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library of a large collection of the best
photographs of the old and more modern
masterpieces in painting and sculpture.

Mr. Green was also, at two different
times and for several years, treasurer of
the Worcester Natural History Society,
and for many years a trustee of the
Worcester County Institution for Sav-
ings. In 1903 Mr. Green was made sec-
ond vice-president of the Worcester Har-
vard Club (which not long before he had
helped to form) ; and in 1904, first vice-
president. For several years he has been
a member of the corporation for the ad-
ministration of the Home for Aged Men.
Mr. Green formerly wrote constantly for
the "Library Journal," sending an article
to the first number, and has made many
contributions to the proceedings of the
American Antiquarian Society. He has
also written papers for the "American
Journal of Social Science," the "Sunday
Review" of London, and other period-
icals. Two books by him were published
by the late Frederick Leypoldt, of New
York, namely, "Library Aids," and "Li-
braries and Schools." Both were printed
in 1883. The former work, in a less com-
plete form, had been previously issued by
the United States Bureau of Education
as a circular of information. At the re-
quest of the secretary of the Board of
Education of Massachusetts, Mr. Green



wrote an appendix to his forty-eighth
annual report on "Public Libraries and
Schools," which was afterwards printed
as a separate pamphlet. A paper by him
on "The use of pictures in the public libra-
ries of Massachusetts" was printed as an
appendix to the eighth report of the Free
Public Library Commission of Massachu-
setts. Mr. Green has made many ad-
dresses and read a number of papers on
library and other subjects. Among the
earliest of these are "Personal Relations
Between Librarians and Readers," a paper
which was presented to a meeting of libra-
rians who cam,e together in Philadelphia
in October, 1876, and formed the Amer-
ican Library Association (of this paper
two editions have been printed and ex-
hausted). It was made the subject of
editorials in several Boston and New
York newspapers, and the plans of con-
ducting a library, described in it, were
regarded at the time of its appearance as
novel and admirable ; "Sensational Fic-
tion in Public Libraries," a paper read
July 1, 1879, at one ot tne sessions of the
meetings of the American Library Asso-
ciation, held in Boston that year (this
paper was also printed in pamphlet form
and widely distributed) ; "The Relations
of the Public Library to the Public
Schools," a paper read before the Amer-
ican Social Science Association, at Sara-
toga, in September, 1880 (this address
was printed in the form of a pamphlet,
and has been widely read and very influ-
ential in awakening an interest in work
similar to that described in it, in America
and abroad); papers and an address on
subjects similar to the one last men-
tioned, read or delivered at meetings of
the American Library Association in Cin-
cinnati and Buffalo, at Round Island, one
of the Thousand Isles in the St. Law-
rence river, in San Francisco, and at a
meeting of the Library Section of the Na-



130



ENCYCLOPEDIA OF BIOGRAPHY



tional Educational Association, at a meet-
ing in Washington. Other important
papers by Mr. Green on questions in
library economy are "The Library in its
relation to persons engaged in industrial
pursuits ;'' "Opening Libraries on Sun-
day ;" "The duties of trustees and their
relations to librarians ;" "Address as Pres-
ident of the American Library Associa-
tion ;" "Inter-library loans in reference
work ;" "Adaptation of libraries to consti-
tuencies," printed in vol. i. of the report
of the United States Commissioner of
Education for 1892-93; "How to encour-
age the foundation of libraries in small
towns ;" and three closely connected
papers entitled "Discrimination regard-
ing 'open shelves' in libraries," "What
classes of persons, if any, should have
access to the shelves in large libraries"
and "Lead us not into temptation." Ad-
dresses have been printed in pamphlet
form that were made at the opening of
library buildings in Newark, New Jersey,
Rindge, New Hampshire, North Brook-
field and Oxford, Massachusetts (the ad-
dress of welcome at the dedication in 1904
of the building of Clark University Li-
brary was printed in the "Publications"
of the library). He made remarks at the
Library School in Albany and in two or
three Massachusetts towns favoring the
purchase of books for grown-up immi-
grants in the languages to which they
have been accustomed. He wrote "A
History of the Public Libraries of
Worcester" for the "Worcester of 1898,"
and earlier for Hurd's "History of
Worcester County." He was chairman of
a committee to supervise the portion of
that history relating to the town and city
of Worcester.

The first account of the methods in-
troduced by Mr. Green in the conduct of
the Free Public Library in Worcester,
which was printed in form, was presented



as an appendix to his annual report as
librarian for the year 1874-75, copies of
which were sent to the Exposition in
Philadelphia in 1876. It was afterwards
reprinted at the request of the directors
of the Free Public Library for distribu-
tion. In the fourth report of the Free
Public Library Commission of Massachu-
setts, Mr. Green wrote on "Libraries and
Schools," in the fifth report, on "Loaning
reference books to small libraries," in the
seventh report, "On the use of libraries
by children," and, as stated above, in the
eighth report, "On the use of pictures in
libraries." He also wrote portions of the
reports of the Free Public Library of
Worcester, while a director, and has writ-
ten nearly the whole of the reports (ex-
cepting the presidents' reports) while
librarian. He wrote sketches of the lives
of such librarians as William Frederick
Poole and John Fiske for the American
Antiquarian Society's proceedings. The
more elaborate historical papers which
have been prepared by Mr. Green are :
"Gleanings from the Sources of the His-
tory of the Second Parish, Worcester,
Massachusetts," read at a meeting of the
American Antiquarian Society, held in
Boston, April 25, 1883, and "The Use of
the Voluntary System in the Maintenance
of Ministers in the Colonies of Plymouth
and Massachusetts Bay during the earlier
years of their existence," an essay which
formed the historical portion of the re-
port of the council of the American Anti-
quarian Society, which Mr. Green pre-
sented to that society at its meeting in
Boston, April 28, 1886. Both of these
papers have been printed in a form, sepa-
rate from the proceedings of the society
for which they were written. The latter
was highly praised by the distinguished
student of early ecclesiastical history in
Massachusetts, the late Rev. Dr. Henry
Martyn Dexter. Other interesting and



131



ENCYCLOPEDIA OF BIOGRAPHY



valuable historical papers by Mr. Green
are "Bathsheba Spooner," "The Scotch-
Irish in America," "The Craigie House,"
and "Some Roman Remains in Britain."
He also has written for the American An-
tiquarian Society, and the Colonial Soci-
ety, elaborate sketches of the lives of
Pliny Earle Chase, George Bancroft, Ed-
ward Griffin Porter, Andrew Haswell
Green and Benjamin Franklin Stevens.



DRAPER, George O.,

Manufacturer, Inventor.

George Otis Draper, of world-wide
fame as a manufacturer and inventor, was
born at Hopedale, Massachusetts, July 14,
1867, son of General William Franklin
and Lydia Warren (Joy) Draper, and a
descendant of James Draper, who came
from England about 1648 and served as
captain in King Phillip's war of 1675.
From him the descent runs through his
son James, who married Abigail Whit-
ney ; their son Abijah, who married Alice
Eaton; their son Ira, who married Abi-
gail Richards ; and their son George, who
married Hannah Thwing, and was the
grandfather of George O. Draper. Gen-
eral William F. Draper, father of George
Otis Draper, was founder of the mam-
moth industries which have made the
fam,ily name famous ; he was a man of
masterly ability, served through the Civil
War, attaining the rank of brevet briga-
dier-general, was a member of Congress,
and Ambassador to Italy.

George Otis Draper was educated at
public and private schools, and at the
Massachusetts Institute of Technology,
where he completed a four years' course
in 1887. Upon leaving that famous school
he began working through various ma-
chine shop grades, thus learning the prac-
tical application of mechanical theories.
In January, 1889, he bought a small in-



terest in the partnership of George Draper
& Sons, of which his father was presi-
dent; he later acquired a larger interest
by investment of earnings, and came to
be one of the largest stockholders in the
Draper Company, the largest manufac-
turers of cotton machinery in this coun-
try. He also became associated with the
management of numerous machine shops,
textile industries, quarries, mines, etc.
His success as a specialist in patent de-
velopment and other branches of manu-
facture has perhaps been unequalled at a
like age. During the various absences of
his father in Washington and in Europe,
the direction of the inventors and inven-
tions which have made the Draper Com-
pany famous came under his personal
charge, and at the father's death he suc-
ceeded to the management of the busi-
ness. He is now officially connected with
some twenty-five different corporations
engaged in textile manufacturing, quarry-
ing and mining. He has given much
attention to the development of inven-
tions in connection with these industries,
and has taken out more than a hundred
patents, including mechanical devices and
improved details of the Northrop loom,
the most wonderful labor-saving textile
invention since the cotton gin, and is re-
garded as an expert authority on all per-
taining to patents, especially in the line
of cotton manufacturing machinery.
Manufacturers in nine foreign countries
pay royalty for the use of Mr. Draper's
inventions, as they control a field of appli-
cation with the Northrop loom in which
foreign manufacturers take a special in-
terest. Mr. Draper is president of the
Draper Realty Company, the Draper-
Hansen Company, the Michener Stowage
Company, the Sapphire Record and Talk-
ing Machine Company, the Draper-
Latham Magneto Company, the Scholz
Fireproofing Company, the Farrington
132



ENCYCLOPEDIA OF BIOGRAPHY



Company, the Phillips Manufacturing
Company, and the Hilton Manufacturing
Company.

Air. Draper is cosmopolitan in every
sense, well read, widely traveled, exten-
sively acquainted, and constitutes a type
of American intelligence and energy both
in thought and in application. He is the
author of "Searching for Truth'' (1902);
"Still on the Search" (1904) ; "More"
(1908) ; and has written many technical
treatises on the manufacture and use of
cotton machinery. He is a member of the
National Association of Cotton Manufac-
turers ; a director of the American Civic
Association ; and a member of the Na-
tional Civic Federation. His clubs are
the Home Market of Boston ; the Metro-
politan of Washington ; and the Oakland
Country, Engineers', Technology, and
Theta Graduate, of New York. He mar-
ried, April 28, 1892, at Lexington, Ken-
tucky, Lily, daughter of Henry T. Dun-



GREEN, Samuel Abbott, A. M., M. D.,
LL. D.

Physician, Litterateur, Author.

Samuel Abbott Green, A. M., M. D.,
LL. D., who has gained national distinc-
tion as physician, academician, litterateur,
historian, antiquarian, and whose service
in the field as a surgeon during the Civil
War merited the military honors be-
stowed upon him, was born in Groton,
Massachusetts, March 16, 1830, son of
Dr. Joshua and Eliza (Lawrence) Green.

The Green family genealogy leads di-
rectly back to Percival and Helen Green,
who sailed from London for New Eng-
land in 1635, and in 1636 were living in
Cambridge, Massachusetts. Throughout
the generations between that of Percival
Green and the present, the family appears
to have been of high standing and intel-



lectual inclination ; many of its members
have been in the church ministry, and Har-
vard University has been the alma mater
of the main branch of the Green family for
more than three centuries, the Rev. Joseph
Green having graduated there in 1695,
Joshua Green in 1749, Joshua, his son, in
1784, and Dr. Joshua Green, father of
Samuel Abbott, in the class of 1815.

Samuel Abbott Green, after he had
passed through Groton Academy, now
Lawrence Academy, entered Harvard
College, from which he graduated A. B.
in the class of 1851. His study of medi-
cine was begun in Boston immediately
after graduation, under the preceptorship
of Dr. J. Mason Warren, and was con-
tinued by a course of lectures at Jeffer-
son Medical College in Philadelphia, and
at the Harvard Medical School, where he
graduated with the M. D. degree in 1854;
also receiving the A. M. degree from the
college. Further professional study in
Paris, Berlin and Vienna was followed in
due course of time by the practice of
medicine in Boston. During the years
1858 and 1861 he served as one of the dis-
trict physicians for the City Dispensary.
On May 19, 1858, he was appointed by
Governor Banks surgeon of the Second
Regiment Massachusetts Militia. Im-
mediately on the outbreak of the Rebel-
lion he was commissioned assistant sur-
geon of the First Massachusetts Regi-
ment, being the first medical officer of
the State to be mustered into the three
years' service. He was promoted to the
surgeoncy of the Twenty-fourth Massa-
chusetts Regiment on September 2, 1861 ;
to which regiment he remained attached
until November, 1864, during this period
however serving on the staffs of various
general officers. He had charge of the
hospital ship "Recruit," in General Burn-
side's expedition to North Carolina, and
later of the hospital steamer "Cosmopoli-



\?>3



ENCYCLOPEDIA OF BIOGRAPHY



tan," on the coast of South Carolina ; was fever. In 1896 the degree of Doctor of



chief medical officer at Morris Island dur-
ing the siege of Fort Wagner, in the
summer of 1863 ; was post surgeon at
St. Augustine and Jacksonville, Florida ;
thence he was sent toVirginia.and was with
the army at the capture of Bermuda Hun-
dred, in May, 1864; was acting staff sur-
• geon in Richmond for three months after
the surrender of the city; and in 1864
was brevetted lieutenant-colonel for "gal-
lant and distinguished service in the field
during the campaign of 1864." In Febru-
ary, 1862, Dr. Green established a ceme-
tery on Roanoke Island, one of the first
general burial places for Union soldiers
during the war.

After the war, Dr. Green was superin-
tendent of the Boston Dispensary from
1865 to 1872. In 1870 he was appointed
by Governor Claflin a member of the
commission chosen to care for disabled
soldiers. From 1871 to 1882 Dr. Green
was city physician of Boston ; in 1860-62
and 1866-72 he was a member of the
school board; from 1868 to 1878 was a
trustee of the Boston Public Library,
and during the last year of this period
served as acting librarian. In 1882 he
was mayor of the city of Boston, a post
of honor his election to which demon-
strated his popularity with the people as
well as with those of his own station.
In 1885-1886 he was a member of the
State Board of Health, Lunacy, and Char-
ity. Dr. Green was an overseer of Har-
vard University for thirty years, 1869-80
and 1882-1900; has been a trustee of the
Peabody Education Fund since 1883, and
secretary of the board ; and from 1885
to 1888 he was the acting general agent,
in the place of Dr. Curry, who had been
appointed Minister to Spain. In 1878 he
was chosen a member of the Board of
Experts authorized by Congress to inves-
tigate the causes and prevention of yellow



Laws was conferred upon him by the
University of Nashville. Dr. Green is
one of the vice-presidents of the Massa-
chusetts Historical Society, and for forty-
eight years since 1868 has been librarian
of the society. He has been president of
the Channing Home, a hospital for con-
sumptives ; is a fellow of the Massachu-
setts Medical Society, and a member of
the Boston Society for Medical Improve-
ment, of the American Philosophical So-
ciety of Philadelphia, and of the Ameri-
can Antiquarian Society. Other offices
of trust and honor have fallen to his
charge, including membership on the
board of trustees of Lawrence Academy
in Groton, his native town. His deep in-
terest in that historic place has been
shown in many ways, particularly in the
numerous historical essays and books he
has written bearing upon the history of
the town. His researches in all historical
matters have been so thorough and accu-
rate as to establish his writings perma-
nently an authority for future historians.
Among his contributions to the nation's
literature are : "My Campaigns in Ameri-
ca," translated from the French of Count
William de Deux Ponts (Boston, 1868) ;
"Account of Percival and Helen Green,
and of Some of Their Descendants"
(1876) ; "Epitaphs from the Old Burying
Ground in Groton" (1878) ; "The Early
Records of Groton, 1662-1707" (1880);
"History of Medicine in Massachusetts"
(Boston, 1881) ; "Groton During the In-
dian Wars" (1883) ; "Groton During the
Witchcraft Times" (1883) ; "The Boun-
dary Lines of Old Groton" (1885) ; "The
Geography of Groton", prepared for the
use of the Appalachian Mountain Club
(1886) ; "An Historical Sketch of the
Town of Groton" (Boston, 1891) ; "Gro-
ton Historical Series" (forty numbers,
1884-1891) ; "Groton During the Revolu-



134



ENCYCLOPEDIA OF BIOGRAPHY



tion" (1900) ; "Ten Fac-simile Reproduc-
tions Relating to Old Boston and Neigh-
borhood" (1901); "Three Military Dia-
ries Kept by Groton Soldiers in Different
Wars" (1901); "Ten Fac-simile Repro-
ductions Relating to New England"
(1902) ; "Ten Fac-simile Reproductions
Relating to Various Subjects" ; "Three
Historical Addresses at Groton" (1908) ;
"John Foster, the First Engraver, and the
First Boston Printer" (1909). In ad-
dition to the above-mentioned, Dr. Green
is the author of numerous other mono-
graphs and articles on historical and anti-
quarian subjects.

The Venezuelan Order "Bust of Boli-
var" was bestowed upon Dr. Green by the
President of Venezuela in recognition of
distinguished service rendered to that
nation by the eminent physician.



WRIGHT, Edgar Francis,
Actire Citizen.

Several centuries ago when men, in
order to distinguish themselves more
readily, took surnames, many assumed the
name of the art or craft at which they
worked. "Wright" originally denoted a
workman, an artificer, a maker, and was
a designation usually applied to those
who wrought in wood, as smith was ap-
plied to those who worked in metal. It
is highly probable that almost every per-
son bearing the name Wright as his
original surname is descended from an
English ancestor, who was an artificer.
As the name could have been and was
assumed by any artificer who chose to do
so, it follows that there may be numer-
ous families whose origin is not identical.
Hence in this country there are several
lines of this name not of the same descent.
The name appears early in the Colonial
records, and has been borne by many
distinguished citizens, both in Colonial
and recent times.



(I) John Wright was born in England
in 1601, and died in YVoburn, Massachu-
setts, June 21, 1688, aged eighty-seven.
He was one of the first settlers of Wo-
burn, and a subscriber to the compact of
1640. He was a selectman except two
years, from 1645 to 1664, a representative
in 1648, and a deacon of the First Church
of Woburn. His wife Priscilla died April
10, 1687. Their sons were John and Jo-
seph, probably born in England, not
recorded in Woburn. Three daughters
are recorded there : Ruth, born April 23,
1646; Deborah, January 21, 1649; Sarah,
February 16, 1653.

(II) John (2) Wright, son of John (1)
and Priscilla Wright, was born in 1630,
and died April 30, 1714, in Woburn. He
lived a few years in Chelmsford, bat re-
turned to Woburn, where he and his
brother, Joseph, were presented to the
grand jury for neglect of the chur< h ordi-
nance of infant baptism, and in various
ways giving encouragement to the Bap-
tists. He married, May 10, 1661, Abigail
Warren, born October 27, 1640, in Wey-
mouth, daughter of Arthur Warren, died
April 6, 1726, in Woburn. Children:
John, mentioned below ; Joseph, born Oc-
tober 15, 1663; Ebenezer, Noveinl er 11,
1665; Jacob, July 2, 1667; Abigail, June
23, 1668; Priscilla, December 3, 1671 ;
Josiah, March 10, 1674; daughter (name
torn from records), November 21, 1678;
Samuel, July 11, 1683; Lydia, November
23, 1686; all born in Chelmsford.

(III) John (3) Wright, eldest child of
John (2) and Abigail (Warren) Wright,
was born June 10, 1662, in Chelmsford,
and died in that town, October 14. 1730.
He married there (first) April 13, 1692,
Marie (Mary) Stephens, born about 1672,
daughter of John and Elizabeth (Hil-

dreth) Stephens, of Chelmsford, died there
October 29, 1701. He married (second)
Hannah Fletcher, born September 14,

135



ENCYCLOPEDIA OF BIOGRAPHY



1666, in Chelmsford, daughter of Samuel
and Margaret (Hailstoane) Fletcher, of
that part of Chelmsford now Westford.
Children of first marriage : John, born
January 24, 1693, died three months old;
Ebenezer, December 17, 1693 ; Edward,
May 13, 1695 ; Jacob, mentioned below ;
Henry, January 10, 1700; John and Mary
(twins, former died December 2, 1701,
latter October 29, 1701). Child of second
marriage : Thomas, born September 27,
1707, recorded in Chelmsford. There were
two other children of the second wife :
Hannah and Simeon, not in birth records
of Chelmsford, probably born in West-
ford.

(IV) Jacob Wright, fourth son of John
(3) and Mary (Stephens) Wright, was
born January 21, 1698, in Chelmsford, and
settled in the north part of that town.
No record of his marriage appears. By
his wife Abigail the following children are
recorded in Westford: Jacob, born April
2, 1719, died young; Sarah, 1721 ; John,
1723; Ephraim, February 7, 1726; Mary,
February 4, 1728; Sarah, 1730; Jacob,
1732; Pelatiah, 1734; Joseph, mentioned
below; Benjamin, 1738, died 1741.

(V) Joseph Wright, sixth son of Jacob
and Abigail Wright, was born 1736, in
Westford. He married (first) Dorothy
Heald, born 1732, in Westford, daughter
of Thomas and Sarah (Butterfield) Heald.
He married (second) in 1774, Hannah
Kemp, born April 12, 1748, in Billerica,
Massachusetts, daughter of Jasori and
Hannah Kemp. Children of first mar-
riage: Joseph, born 1758, died at White
Plains while a soldier of the Revolution,
in 1777; Dorothy, 1761 ; Reuben, 1763;
Asa, mentioned below ; Abel, 1770; Phebe,
1773. Children of second marriage:
Hannah, born 1776; Joseph, 1778; Ruth,
1781 ; Joel, 1783; Jacob, 1786.

(VI) Asa Wright, third son of Joseph



and Dorothy (Heald) Wright, was born
1767, in' Westford, where he resided. He
married, in 1787, Betsey Patch, born
1766, in Westford, daughter of Isaac and
Elizabeth Patch, and granddaughter of
Isaac and Joanna (Butterfield) Patch, of
Groton, Massachusetts. Children : Bet-
sey, born 1787; Joseph, mentioned be-
low; Huldah, 1791 ; Salathiel, 1794;
Rhoda, 1796; Asa, 1798; Sophia, 1802.

(VII) Joseph (2) Wright, eldest son of
Asa and Betsey (Patch) Wright, was
born 1789, in Westford, and settled in
Nashua, New Hampshire, with his wife
Mary.

(VIII) Joseph (3) Wright, son of Jo-
seph (2) and Mary Wright, was born
1815, in Nashua, where he died January
20, 1892. He married Susan Blanchard,
born 1824, in Nashua, died April 24, 1884,
daughter of Jacob Blanchard. Children :
Charles, died young; Clarissa Emeline ;
Jonathan, enlisted in the War of the Re-
bellion, at Nashua, November 29, 1861, in
Company C, Eighth New Hampshire
Regiment, and was killed at Port Hud-
son, Louisiana, January 14, 1863; Fri-
land ; Edward ; John ; Harriet ; Elizabeth ;
Abigail ; Sophronia ; Henry George, found
dead near the Acton railroad tracks,
thought to have been murdered; Ella
Frances, married Joseph Bowers, of Lynn,
Massachusetts ; Georgianna, wife of John
Rolo, of Nashua.

(IX) John Wright, fifth son of Joseph
(3) and Susan (Blanchard) Wright, was
born January 12, 1847, in Nashua, where
he grew up, receiving his education in the
public schools. He early learned the
cooper's trade, at which he was occupied
in Nashua and Brookline, New Hamp-
shire. He enlisted as a soldier, August



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