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married Miss Davenport, of Hopkinton,
Massachusetts, daughter of S. D. Daven-
port. He died at Newton, Massachusetts,
January 5, 1905.

BALL, Thomas,

Famous Sculptor.

Thomas Ball was born at Charlestown,
Massachusetts, June 3, 1819, son of
Thomas and Elizabeth (Hall) Ball. He
attended the Mayhew school in Boston,
but the death of his father in 1831 cut

short his education, and he apprenticed
himself to a wood-engraving company.
Before the expiration of the first year of
his service he began to study portrait
painting, his first productions being
miniatures in oil ; and he also painted
same life-sized portraits, that of his
mother gaining the first prize at an
exhibition of the Boston Mechanics' As-
sociation. During this time he was a
member of the Handel and Haydn So-
ciety, frequently appearing as a soloist
in their concerts, and in 185 1 the society
presented him with a watch and a purse
containing one hundred dollars in gold, as
"a tribute to his vocal merits." The first
of his more ambitious paintings, "Christ
in the Temple with the Doctors," was
exhibited at the Baltimore Academy, and
gained him an honorary membership,
and also a medal at an exhibition at
Washington. This subject was pur-
chased by the American Art Union, as
was also his "King Lear."

He now decided to devote himself to
sculpture. Almost his first work in clay,
the head of Jenny Lind, the famous
Swedish songstress, was an acknowledged
success, and his cabinet busts became
popular. His first life-sized bust was
that of Daniel Webster, which he finished
just before the death of that statesman.
This creation produced a great sensation,
and Ames and Harding both painted their
celebrated portraits from it. In October,
1854, he married Nellie Wild, of Boston,
and with his bride visited Florence, Italy,
where his first public order was executed,
"The Signing of the Declaration of Inde-
pendence," after Trumbull's painting, for
one of the panels of Greenough's statue
of Franklin ; and in 1885 he also produced
his "Shipwrecked Sailor-boy," a bust of
Napoleon, a statuette of Washington
Allston, and a figure of Pandora. In 1856
he returned to Boston, where he modelled
his second panel for the Franklin statue,


"The Signing of the Treaty of Peace in
Paris." Among his busts are those of
Henry Clay, Rufus Choate, Dr. Peabody,
William H. Prescott, Henry Ward
Beecher; and President Lord, of Dart-
mouth, and that institution conferred
upon Mr. Ball the degree of A. M. In
1859 he received the order for his eques-
trian statue of Washington, in Boston.
In 1S65, on the occasion of his return to
Florence, Mr. Ball was presented with a
purse of fifteen hundred dollars by the
King's Chapel congregation, Boston, he
having sung as basso in the quartette
choir of that house of worship for fifteen
years. In 1866 he executed a statue of
Edwin Forrest as "Coriolanus" for Phil-
adelphia, and in 1867 his "Eve Stepping
into Life," and "La Petite Pensee." In

1873 he revisited America, and received
the commission for the marble statue of
Governor John A. Andrew for the State
House in Boston. After this came
"Love's Memories," and "St. John, the
Evangelist," which Hiram, Powers con-
sidered Mr. Ball's best work. During

1874 he modelled the emancipation group
for the city of Washington, and in 1875-
76 he completed a duplicate of the group
for Boston, as well as the colossal statue
of Daniel Webster for Central Park, New
York, erected at a cost of sixty thousand
dollars. His next work was a statue of
Charles Sumner, and the School street
(Boston) statue of Josiah Quincy. He
next modelled a small group represent-
ing Thomas Jefferson presenting to John
Adams the draft of the Declaration of
Independence, and a figure of the Christ
with a little child, which was very highly
approved by the Italian sculptor, Dupre.
In 1882 he produced his "Paul Revere's
Ride." In 1883 he again visited America,
where he modelled busts of Hon. Mar-
shall Jewell and Phineas T. Barnum. He
returned to Florence a few months later,
and employed himself during the next

two years in producing ideal medallions
and portrait-busts, and in modelling small
statues of Lincoln and Garfield. In 1885
he modelled the statue of Daniel Webster,
presented to Concord, New Hampshire,
by B. P. Cheney, and unveiled in that
city June 17, 1886. His next work was
the "David," which he modelled in the
winter of 1885-86, and afterwards put
into marble for Edward F. Searles, of
Great Barrington. In the autumn of 1886
he completed the large statue of Phineas
T. Barnum. In 1889, when the sculptor
was visiting Boston, Mr. Searles gave
him the commission for his colossal
statue of Washington for the town of
Methuen, Massachusetts. The children
figures at the feet of the statue represent
the sculptor's grandsons. Mr. Ball pub-
lished in 1891, an autobiography entitled,
"My Three-Score Years and Ten," and
numerous lyrics and minor poems. In
1905 he resumed his palette, to complete
a painting, "Christ in the House of
Martha and Mary," begun in 1853, and
which he had laid aside when he took up
sculpture. In his later years he main-
tained a studio in New York City, and
resided in Montclair, New Jersey. He
died December 11, 1911.

EDDY, Mary M. B. G.,

Founder of Christian Science.

Mary M. Baker Glover Eddy, founder
of the Church of Christ (Scientist), was
born at Bow, New Hampshire, July 21,
1821, and died December 3, 1910, daugh-
ter of Mark and Abigail B. (Ambrose)
Baker, of Scotch and English descent.
Among her ancestors were General John
MacNeil, of battle of Lundy's Lane fame ;
General Henry Knox, distinguished Revo-
lutionary officer ; and Captain John Love-
well, active in the Indian troubles.

As a child she was delicate in health,
and was educated privately, and at the

/ a^i^


Ipswich (New Hampshire) Seminary.
She was said to be in advance of others
of her age ; was versed in Latin, Greek,
Hebrew and French ; and delighted in
abstruse and metaphysical studies, her
favorite subjects being natural philosophy
and physical and moral science. Her
parents removed to Tilton, New Hamp-
shire, where at the age of twelve she was
received into the Congregational church,
to which she remained devoted until she
organized the Church of Christ (Scien-
tist). Mrs. Eddy was a confirmed invalid
for a number of years of her early life,
and in October, 1862, she went to Port-
land, Maine, to consult with Dr. Phineas
P. Quimby, who was treating disease by
mental methods, and by which she was
greatly benefited ; and, as a result, a
friendship sprang up between the two
which continued until the death of Dr.
Quimby in 1866.

In 1867 Mrs. Eddy formulated her doc-
trines of Christian science, and began to
teach "The Science of Mind Healing" —
that mind is divine; mind is all; that
sin and sickness are delusions of "mortal
mind." The treatment consists in the
assertion that sickness is not a reality,
but only a "belief," and the acceptance of
this view by the patient is the cure sought
for. Christian Science proclaims the un-
realty of matter and of the body, while
mental science, the philosophy of Dr.
Quimby, admits the validity of the body
as veritable expression, but recognizes its
susceptibility to mental influence. In
1870 Mrs. Eddy published her first work,
"The Science of Man," which was after-
wards incorporated in "Science and
Health, with Key to the Scriptures"
(1875). This book is the textbook of the
organization, and is the foundation of its
theory and practice. It has passed
through more than a hundred editions,
having been frequently revised, and it is

read in conjunction with the Bible at the
Sunday services in every Christian
Science church in the United States and
in many foreign countries. She labored
incessantly for many years, performing
many seemingly miraculous cures, and
making no charge until necessity obliged
her to limit the countless calls made upon
her. In 1876 Mrs. Eddy organized the
first Christian Science Association. In
1881 she received a charter from the Mas-
sachusetts Legislature for the Metaphy-
sical College of Boston, of which she be-
came the president. The students' course
of study here comprised twelve lessons in
about three weeks, for which they were
charged $300. The college was closed in
1889, having numbered about four thous-
and students on its rolls. She was
ordained a minister of the Gospel in 1879,
and received a charter for the "Church
of Christ, Scientist," the same year. The
church was organized in Boston, and she
became its pastor. Previously she had
received a call to a Boston pulpit, and
filled it with great acceptance. Her work
had now increased so rapidly that most
of the prominent cities and towns in the
United States had a Christian Science
society, or one or two Christian Science
churches holding religious services, and
the movement spread to other countries.
In 1892 Mrs. Eddy donated a lot of land
in Boston valued at $20,000, to an incor-
porated body called the "Christian
Science Board of Directors," upon which
was erected in 1894 a church edifice
known as "The Mother Church," at a
cost of $200,000, and of which she was
pastor, and later became pastor emeritus.
She presented to the Christian Science
Church at Concord, New Hampshire,
(her place of residence), a church edifice
costing $200,000. She originated a form
of church government without creed,
liberal, and aiming to be universal, to


promote the brotherhood of man, to have
one God (one Mind), one faith, one bap-
tism. The tenets of this church are :

First: As adherents of Truth we take the
Scriptures for our guide to eternal life. Sec-
ond: We acknowledge and adore one Supreme
God. We acknowledge His Son, the Holy
Ghost, and Man in His image and likeness. We
acknowledge God's forgiveness of sin in the
destruction of sin, and His present and future
punishment of "whatsoever worketh abomina-
tion or maketh a lie." We acknowledge the
atonement of Christ as the efficacy of Truth
and Love, and the way of salvation as demon-
strated by Jesus; casting out evils, healing the
sick and raising the dead — resurrecting a dead
faith to seize the great possibilities and living
energies of the divine Life. Third: We solemnly
promise to strive, watch, and pray for that
Mind to be in us which was also in Christ
Jesus; to love the brethren, and up to our high-
est understanding to be meek, merciful, and
just, and live peaceably with all men.

Mrs. Eddy writes in "Science and
Health :"

No analogy exists between the hypotheses of
agnosticism, pantheism, theosophy, or spiritual-
ism, and the demonstrable truths of Christian
Science. Electro-magnetism, hypnotism, and
mesmerism are the antipodes of Christian
Science. As a result of Christian Science,
ethics and temperance have received an im-
pulse, health has been restored, and longevity
increased. If such are the present fruits, what
may not the harvest be, when this Science is
better understood? Medical theories virtually
admit the nothingness of hallucinations, even
while treating them as disease. Ought we not,
then, to approve any cure effected by making
the disease appear a delusion or error? It is
not generally understood how one disease is as
much a delusion as another. But Jesus estab-
lished this foundational fact, when Truth cast
out devils and the dumb spake.

Mrs. Eddy established the first period-
ical in Christian Science, "The Christian
Science" Journal," in 1883, and gave it to
the National Christian Science Asso-
ciation in 1889, whose official organ it
became, and of which she was editor for

several years. In 1898 she founded the
"Christian Science Sentinel," and in 1902
"Der Herold der Christian Science." She
founded every leading organization of the
movement in the last quarter-century of
the history of Christian Science. The
National Christian Scientists' Association
has a large membership. In 1889 Mrs.
Eddy was invited to become a member of
the Victoria Philosophical Institute of
London, England, and was made a life
member. She was awarded a grand prize
and a diploma of honor by the French
government, as the founder of "Christian
Sciences," and also received decoration
as an Officier d' Academic Mrs. Eddy
made a home on Commonwealth avenue,
Boston, Massachusetts, and also at
Pleasant View, Concord, New Hampshire.
She was an exceedingly busy woman, the
most of her time being devoted to the
propagation of the science which she had
established. Mrs. Eddy, in "Science and
Health," says : "I have set forth Chris-
tian Science, and its application to the
treatment of disease, only as I have dis-
covered them. I have demonstrated the
effects of truth on the health, longevity,
and morals of men, through mind ; and I
have found nothing in ancient or in
modern systems on which to found my
own except the teachings and demonstra-
tions of our great Master and the lives
of prophets and apostles." Mrs. Eddy's
published works are as follows : "Science
and Health, with Key to the Scriptures"
(1875, and many later editions) ; "Chris-
tian Healing" (1886) ; "People's Idea of
God" (1886) ; "Unity of Good" (1891) ;
"Rudimental Divine Science" (1891) ;
Retrospection and Introspection" (1892) ;
Communion Hymn, Feed My Sheep, Mis-
cellaneous Writings" (1896) ; "Christ and
Christmas" (1897) > "Pulpit and Press"
(1898) ; "Christian Science versus Pan-
theism" (1898) ; "Message to the Mother


Church" (1900) ; "Our Leader's Message"
(1901) ; "Truth versus Error" (1905).

She was first married, December 12,
1843, to George Washington Glover, an
architect, of Wilmington, North Caro-
lina, who died suddenly of cholera in May
of the following year. She then returned
to New England, and fourteen years later
she was married to a Dr. Patterson, a
dentist, of Franklin, New Hampshire,
from whom she was divorced in 1865. In
1877 she was married to Asa G. Eddy, of
Lynn, Massachusetts, who died suddenly
in 1882. She had one son by her first

DODGE, Thomas H.,

Lawyer, Inventor, Philanthropist.

Thomas H. Dodge, a man of versatile
and most useful talents, was born at
Eden, Lamoille county, Vermont, Sep-
tember 2"j, 1823, and died February 19,

He attended the public schools of Eden
and Lowell, Vermont, and Nashua, New
Hampshire, and completed his education
by taking special courses in the Literary
Institute of Nashua, New Hampshire, and
the Gymnasium Institute of Pembroke,
New Hampshire. He then entered a
cloth manufactory, and made a mastery
of the business. At the same time he
gave evidence of considerable mechanical
ability, and made several practical inven-
tions of great utility, including a printing
press for printing from a continuous roll
of paper; and an improvement to the
hinge-bar mowing machine, which came
to be used throughout the civilized world,
saving, as has been estimated, the labor
of two million men every haying season.
During this same period he wrote and
published a work entitled "A Review of
the Rise and Progress and Present Im-
portance of the Cotton Manufactures of
the United States." Meantime, among

other studies, he had given E-tluitioii to
the law, and from 1851 to 1854 he devoted
himself entirely to its study, under the
direction of able instructors who were
practitioners at the local bar, and in due
time he was admitted to practice and
engaged in professional business in
Nashua, New Hampshire. He had, how-
ever, barely entered upon practice when
he was appointed to a position in the
examining department of the United
States Patent Office in Washington City,
and subsequently became examiner and
chairman of the board of appeals. As an
incident of his life at this period, while
giving full attention to his professional
duties, his observance of the embarrass-
ment frequently arising from want of
system in the Post Office Department in
return to writers of uncalled-for letters.
he devised a plan, of which on August 8,
1856, he submitted to Postmaster-General
James Campbell a Written detailed state-
ment. For a long time this was either
ignored or opposed by department offi-
cials and many members of Congress, but
eventually found adoption, in practically
the form observed at the present time.
In 1858 Mr. Dodge resigned his position
in the Patent Office to engage in the
practice of patent law, was admitted to
practice in the Supreme Court of the
United States, soon took rank among the
first patent lawyers in the country.

In 1864 Mr. Dodge took up his resi-
dence in Worcester, Massachusetts,
where, in addition to caring for an im-
portant patent law practice, he became
interested in various large manufacturing
enterprises. He also came to be esteemed
as a most public-spirited citizen, and
liberally supporting its churches and
other institutions. The Natural History
Society was one of his principal bene-
ficiaries. To the city of Worcester he
gave a beautiful and valuable thirteen
acre grove tract of land, known as Dodge


Park; and, although not a member of the
Order of Odd Fellows, he presented to it
ten acres of land in the city of Worcester
as a site for the Massachusetts Odd Fel-
lows' Home, and upon which was subse-
quently erected the imposing edifice
known by that name. His death was
regretted by the entire community.


Lawyer, Jurist.

John Lowell was born in Boston, Mas-
sachusetts, October 18, 1824, son of John
Amory and Susan (Cabot) Lowell. He
was a grandson of John Lowell, author
(1769-1840); a great-grandson of John
Lowell, statesman (1743-1802), and
cousin of James Russell Lowell, the poet.

His early education was received at
Ingraham's private school in Boston, and
later he entered Harvard College, where
he was graduated in 1843. He studied
law in the office of the Lorings, in Boston,
and was admitted to the bar in 1846.
Engaging in the practice of his profession
in Boston, he was thus occupied there
until March 11, 1865, when he was
appointed by President Lincoln United
States District Judge for the District of
Massachusetts, the same court over
which his great-grandfather was the first
judge to preside, being appointed by
Washington. On December 18, 1879, he
received an appointment to the bench
of the United States Circuit Court, which
office he held until his resignation, May
1, 1884. He gained special prominence as
an authority on the law relating to bank-
ruptcy, patents and admiralty, and pre-
pared the draft of a bankruptcy bill
which was introduced into Congress in
1882. The Woodbury patent case was
decided by him, involving interests of
nearly $40,000,000. His decisions have
been published in two volumes (1877),
and he also wrote a treatise on the law

of bankruptcy, published in 1899, after
his death. After his retirement from the
bench he engaged in private practice, and
at the time of his death was serving as
chairman of the State Commission on
revision of the taxation laws.

Judge Lowell was married, in Boston,
Massachusetts, May 18, 1853, to Lucy B.,
daughter of George B. and Olivia (Buck-
minster) Emerson. He died at Brookline,
Massachusetts, May 14, 1897, survived by
two sons, John and James A. Lowell,
both lawyers, of Boston.

WESSON, Daniel Baird,

Manufacturer, Inventor.

Daniel Baird Wesson was born in
Worcester, Massachusetts, May 1, 1825,
son of Rufus and Betsey (Baird) Wesson.
His earliest American ancestors came
from England and settled in New Hamp-
shire about 171 1. His father was an
early manufacturer of wooden plows, and
subsequently a farmer.

Young Wesson was educated in the
public and high schools of his native city,
and at the age of eighteen entered the
shoe factory of his brothers, Rufus and
Martin Wesson. Finding this business
distasteful, he apprenticed himself to his
oldest brother Edwin, a rifle manufac-
turer at Northboro. After having served
a three year apprenticeship, he remained
in his brother's employ, subsequently re-
moving with him to Hartford, Connec-
ticut, where he became superintendent
and later a partner in the business.

Upon the death of his brother, Daniel
B. Wesson, he formed a partnership with
Thomas Warner, a master armorer, of
Worcester, also becoming interested in his
brother Frank's gun factory near Graf-
ton. Mr. Wesson later removed to
Charlestown, Massachusetts, to become
superintendent of the Leonard Pistol
Manufacturing Company, but when that


establishment removed to Windsor, Ver-
mont, he entered the employ of Allen &
Luther. He devoted his evenings to
mechanical study, and invented a practical
cartridge with percussion cap combined.
At this time he became identified with
Cortland Palmer, of New York, inventor
of an improved bullet, and, while study-
ing this invention, Mr. Wesson made an
improvement upon it for which he
received a patent. This improvement
was the addition of a steel disk upon
which the hammer could explode the ful-
minate, thus doing away with the primer.
In 1853 he formed a partnership with
Horace Smith, at Norwich, Connecticut,
and there worked out the principles of the
firearm now called the Winchester rifle.
Disposing of their patents to the Volcanic
Arms Company, Mr. Smith retired from
the business in 1855. Mr. Wesson then
became superintendent of the Volcanic
Arms Company (to which the Winchester
Arms Company subsequently succeeded)
and under its auspices he first put into
use the practical self-primed metallic
cartridge used during the Civil War.
Also about this time he succeeded in per-
fecting a revolver, the principal feature
of which was that the chambers ran
entirely through the cylinder. Upon the
reorganization of the Volcanic Arms
Company, Mr. Wesson resigned, and in
1856 entered into business with Mr. Smith
in Springfield, Massachusetts, where they
began manufacturing Mr. Wesson's new
invention with a force of twenty-five
workmen. In i860 the firm built a factory
employing six hundred workmen, and
during the Civil War supplied the United
States government with many thousand
small arms for both infantry and cavalry.
Ten years later they received a contract
to supply the Russian government with
two hundred thousand rifles, which took
them four years to fill. Mr. Smith retired
from the business in 1873, but it was still

continued under the old firm name of
Smith & Wesson. Mr. Wesson invented
a number of improvements, the most
important being the automatic cartridge-
shell extractor and the self-lubricating
cartridge. He also introduced the ham-
merless safety revolver, the hammer being
placed entirely within the lock-frame, and
the trigger being so set it could not be
pulled except at the time of firing, thus
obviating the possibility of accidental dis-
charge. In 1883-87 Mr. Wesson's sons,
Walter H. and Joseph H. Wesson, were
taken into partnership. Mr. Wesson was
president of the Cheney-Bigelow Wire
Works, and a founder of the First Na-
tional Bank of Springfield, of which he
later became a director.

He was married to Cynthia M., daugh-
ter of Luther Harris, of Northboro, Mas-
sachusetts, and had four children. He
died at Springfield, Massachusetts, Au-
gust 5, 1906.

ENDICOTT, William Crowninshield,

Lawyer, Jurist, Cabinet Officer.

William Crowninshield Endicott was
born in Salem, Massachusetts, November
19, 1826, son of William Putnam and
Mary (Crowninshield) Endicott. He
was descended directly from Governor
John Endicott, who came to Salem in
1628, and on his mother's side was a
grandson of the Hon. Jacob Crownin-
shield, who was a well known member of
Congress in the early part of the last

Mr. Endicott was educated at the
Salem schools, and in 1843 entered
Harvard College, from which he was
graduated in 1847, the year in which he
attained his majority. Soon after gradu-
ating he studied law in the office of Na-
thaniel J. Lord, then the leading member
of the Essex county bar, and in the Har-
vard Law School at Cambridge. He was


called to the bar in 1850, and entered
upon the practice of law in Salem in 185 1.
He was a member of the Common Council
of Salem in 1852. In 1853 he entered into
a law partnership with Jairus W. Perry
(then well known throughout the coun-
try as the author of "Perry on Trusts")
under the firm of Perry & Endicott.
From 1857 to 1864 he was solicitor of the

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