a very emaciated condition, in conse-
quence of total abstinence from food during the whole
period of her stay in fresh water. She now resumes feed-
ing and rapidly recovers condition, and, after a full year
in the sea, is ready to ascend the river again to spawn a
second time. In a few cases it doubtless happens that the
fish makes a third visit to the river, thus laying three lots
of eggs during her life. The facts pertaining to the re-
turn of the salmon for a second spawning were ascer-
tained by experiments at Bucksport and Orland between
1872 and 1880, when a total of over 1,200 salmon of both
sexes were marked on their release after spawning. The
mark was in the form of a small aluminmn tag attached
by a fine platinum wire to the rear margin of the main
dorsal fin, each tag stamped with a number which re-
ferred to a record showing the date of marking, the sex
of the fish, its length and weight, and, if a female, the
quantity of eggs yielded. The fishes bearing these tags
were released in November in tide-water and doubtless
in nearly all cases soon went out to sea. A year from the
next spring and sunmier a few of them were recovered
through the salmon fishermen of the Penobscot, with the
tags still in place, when in every instance, it was found
that the fish had fully recovered from the emaciated con-
dition in which it had been dismissed, and had made an
increase in weight and length over the condition when
first handled. Out of the 1,200 marked, nearly 40 were
recovered. This is a small percentage and it is entirely
probable that far more than that number survived and
returned without the tags, and possibly in some cases the
tags escaped notice by the fishermen. Indeed, it may be
regarded as remarkable that, with the fish almost con-



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Atkins. — The Atlantic Salmon 175



»



stantly in motion for so many months, and the tag swing-
ing back and forth, the fine wires did not cut their way
out from the margin of the fin in all cases.

The culture of this species of salmon now conducted at'
the Craig Brook station has for its prime object the main-
tenance of the species in the Penobscot river, which alone
furnishes the material on which the work is based. The
first step is the collection of breeding adults, which has
thus far been done on their first appearance in the river
when bound for their spawning grounds. In the lower
part of the river and about its mouth a large number of
weirs are each year built of stakes, brush and netting
for the capture of salmon and alewives. Arrangements
are made with a large number of weir fishermen to save
their salmon alive, for which purpose they are supplied
with soft nets, boxes and cars. For cars, common fish-
ing dories are used; openings in their sides permitting
the free ingress and egress of water when they are in
motion, gratings at the openings and a cover of netting
preventing the escape of the fish. Once a day near low
water a motor boat traverses the fishing district and
tows all the cars containing salmon up Orland river to
a point in a fresh water tributary. Dead Brook, where
there is constructed an enclosure occupying the entire
stream for about a third of a mile in length, the width
averaging about two rods and the depth ranging from
four to twelve feet. Here the salmon are placed with
free range through the enclosure. The collection is be-
gun about May 20 and generally closed some time in
June, several hundred salmon — sometimes more than a
thousand — ^being collected. No food is offered them, and it
is not believed that they would accept "any if offered.
There seems no doubt that it is their habit to abstain
from food wholly during their stay in fresh water. Early
in the history of this work more than a hundred stom-
achs taken at random from those cut up in the Bucksport
markets, were saved and submitted to examination by
experts in Washington, who could find nothing in any
of them that appeared to be food or the remnants of food.



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176 American Fisheries Society

It therefore seems that the sahnon cease to eat before
they enter the river.

In the Dead Brook enclosure the sahnon seem to find
an ideal abode, and the deaths among them during the
season appear to be caused by serious wounds received
in capture, or, as sometimes happens, by excessively high
temperature of water in July or August. Meanwhile
their reproductive organs undergo a normal development
and about the 20th or 22d of October the most forward
of them are ready to lay their eggs. When they reach
this condition they try to find swift water and, working
up the stream, are entrapped at the head of their enclos-
ure, dipped out and manipulated. When the salmon are
collected, no attempt is made to distinguish between the
sexes, but it has always turned out at the spawning sea-
son that the females are more numerous than the males.
A rough shed shelters the workmen and here the eggs are
taken and fecundated and packed on trays in which they
are carefully conveyed to the Craig Brook hatchery, some
two miles distant. Here the incubation is carried to the
shipping point, and most of the eggs are then transferred
for hatching to an auxiliary station at Little Spring
Brook, a tributary of the East Branch of the Penobscot,
situated about 120 miles above the mouth of the river.
The fry hatched here are all liberated in the Penobscot
river within a few miles of the hatchery, on the very
grounds where they would have hatched naturally had
their mothers been allowed to follow their natural in-
stincts. A few of the eggs have sometimes been hatched
at the Craig Brook Station and the resulting fry placed
in the Penobscot or tributaries nearer the sea.

During the past ten years the number of young salmon
artificially hatched and thus liberated in the Penobscot
has been as follows :



Year


Planted in upper
Penobscot, E. Branch


Planted in other
Parts of Penobscot


Total


1905
1906
1907
1908
1909


727,462
1,897,607
2,156,852
2,059,514

647,790


289,102
79,217
39,830
50,003
24,430


1,016,564
1,976324
2,196,682
2,559,514
672,290



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Atkins. — The Atlantic Salmon 177



Year


Planted in upper
Penobscot, E. Branch


Planted in other
Parts of Penobscot


Total


1910
1911
1912
1913


1,299,779
2,854,084
1,841,221
3,482,464


155,609

19,000

22,711

4,304


1,455,388
2,873,084
1,863,932
3,486,768



The adult salmon in store at Dead Brook are sufficient
to justify a result for 1914 fully equal to that of 1913.

The effect of this work on the product of the salmon
fisheries of the Penobscot is shown by the statistics of
the catch in the counties of Hancock, Penobscot, Waldo
and Knox, collected by the Maine Commissioner of Sea
and Shore Fisheries. The total catch in these counties
for several years was as follows :

Year Catch of Salmon

in lbs.

1905 52,368

1906 41,202

1908 33,425

1909 26,125

1910 56,730

1911 98,680

1912 86,240

Thus the catch for 1911 and 1912 far exceeds that of
any other two years. The catch for 1911 is confidently
stated to have been the best for 20 years. These are very
encouraging figures and as the artificial work has of late
been on a somewhat larger scale than formerly, the pros-
pect of eventual success is very cheerful.



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BUILDING AN AQUARIUM FOR PHILADELPHIA

By W. E. Meehan,
Director of the Philadelphia Aqiuirium.

After fifteen years of agitation, the City Councils of
Philadelphia passed an ordinance directing the establish-
ment of a Public Aquarium. The ordinance was signed
by the Mayor, John E. Reyburn, May 16, 1911. By its
terms the old Fairmount Water-works buildings in Fair-
mount Park, near the Spring Garden Street Bridge and
on the banks of the Schuylkill River were designated as
the site of the new institution.

The Fairmount Water-works were built in the first
quarter of the last century, and for many years were fa-
mous over this country and Europe for the completeness
of the plant and for the beauty of the buildings. They
were situated below the Fairmount Dam, with a huge
rocky hill, known as Faire Mount, as a picturesque back-
ground on the east. The water-works plant was aban-
doned by the city of Philadelphia in 1910.

There were two power houses, one 200 feet long and 50
feet wide, and the other 100 feet long and 50 feet wide ;
and these it was proposed to utilize for the new Aquari-
um. They were admirably adapted for the purpose, re-
quiring no radical structural changes. As the roofs are
flat and used as a plaza, by the public, it is a simple mat-
ter to install the necessary overhead skylights which are
to illuminate the tanks.

It is planned to use the smaller of the two buildings as
a sea water house and the larger as a fresh water house,
and possibly for sea water fishes also. The two buildings
will hold approximately 140 capacious tanks.

A small sum, about $1,500, was appropriated in De-
cember, 1911, with which to establish a temporary aqua-
rium of fresh water fishes in the large hall of a building
once used for administration purposes by the Water De-
partment at the Fairmount water works. In the general
plans for the permanent aquarium this large hall is des-
ignated by ordinance of councils to be used for the de-



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180 American Fisheries Society

livery of public free lectures on aquatic animal life. The
building in which the temporary aquarium was installed
is unsuited for exhibition purposes, and the tanks avail-
able not proper for a good or permanent display of fishes.
They had belonged to the State and were used by it at
the Expositions of Chicago and St. Louis.

The temporary aquarium was installed by me in three
weeks, and it is still in operation and visited by about
6,000 people weekly. The first year of its existence there
were over 260,000 visitors. Twenty-seven tanks and
about that many species of fresh water fish comprise the
exhibit.

No work has been done towards the completion of the
permanent aquarium since October, 1912, when the sea
water house was within about six weeks of completion.
The funds provided for the completion of the sea water
house and possibly the fresh water house are embodied in
a municipal loan authorized last winter, but which will
not be available until about October, 1913, perhaps not
then.

The tanks in the sea water house will be made of con-
crete and the majority of them will be seven feet long
each, and one 12i/^ feet.

Lead lined pipe or hard rubber pipe is almost univer-
sally in use for conveying sea water to and from tanks,
but lead lined pipe very frequently does not give perfect
satisfaction, and hard rubber pipe is exceedingly expen-
sive. After mature deliberation I determined to try the
experiment of testing the utility of wood pipe. A four-
inch pipe of that material for the supply pipe is now in
place, and five-inch wooden pipe for the out-flow will be
used, together with terra-cotta.

I can see no reason why wooden pipe should not be as
eflicient as hard rubber and much better and safer than
lead lined pipe. It certainly will not corrode, nor leak,
and it has been in successful use for more than 30 years
in the oil regions for conveying salt water from the oil
wells and it is used almost exclusively in the coal mining



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Meehan. — An Aqvjarium for Philadelphia 181

regions for conveying mine water impregnated with sul-
phur.

The sea water house abuts directly on the Fairmount
Dam. Owing to the liability of floods from the Schuyl-
kill River it was necessary to raise the floor above the
ordinary flood level ; therefore in that building there will
be but one set of tanks. The fresh water house will have
a second tier of tanks making the capacity of that build-
ing 110 tanks of large size.



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OYSTERS, A DESIRABLE FOOD

By Henry C. Rowe, Groton, Conn.

The "high cost of living" has become a familiar phrase
in recent years, but familiar phrases frequently lose their
significance because the public mind notices and remem-
bers only what is novel and recent. But the high cost of
living is more than a phrase; it represents a stern fact
which to many of us is imperative and to all is certainly
a problem of great public concern.

The United States and territories are so vast in their
extent and resources that a few years ago it seemed that
this country was and would remain the chief source of
food, clothing, lumber, fuel and minerals for a large por-
tion of the world, but our doors were opened so wide to
the crowded millions of other lands that already con-
sumption in certain lines has increased far beyond pro-
duction and by wasteful methods, luxurious living and
other well-known causes, we are brought face to face
with this problem. It will insist upon recognition until
we find adequate remedies and adopt them.

Among other items the demand for food is imperative.
We all know that food has increased vastly in price. Here
are some of the figures within a few years :

Increase

Fresh eggs 26.1%

Sirloin steak 59.5%

Roast beef 63.8%

Fresh milk 32.9%

Pure lard 55.3%

Smoked hams 61.3%

Round steak 84. %

Creamery butter 33.3%

Hens 58.1 %

Com meal 63.7%

Pork chops 86. %

These figures show that some of these foods have be-
come too expensive for constant or frequent popular use.
Fortunately there are other foods just a^ nutritious,
wholesome and palatable as are the more expensive,
which a large portion of the population can no longer
afford to have.



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184 American Fisheries Society

While other foods have so greatly increased in price,
oysters can still be furnished at no higher price than
many years ago. This is due to the great extension of
the artificial propagation, growing and cultivation of
oysters. Then, too, the quality of the oysters furnished to
the consumer has greatly improved. The improved meth-
ods of cultivation, refrigerating and shipping have been
a great benefit to the oyster product and they are now in
every way more desirable to the consumer than years
ago.

Another great advantage in delivering this product is
that the transportation is greatly extended and has be-
come more efficient, so that oysters, either opened or in
the shell, can be furnished in perfect condition in all parts
of the United States and Canada where the railroads
penetrate.

Still another very important feature concerning the oy-
ster industry is the fact that the sensational attacks made
within a few years upon the wholesomeness of oysters
have been discredited by the highest scientific and offi-
cial authorities on this continent. Dr. Carl L. Alsberg,
Chief of the Bureau of Chemistry at Washington, has
given special consideration to this subject and says, "I
could wish that the number of dangerous sources of milK
supply was as small and that the percentage of pure
wholesome milk was as great as the proportion of whole-
some, safe oysters that reach our tables," and if his opin-
ion needed any support it might be found in the public
utterances of other men of the highest authority upon
these subjects, as, for instance. Dr. Earle Phelps, Prof.
Sedgwick, Dr. Julius Nelson, Dr. Frederick P. Gorham
and others.

The prejudice which was instilled in the minds of
many timid people has never extended to those persons
who are well informed concerning the oyster industry,
but it has influenced many of those who are readily im-
pressed by sensational statements of ''food demagogues"
and by the lurid headlines of the yellow press.



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Rowe. — Oysters, A Desirable Food 185

In the paper which I presented to the International
Fisheries Congress in 1908, I called attention to the
vastly increasing production of oysters and to the impor-
tance of this economical, wholesome and palatable food.
Since that time the need of such a substitute for meat has
greatly increased and the proof of the wholesomeness of
oysters has become conclusive. The prejudice which ex-
isted for a time has been shown to have had a most trif-
ling foundation in fact and that so far as life and health
are concerned there is far more danger in riding on a
railroad train, or in a motor car, or even in walking the
street where motor cars abound, than there is in eating
oysters every day; also, that oysters are far more whole-
some and safe than water or milk. We do not hesitate
to use water or milk; we only insist that they shall be
kept pure and in perfect condition. That is now all that
intelligent people require concerning oysters.

For this reason I ask your aid in placing before the
public the facts; that the vast increase of the supply of
oysters by reason or their artificial propagation ; the im-
proved methods of refrigerating and shipping them, and
the wholesomeness, palatability and economy of oysters
as food, should conmiend them as a frequent substitute
for those foods which have so greatly increased in price
during the past ten or fifteen years.



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SUGGESTIONS OF POSSIBLE INTEREST TO THE

AMERICAN FISHERIES SOCIETY AND

TO nSH COMMISSIONS

By Wm. p. Seal, Delair, N. J.

I. Argument in favor of certain modifications of the
Fish Protective Laws.

In papers read before the American Fisheries Society,
the writer has expressed the opinion that there is not the
general sympathy that there should be with the objects
of this society, the prevailing sentiment being that the
laws enacted for fish protection are inspired largely by
anglers wholly in the interest of sport. It is the desire
here to call attention to one phase of discrimination em-
bodied in fish protective legislation that from the view-
point of many persons interested is not only unjust but
also unwise since it affects a class of men who might pos-
sibly become a valuable auxiliary force in the general
interests and progress of fish culture.

There are now in the United States seven aquarium
societies with a large membership of men of scientific
inclinations, and others are projected. There is a monthly
magazine devoted to their pursuits published under their
joint auspices by members of the societies.

There is in progress in the United States a renaissance,
so to speak, in the use of the aquarium as a scientific
instrument for nature study. Large numbers of beauti-
ful and interesting species of fishes are constantly being
imported from Germany, where they are being bred, to
which country they have been brought from remote parts
of the earth, but many of them from North, Central, and
South America, and even the United States.

The illustrated catalogs of the ornamental fish breeders
and dealers of Germany are an astounding revelation of
our lack of progress in this direction. In the United
States we have a great many beautiful and interesting
species, especially adapted to the aquarium, which are
not of the slightest value conmiercially and many of



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188 American Fisheries Society

which have no value even as food for the commercial or
sport species, but on the other hand are to a greater or
less extent destructive to the young of such, and of their
food. But, even if they were valuable in some respect or
other, the numbers of them that would be taken for scien-
tific purposes — ^which would properly include aquarium
stock — ^would be relatively so small as to be insignificant.
Dr. Theodore Gill once said to the writer, "It is a shame
that we know so little of our conmionest fishes.'' And in
his paper, "A Plea for the Observation of the Habits of
Fishes, and Against Undue Generalization,*', read before
the Fourth International Fishery Congress, he says, "We
have still much to learn about our most common and long-
est known species."

Surely if there is any value in nature study, the obser-
vation of our fishes should rank as high as any other
phase of it and should receive, at least, encouragement
from those most directly interested — ^the fish culturists
and the fishermen. Yet, without a restricted permit,
which but few are able to get from the various state fish
commissions, an aquarium fancier may not catch a pair
of 4-spined sticklebacks for observation, and yet this is
one of the most insignificant and absolutely worthless
species from any other viewpoint than that of nature
study, but from that one of the most interesting. In the
State of Pennsylvania the holder of a permit is required
to make a report at the end of the year specifying thfe
use he has made of it.

It is apparent from a circular letter recently received
from the President of the American Fisheries Society
that there is an increasing lack of popular interest in the
objects of the society as evidenced by an apparent loss
of membership. Many years ago in a paper read before
this society the writer outlined a plan of organization
tending to popularize the society and the work of fish
culture and fish protection. This was merely a sugges-
tion which might or might not have proven practicable,
but it was given merely for the purpose of stimulating
consideration and discussion of the subject. But it ap-



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Seal — Suggestions of Possible Interest 189

pears to be impossible to overcome the purely selfish ten-
dencies involved and until this is accomplished there will
be no progress in this direction.

For many years a stranger listening to the discussions
of the American Fisheries Society might have concluded
that there was but one phase of fish culture of very great
importance, with but one serious question involved, that
known as "Fry vs. Yearlings/' It will probably never
be settled to the satisfaction of its opposing advocates.

It was quite apparent to the writer at the Fourth Inter-
national Fishery Congress that the feeling was strong
among the working fish culturists that too much promi-
nence was being given to scientific and pseudo-scientific
investigation, and perhaps even more to plain amateur
observations such as interest the writer and others as
becomes good citizens interested in problems affecting
the general welfare.

The society has since then wisely differentiated its
functions thus practically broadening its legitimate field
of work, allowing full scope for the spirit of investiga-
tion as well as for encouragement of practical work.
This course, if pursued with liberality, should lead to
greater popularity for the society, without which it never
will be progressive.

It is in this spirit and from this viewpoint that it is
here suggested that there should be a modification of the
fish protective laws in the interest of scientific investi-
gators, nature students, and aquarium fanciers, to allow
them to take fishes for their purposes. The schools, even
down to the kindergardens, have aquaria, for nature
study, but no legitimate means of supplying them.

The aquarium societies represent a class of citizens
that should be in alliance and in sympathy with the gen-
eral work of fish culture and fish protection, if only as
creators of fish cultural sentiment. There is no such re-
striction, so far as known to the writer, in any other
country and it is looked upon by those whom it affects as
an arbitrary, selfish, and unjust misuse of power. There
is no analagous feature in the laws for the protection of



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190 American Fisheries Society

birds or quadrupeds. Furthermore, such laws are a dead
letter and always will be. But there is no reason why
men should have to violate the laws to obtain what they
are justly entitled to as well as are a favored few.

The writer is neither a fish culturist nor an angler, and


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