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city of Salem. In 1873, after nearly
twenty years of an active and leading
practice at the Essex county bar although
a Democrat, Mr. Endicott was appointed
by a Republican Governor, William B.
Washburn, as Associate Justice of the
Supreme Judicial Court of Massachusetts,
which position he held until the autumn
of 1882, when he resigned, and then spent
a year or more in Europe. In 1884 he
was the Democratic candidate for Gov-
ernor of Massachusetts, and was defeated.
In 1885 he became Secretary of War of
the United States in President Cleveland's
administration, and held office through-
out Mr. Cleveland's term. Mr. Endicott
was president of the Peabody Academy of
Science in Salem, which position he held
from 1868, and was a member of the
corporation of Harvard, and one of the
trustees of the Peabody Education Fund.
He was married, December 13, 1859, to
Ellen, daughter of the late George Pea-
body, of Salem, and had a son and daugh-
ter. He died May 6, 1900.



CLARKE, Thomas C,

Civil Engineer.

Thomas Curtis Clarke was born at
Newton, Massachusetts, September 6,
1827, son of Samuel and Rebecca Parker
(Hull) Clarke, a brother of Rev. James
Freeman Clarke, of Boston, Massachu-
setts, and sixth in direct descent from
Thomas Clarke, mate of the "Mayflower,"
born in 1599.

He was educated at the Boston Latin



School and at Harvard College, from
which he was graduated in 1848, and
being the class poet. He studied hydraulic
engineering under George R. Baldwin, of
Woburn; architecture under Edward
Cabot, of Boston ; and railroad engineer-
ing under Captain John Childe, of the
United States Engineers. He was for
twelve years engaged in a variety of
railroad work — in Alabama, on the
Mobile & Ohio railroad; in Canada, as a
resident engineer of the Great Western
railway; in Hamilton, on the Port Hope
& Peterboro railway; on the government
survey of the Ottawa river, and the erec-
tion of government buildings in Ottawa.
He practiced as civil engineer for fifty
years, his specialty being bridge engineer-
ing. One of his earliest bridges was that
over the Mississippi river at Quincy, Illi-
nois, built in fifteen months for the Bur-
lington railroad. His strong point at this
time was foundation and mason work, and
he was one of the first American engi-
neers to use concrete on a large scale.
After the completion of the Quincy bridge
he formed the firm of Clarke, Reeves &
Company, of Philadelphia, Pennsylvania,
which became one of the leading bridge
concerns in the United States, having con-
structed over one hundred miles of
bridges and viaducts, among which the
most noted are the Girard avenue bridge
of Philadelphia, and the great Kinzua
viaduct on the Erie railway in Pennsyl-
vania, 310 feet high. He was one of the
original members of the Union Bridge
Company, which in a short time after its
formation in 1884 became one of the larg-
est bridge building concerns in the world.
In 1888 he built the Poughkeepsie bridge
over the Hudson river, and in 1890 the
famous Hawkesbury bridge in New South
Wales, Australia, the first bridge that
was built abroad by Americans. After
his withdrawal from the Union Bridge
Company he continued to practice as con-



ENCYCLOPEDIA OF BIOGRAPHY



suiting and designing engineer, being
employed by the city of New York on the
Third avenue and Willis avenue bridges
over the Harlem river. He was a member
of the British Institution of Civil Engi-
neers, from which he received the Tel-
ford medal and premium ; the American
Society of Civil Engineers, of which he
was president in 1896-97; the Century
Association, and the American Philo-
sophical Society. Mr. Clarke's profes-
sional work was marked by breadth and
solidity of learning, fine intelligence, and
the most scrupulous care and fidelity. His
capacity for sustained application was
extraordinary, and was maintained to the
end of his life.

He was married, May 7, 1857, to Susan
H., daughter of John D. Smith, of Port
Hope, Canada, and had three sons and
three daughters. He died in New York
City, June 15, 1901.



HITCHCOCK, Edward,

Educator.

Edward Hitchcock was born in Am-
herst, Massachusetts, May 23, 1828, son
of the Rev. Edward and Orra (White)
Hitchcock, and grandson of Justin and
Mercy (Hoyt) Hitchcock and of Jarib
White, of Amherst.

He was prepared for college at Willis-
ton Seminary, and was graduated from
Amherst College in 1849, ar, d from the
Harvard Medical School in 1853. He was
teacher of chemistry and natural history
in Williston Seminary, 1853-61, and Pro-
fessor of Hygiene and Physical Education
at Amherst from 1861 until his death.
He aided his father in the State geological
survey of Vermont in 1861, and in the
preparation of the report. He was elected
a trustee of Mount Holyoke College and
of Clark Institute for the Blind, and was
president of the American Association for
the Advancement of Physical Culture, be-
MASS-Vol ni-2 ]



sides holding several offices in medical
societies. He was a member of the State
Board of Health, Lunacy and Charity
from 1879 until his death. He received
the honorary degree of LL. D. from Am-
herst in 1899. He is the principal author
of "Anatomy and Physiology" (1852),
and the author of numerous pamphlets on
anthropometry and physical culture.

He was married, in 1854, to Mary,
daughter of David Judson, of Bridgeport,
Connecticut. He died February 15, 1911.



HOSMER, Harriet G.,

Accomplished Sculptor.

Harriet Goodhue Hosmer, the fore-
most woman sculptor of her day, was
born at Watertown, Massachusetts, Octo-
ber 9, 1830, daughter of Dr. Hiram and
Sarah Watson (Grant) Hosmer, and
granddaughter of Governor Grant, of
Walpole, New Hampshire.

Delicate in her childhood, she was early
encouraged in a course of physical train-
ing, and she became an expert in rowing,
skating and riding. She received her
literary education at Lenox, Massachu-
setts, where she carried out an early pro-
pensity to model in clay, and studied art
under Stevenson. To further qualify her-
self for the profession she had chosen, she
took a course of anatomical instruction
in the St. Louis (Missouri) Medical Col-
lege. She travelled alone through the far
west, visiting the Dakota Indians and
ascending a steep cliff on the Mississippi
river, which was thereafter called "Mount
Hosmer," and now forms a part of the
town of Lansing, Iowa. On returning to
the east she took lessons in modelling in
Boston, and practiced the art at home.
She made a reduced copy of Canova's
"Napoleon," and followed it with "Hes-
per," an ideal head, exhibited in Boston
in 1852. With her father she visited
Rome in November, 1852, and studied



ENCYCLOPEDIA OF BIOGRAPHY



and worked in the studio of John Gibson,
the English sculptor. Here she copied
from the antique, and executed ideal
busts of "Daphne" and "Medusa," which
were well received by art critics. In 1855
she completed "Oenone," her first life-
size figure. Her statue of "Puck," mod-
elled in the summer of 1855, established
her reputation at home, and she was
favored with orders for at least thirty
copies. She followed it with "Will-o-the-
Wisp," a companion figure. She com-
pleted "Beatrice Cenci," a reclining
figure, for the St. Louis Public Library in

1857, and a monument placed in the
church of San Andrea del Frate, Rome, in

1858. She completed her "Zenobia," a
superb colossal statue in 1859, after two
years of assiduous labor. This was suc-
ceeded by her statue of Senator Thomas
H. Benton, that was cast in bronze, and
placed in Lafayette Park, St. Louis, Mis-
souri. Her "Sleeping Fawn" was ex-
hibited at Dublin, Ireland, in 1865, and at
Paris in 1867, and was eight times
repeated. She also executed a companion
piece, the "Waking Fawn." She executed
two fountains, a Siren and Cupids, which
were purchased by Earl Brownlow, of
England ; and twin fountains of a Triton
and Mermaid's cradle for Louisa, Lady
Ashburton ; two statues for the Prince of
Wales ; a statue of the Queen of Naples
as the "Heroine of Gaeta ;" a monument
to Abraham Lincoln, and a gateway to an
art gallery in England. She had a faculty
for designing and constructing machinery,
and devised the expedient of coating a
rough plaster cast with wax and working
out the finer details in that substance.
She did all her work in Rome. In 1894
she presented to the Art Museum of
Chicago, Illinois, a cast of the clasped
hands of Robert and Elizabeth Barrett
Browning, made in 1853, and for which
she had refused $5,000 in England. Her
home was in Cambridge, Massachusetts.
She died February 21, 1908.



CHAMBERLAIN, Daniel H.,

Lawyer, Jurist, Litterateur.

Daniel Henry Chamberlain, jurist, and
forty-seventh Governor of South Caro-
lina (1874-76), was born in West Brook-
field, Worcester county, Massachusetts,
June 23, 1835, son of Eli and Achsah
(Forbes) Chamberlain, and descendant of
William Chamberlain, who settled in
Billerica, Massachusetts, in 1765.

His early life was passed in work on
his father's farm and in attendance in the
common schools of his native town. In
1849-50 he spent a few months at the
Amherst (Massachusetts) Academy, and
in 1854 passed part of a year at Phillips
Academy, Andover, Massachusetts, teach-
ing school each winter during 1852-56.
He then entered the high school in Wor-
cester, Massachusetts, where he com-
pleted his preparation for college ; but
being without sufficient means to go on,
he remained a year as teacher in the same
school, and in 1859 entered Yale College,
from which he was graduated three years
later with the highest honors in oratory
and English composition. Upon the com-
pletion of his college course he entered the
Harvard Law School, but remained there
only until the fall of 1863, when he could
no longer resist the duty of entering the
army. He received a commission as lieu-
tenant in the Fifth Massachusetts Cavalry
Regiment, a regiment of colored volun-
teers, and served until the close of the
Civil War.

After the war he located in South Caro-
lina, and in the fall of 1867 was chosen a
member of the constitutional convention
called under the Reconstruction Acts, and
in January, 1868, took his seat in that
body, and served upon its judiciary com-
mittee and as an influential member in all
its deliberations. He so acquitted himself
in these duties that all the friends of the
new constitution desired him to be one of
the State officers who were to establish in



18



ENCYCLOPEDIA OF BIOGRAPHY



practical operation the new organization
of government. The office of Attorney-
General being in the line of his profes-
sion, was the only one he would consent
to take, and to this he was chosen, holding
it for four years continuously. He was
elected Governor of South Carolina in
1874, and served until April, 1877. In the
election of 1876, although he had been
ardently supported by the Democratic
party of the State from the moment of his
advent as Governor, the same party bit-
terly and violently opposed his reelection,
on the alleged ground of his obnoxious
associates and supporters. The result of
the election was contested, and Governor
Chamberlain held his office until a month
after the inauguration of President Hayes,
whereupon, after the removal of the
troops which had been stationed at Co-
lumbia for the support of the Governor,
he withdrew from the office.

Removing to New York City, Governor
Chamberlain resumed the practice of his
profession. In 1899, on the foundation of
the Law School of Cornell University, he
became non-resident Professor of Amer-
ican Constitutional Law. He was a fre-
quent contributor to leading periodicals,
such as the "North American Review,"
"Harvard Law Review," "Yale Law
Journal," "New Englander," "Yale Re-
view," "American Law Review," and
"American Historical Review." His mis-
cellaneous writings and addresses include
"Relation of Federal and State Judiciary,"
"Constitutional History as Seen in Amer-
ican Law," "Tariff Aspects with Some
Special Reference to Wages," "Limita-
tions of Freedom," "Imperialism," and
many more on similar topics. He received
the degree of LL. D. from Harvard Col-
lege in 1864; that of M. A. from Yale Col-
lege in 1867 ; and that of LL. D. from the
University of South Carolina in 1872.
Mr. Chamberlain was a member of the
American Social Science Association, the



National Civil Service League, the Amer-
ican Archaeological Institute, and of
several other scientific and social asso-
ciations.

He was married at Washington, Dis-
trict of Columbia, December 16, 1869, to
Alice, daughter of George W. Ingersoll,
of Bangor, Maine. He died April 13,
1907.



SCUDDER, Samuel H. (

Scientist, Author.

Samuel Hubbard Scudder, a pupil of
Louis Agassiz and an accomplished
naturalist, was born in Boston, Massa-
chusetts, April 13, 1837, son of Charles
and Sarah Lathrop (Coit) Scudder, and
a brother of the Rev. David Coit Scudder,
a Congregational minister who died a
missionary in India, and of Horace Elisha
Scudder, a well-known author, and one of
the editors of the "Atlantic Monthly.'

He was graduated from Williams Col-
lege in 1857, and from the Lawrence
Scientific School of Harvard College in
1862. He was strongly attracted to the
work done in the Museum of Comparative
Zoology, and became an assistant to Louis
Agassiz, remaining in that position until
1864. During the years from 1862 to
1870 he was also secretary of the Boston
Society of Natural History, its custodian
from 1864 to 1870, and its president from
1880 to 1887. In 1879 he was appointed
assistant librarian of Harvard College,
remaining until 1885. The following year
he became paleonotologist of the United
States Geological Survey in the division
of fossil insects. He was a member of
many scientific societies ; was chairman
of the section on natural history of the
American Association for the Advance-
ment of Science in 1874, and elected
general secretary of the association in
1875 i accepted the office of librarian of
the American Academy of Arts and



19



ENCYCLOPEDIA OF BIOGRAPHY



Sciences in 1877, remaining until 1885;
and in 1877 was elected a member
of the National Academy of Sciences.
Mr. Scudder made a specialty of ento-
mology, and as an authority on butter-
flies and fossil insects was without a
superior, the insects of New Hampshire
were reported upon by him officially. The
specimens collected by the Yellowstone
expedition in 1873 was submitted to him.
He also examined and reported on the
material gathered by the National Geo-
logical Survey made by Lieutenant
Wheeler and Dr. Ferdinand V. Hayden,
and likewise that of the British North
American Boundary Commission, and the
Canadian Geological Survey. During 1883-
85 Mr. Scudder was editor of "Science,"
published in Cambridge, under the shadow
of Harvard University. His reports on var-
ious subjects would easily form a library
by themselves as indicated by his bibli-
ography, collected by George Dimmock,
which down to 1880 included more than
three hundred titles. A list of his most
important works embraces : "Catalogue
of the Orthoptera of North America"
(1868); "Entomological Correspondence
of Thaddeus William Harris" (Boston,
1869) ; "Fossil Butterflies" (Salem, 1875) ;
"Catalogue of Scientific Serials of all
Countries, including the Transactions of
Learned Societies in the Natural Physical,
and Mathematical Sciences, 1633-1876"
(Cambridge, 1879) ; "Butterflies ; Their
Structure, Changes, and Life Histories"
(New York, 1882) ; "Nomenclator Zoolo-
gicus: An Alphabetical List of all Generic
Names that have been employed by
Naturalists for Recent and Fossil
Animals" (Washington, 1882) ; "Syste-
matic Review of Our Present Knowledge
of Fossil Insects" (1886) ; the "Winnipeg
Country ; or, Roughing it with an Eclipse
Party, by a Rochester Fellow" (Boston,
1886) ; "The Fossil Insects of North
America, with Notes on Some European



Species" (1890), in two large quarto
volumes with sixty-three plates. The
edition was limited to one hundred copies,
and judged to be the most extensive work
on fossil insects ever published.

He married Jeannie Blatchford, of
Cambridge, Massachusetts. He died May
11, 1911.



CAPEN, Elmer H.,

Clergyman, Educator.

Elmer Hewitt Capen was born in
Stoughton, Massachusetts, April 5, 1838,
son of Samuel and Almira (Paul) Capen.
In 1856 he entered Tufts College, and
while still an undergraduate he was elect-
ed from his native town to the Massachu-
setts Legislature, where he served during
1859-60, being by some years the young-
est representative in the house. He was
graduated with his class from Tufts Col-
lege in i860, studied law, was admitted
to the bar in 1864, and practiced one year.
He then took up theological studies, and
in 1865 was ordained a minister in the
Independent Christian Church of Glou-
cester, Massachusetts, and subsequently
occupied pulpits in St. Paul, Minnesota,
and in Providence, Rhode Island.

In 1875 he resigned pastoral work to
accept the presidency of Tufts College.
Under his administration the financial
resources of the institution were greatly
augmented, the number of instructors
increased more than fivefold, the number
of buildings more than threefold, and
many beneficial changes were introduced.
In addition to the work of administration,
he conducted the department of Political
Science, and supplied the college pulpit.
He was president of the New England
commission on college admission exami-
nations from its establishment in 1885.
He was for twenty years a trustee of the
Universalist General Convention, and
from 1888 a member of the Massachusetts



ENCYCLOPEDIA OF BIOGRAPHY



State Board of Education. He was presi-
dent of the Citizens' Law and Order
League, and in 1888 was a delegate to
the Republican National Convention.
He contributed to magazines, encyclo-
pedias and histories, and wrote the article
on the "Atonement," in the Universalist
section of the Columbian Congress of
Religions. He delivered the oration at
the unveiling of the monument in Boston,
Massachusetts, to John B. O'Reilly, June
20, 1896. Mr. Capen died in Medford,
Massachusetts, March 22, 1905.



HUDSON, John E.,

Lawyer, Scientist.

John Elbridge Hudson was born in
Lynn, Massachusetts, August 3, 1839, son
of John and Elizabeth C. (Hilliard)
Hudson, and a descendant of Thomas
Hudson, who came from England to the
Massachusetts Bay Colony about 1630.
Upon the farm of Thomas Hudson, in
Saugus, Massachusetts, the first iron
works in the United States were estab-
lished in 1642. His maternal great-grand-
father, the Rev. Samuel Hilliard, was a
Universalist minister, and was a soldier
of the Revolution, serving at Bunker Hill
and Bennington. His other maternal
great-grandfather, the Rev. Dr. Hall, a
Congregationalist minister at Sutton for
sixty years, married Elizabeth Prescott,
daughter of John and Elizabeth Prescott,
of Concord, Massachusetts.

John Elbridge Hudson was graduated
from Harvard College, Bachelor of Arts,
in 1862 (valedictorian), and was tutor in
Greek at Harvard, 1862-65. He took the
Bachelor of Laws degree in 1865, and
was admitted to the bar in 1866, and
entered the law office of Chandler, Shat-
tuck & Thayer, of Boston. In 1870 he
became a partner in the firm, under the
style of Chandler, Thayer & Hudson,
afterward Chandler, Ware & Hudson.



In 1878 the firm dissolved, and he went
into practice for himself. In 1880 he be-
came office counsel for the American Bell
Telephone Company in Boston ; on June
25, 1885, he was chosen solicitor and gen-
eral manager; on November 29, 1886, he
was chosen director of the company and
made its vice-president, and on April 1,
1889, he was chosen its president, and
held this office until his death. He was
also president of the American Telephone
and Telegraph Company. He was a fel-
low of the American Academy of Arts
and Sciences, and a member of the Amer-
ican Antiquarian Society, the corpora-
tion of the Massachusetts Institute of
Technology, the British Association for
the Advancement of Science, the New
England Historic-Genealogical Society,
of which he was vice-president ; the Colo-
nial Society of Massachusetts, the Bos-
tonian Society, the Lynn Historical Soci-
ety, the American Institute of Electrical
Engineers, the Bar Association of the
City of Boston, and the Virginia His-
torical Society.

Mr. Hudson contributed to Jaw re-
views, and with George Fred Williams,
edited volume 10 of the "United States
Digest" (1879). The analysis of the law
as first made in this volume was followed
in a large number of the digests and
indexes in general use throughout the
United States, and became the basis of
the classification adopted for the Century
edition of the "American Digest."

He was married, August 23, 1871, to
Eunice W., daughter of Wells and Eliza-
beth (Pickering) Healey, of Hampton
Falls, New Hampshire. He died at Bev-
erly, Massachusetts, October 1, 1900.



EMMONS, Samuel F.,

Geologist.

Samuel Franklin Emmons, geologist,
was born in Boston, Massachusetts,
March 29, 1841, son of Nathaniel H. and



ENCYCLOPEDIA OF BIOGRAPHY



Elizabeth (Wales) Emmons, and a de-
scendant of Thomas Emmons, of New-
port, Rhode Island, 1638, and Boston,
Massachusetts, 1648.

He prepared for college at the private
Latin school of Epes S. Dixwell, in Bos-
ton, Massachusetts, then entering Har-
vard College, from which he was gradu-
ated in 1861. In 1861-66 he studied min-
ing engineering and geology at the ficole
Imperiale des Mines at Paris, and at the
Bergakademie, Freiberg, Saxony, and
subsequently visited various mining dis-
tricts of France, Germany and Italy. In
1867-77 ne was attached as geologist to
the United States geological exploration
of the fortieth parallel under the direc-
tion of Clarence King. This was de-
signed to report upon the mineral re-
sources of the region to be opened up by
the transcontinental railways then in
course of construction. A belt of coun-
try over one hundred miles wide, and
always including the railway, extending
across the Cordilleran system from Cali-
fornia to Nebraska, a distance of nearly
one thousand miles was mapped topo-
graphically and geologically, the results
being published in several quarto vol-
umes and two large atlases. In the
course of the work, Mr. Emmons was
instrumental in exposing the diamond
swindle of 1872, the "mine" being located
within the area surveyed, near the junc-
tion of the boundary lines of Utah, Wyo-
ming and Colorado. He was engaged in
cattle ranching in Wyoming in 1877-79,
and in the latter part of the latter year
became geologist for the newly organ-
ized United States Geological Survey,
which later became a bureau of the In-
terior Department. In this position,
which he held until his death, he gave
special attention to the economic side of
his profession, or the application of geo-



logical methods to the development of
ore deposits. He published geological
maps and reports on the mining districts
of Leadville, Ten Mile, Silver Cliff, Gun-
nison county and the Denver basin in
Colorado; of Butte, Montana, and super-
vised similar reports on Aspen, Colo-
rado; Mercur and Tintic, in Utah, and
the Black Hills, in South Dakota; and
contributed many papers to scientific
journals on the theory of ore deposition,
the precious metal industry, etc. He was
a member of the National Academy of
Sciences, and treasurer from 1902 ; the
Geological Society of America, and presi-
dent in 1903; the International Congress
of Geologists, and vice-president ; asso-
ciate fellow of the American Academy of
Arts and Sciences ; fellow of the London
Geological Society ; member of the Amer-
ican Institute of Mining Engineers, and
vice-president ; the Colorado Academy of
Sciences; and honorary member of the
American Philosophical Society, and the
Helvetique des Science Naturelles. He
was general secretary of the Fifth Inter-
national Congress of Geologists, which
met in Washington, D. C, in 1891. He
was author of the following works : "De-
scriptive Geology of the Fortieth Parallel
Region" (with Arnold Hague) ; "Statis-
tics and Technology of the Precious
Metals" (with George F. Becker) ; "Ge-
ology and Mining Industry of Leadville,
Colorado;" "Geological Guide Book of
the Rocky Mountains ;" "Geology of
Lower California;" "Geological Distribu-
tion of the Useful Metals in the United
States ;" "Progress of the Precious Metal
Industry in the United States ;" "Geology
of the Denver Basin in Colorado;" "Ge-



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