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ology of Government Explorations;"
"Theories of One Deposition, Histori-
cally Considered ;" "Biography of Clar-
ence King."



ENCYCLOPEDIA OF BIOGRAPHY



Mr. Emmons was twice married ; his
first wife was Weltha A. Steeves, who
died in 1888; his second, Sophie Dallas
Markoe, who died in 1896. He died
March 28, 191 1.



CAPEN, Samuel B.,

Man of Affairs, Philanthropist.

Samuel Billings Capen was born in Bos-
ton, Massachusetts, December 12, 1842,
son of Samuel Childs and Ann (Billings)
Capen. His earliest American ancestor,
Bernard Capen, was a settler at Dorches-
ter, Massachusetts, as early as 1630, and
was the progenitor of all of this name in
New England. Captain John Capen
(1612-92), son of Samuel Childs Capen,
was for over fifty years an officer in the
colonial militia, was a selectman of the
town, representative in the General
Court, town clerk, and for thirty-three
years deacon of the church in Dorches-
ter. The line runs through his son Pre-
served, his son John, his son Christopher,
and his son Samuel, the father of Samuel
Childs.

Samuel Billings Capen was educated
in the old Quincy Grammar School and
the English High School of Boston. In
1858 he entered the employ of Went-
worth & Bright, carpet dealers, and in
1864 he was admitted to partnership.
The name of the firm has been succes-
sively William E. Bright & Company,
William E. Bright & Capen, and Torrey,
Bright & Capen, and in 1895 the busi-
ness was incorporated as the Torrey,
Bright & Capen Company. Mr. Capen
was long identified with the educational
and political life of Boston. He served
as a member of the school committee
(1889-93) ; was president of the Boston
Municipal League, which he assisted in
organizing in 1894; and second vice-
president of the National Municipal
League, organized in 1894. He was an



active worker in church and charitable
causes, and for more than thirty years
taught a young men's Bible class in the
Central Congregational Church at Jama-
ica Plain. He was chairman of the
Eighth International Sunday School Con-
vention held in Boston in June, 1896, and
in October, 1899, he was elected presi-
dent of the American Board of Commis-
sioners for Foreign Missions. He was
a member of the Boston Indian Citizen-
ship Committee for over twelve years;
president of the Congregational Sunday
School Publishing Society (1882-99) ;
chairman of the finance committee of the
Massachusetts Home Missionary Soci-
ety, and a director of the American Con-
gregational Association ; member of the
Pilgrim Association, of which he was
president in 1894; the Boston Chamber
of Commerce, and the Congregational
Club, of which he was president in 1882.
He received the degree of Master of Arts
from Dartmouth College in 1893, and
that of Doctor of Laws from Oberlin and
Middlebury colleges in 1900.

He was married, December 8, 1869, to
Helen Maria, daughter of Dr. John W.
Warren, of Boston, and had one son and
one daughter. He died January 29, 1914.



PAYNE, Henry Clay,

Man of Affairs, Cabinet Official.

Henry Clay Payne was born at Ash-
field, Massachusetts, November 23, 1843,
son of Orrin Pierre and Eliza Etta
(Ames) Payne. His ancestors were
among the earliest settlers of Braintree,
Massachusetts, and several of them
served in the Revolution.

He was educated at Shelburne Falls,
Massachusetts, receiving excellent aca-
demic training. In 1863 he volunteered
for service in the Union army, but was
rejected for physical disability. He then
went to Milwaukee, Wisconsin, and en-



ENCYCLOPEDIA OF BIOGRAPHY



tered the wholesale dry goods house of
Sherwin, Nowell & Pratt. About five
years later the competition of greater
aggregations of capital led him to take
up the insurance business, in which he
was very successful. In 1875 ne was
appointed postmaster of Milwaukee, and
held the office until 1885. He proved his
great efficiency, and made the office one
of the models in the entire service, and
accomplished more than any other per-
son in the development and perfecting
of the administration of the money-order
departments, especially with relation to
the service with foreign countries. He
had entered actively into politics at an
early age, and came to be known as a
masterly spirit. He was for years secre-
tary or chairman of the Wisconsin Re-
publican State Central Committee ; was
for a quarter of a century a member of
the Republican National Committee
(1880-1904), and was for eight years
chairman of the executive committee;
four years vice-president of the National
Committee and, after the death of Sena-
tor Hanna, its chairman. His wide
knowledge of the grafters and heelers of
his party and of their methods enabled
him to check the disbursement of money
for futile and illegitimate purposes.
Upon leaving the Milwaukee post office,
he embarked actively in timber land, tele-
phone, townsite, street railway, electric
and gas light, municipal heating, bank-
ing, and other business enterprises, in all
of which he was uniformly successful.
He was appointed one of the three re-
ceivers of the Northern Pacific railway
in 1893, and for nearly three years was
engaged actively in administering its
affairs, passing through the trying litiga-
tion and vituperation that grew out of
the injunction issued by Judge Jenkins
to prevent the employees from striking.
In 1900 he advocated the adoption of a



plan to base representation in Republican
national conventions upon the Repub-
lican vote cast for President, instead of
upon population, but the clamor which
arose in the South against it led him to
abandon the effort to carry it into prac-
tice. He at first favored the nomination
of Elihu Root for Vice-President on the
ticket with McKinley in 1900, but as Mr.
Root thought that he ought to remain in
the cabinet as Secretary of War, he
turned his attention to Theodore Roose-
velt, then Governor of New York. Mr.
Roosevelt wrote to Mr. Payne that he
preferred the office of Governor to that
of Vice-President and Mr. Payne made
two special journeys to Albany for the
purpose of bringing about a change of
mind. When he found that he could not
convert Mr. Roosevelt, he set about
solidifying the western delegations in be-
half of his plan, feeling confident that
nominating him for Vice-President would
strengthen the national ticket in the west
and make New York safely Republican.
Mr. Roosevelt became President in Sep-
tember, 1901, and Charles Emory Smith
having resigned the portfolio of Post-
master-General, Mr. Payne was selected
to fill the vacancy. At this time Mr.
Payne was not in good health. He had
returned shortly before from an extended
cruise in the Mediterranean only slightly
improved ; but as he loved the postal ad-
ministration, he accepted the appoint-
ment. He took keen delight in quietly
bringing about administrative reforms
that gave better service to the public and
lighter burdens to employees and tax-
payers. He concluded parcels post con-
ventions with Japan, Germany, and sev-
eral other nations ; organized the postal
service into fifteen "battalions," and the
rural free delivery into eight "battalions,"
each with its own head ; gave to litera-
ture for the blind, free transmission



24



ENCYCLOPEDIA OF BIOGRAPHY



through the mails ; and made numerous
improvements in the administration of
city post offices. He undertook to place
letter boxes on the street cars of the en-
tire country, but the labor unions pro-
tested so vigorously that to do so would
make the street car lines United States
mail routes and therefore interfere with
their prerogatives of tying them up by
strikes, that he was compelled to aban-
don this exceedingly meritorious plan for
giving much better service to the public.
He had not been long an incumbent of
the post office department before charges
of malfeasance in office on the part of
old and trusted employees began to ap-
pear, and an investigation was conducted
by the Postmaster-General through his
fourth assistant. Mr. Payne had been
urged to be a candidate for United States
Senator, and the west would have sup-
ported him for Vice-President in 1900,
but Mr. Payne, believing that he pos-
sessed no peculiar fitness for any office
except that of Postmaster-General, and de-
clined all tenders, only to reach the goal
of his ambition just as health was break-
ing, and to find the office the theatre of
turmoil, crimination and revolution. He
called the Republican National Conven-
tion to order at Chicago, June 21, 1904,
and then went on a second cruise for the
benefit of his shattered health, but too
late. He died in Washington City, Octo-
ber 4, 1904. Secretary John Hay said of
Mr. Payne that he had never met a man
of more genuine honesty and integrity,
a man absolutely truthful and fearless in
his expressions of what he believed to
be true. He was a man of such remark-
able uprightness and purity of character
that, judging other people by himself, he
was slow to believe evil of anyone. Pres-
ident Roosevelt said of Mr. Payne that
he was "the sweetest, most lovable and
most truthful man I ever knew."

He was married at Mount Holly, New



Jersey, October 15, 1867, to Lydia Wood,
daughter of Richard Van Dyke, of New
York City, but left no children.



WOLCOTT, Roger,

Legislator, Governor.

Roger Wolcott, Governor of Massa-
chusetts, was born in Boston, Massa-
chusetts, July 13, 1847, son of Joshua
Huntington and Cornelia (Frothingham)
Wolcott; grandson of Frederick and
Elizabeth (Huntington) Wolcott and of
Samuel Frothingham, and great-grand-
son of Joshua Huntington, and of Oliver
Wolcott (1760-1833).

He was graduated from Harvard Col-
lege, Bachelor of Arts, 1870, and was a
tutor there 1871-72. He studied law in
the Harvard Law School, and received
the Bachelor of Laws degree in 1874. He
was a member of the Boston Common
Council, 1876-79, and a Republican rep-
resentative in the State Legislature,
1882-84. He refused to support the
Blaine and Logan ticket in 1884, and
started a reform movement in the Repub-
lican party of Massachusetts. In 1891 he
was chosen first president of the Young
Men's Republican Club, the outgrowth
of his labor for reform. He was Lieu-
tenant-Governor of Massachusetts, 1892-
95, becoming Governor on the death of
Governor Greenhalge in 1896, and was
elected Governor in 1896, 1897, and 1898,
after which time he declined further
reelection. He also declined a position
on the Philippine Commission in 1899,
and an appointment as United States
Ambassador to Italy. He was a trustee
of Harvard University, 1885-1900, and re-
ceived the honorary degree of Doctor of
Laws from Williams College in 1897.

He was married, September 2, 1874, to
Edith, daughter of William Hickling
Prescott. He died in Boston, Massachu-
setts, December 21, 1900.



ENCYCLOPEDIA OF BIOGRAPHY



ROCHE, James Jeffrey,

Journalist, Author, Poet.

James Jeffrey Roche was born at
Mountmellick, Queens county, Ireland,
May 31, 1847, son of Edward Roche, an
able mathematician, and Margaret Doyle,
his wife. The family settled in Prince
Edward Island in the year of the son's
birth, and there he was instructed by his
father, and later took a classical course
at St. Dunstan's College, Charlottetown,
and where at the age of fifteen he aided
in editing the college weekly. In his
youth he had a fair share of spirited ad-
venture, and encountering of odd char-
acters and scenes, of which he took
sharp observance. In 1866 he went to
Boston, and for a time was engaged in
commercial pursuits. Already married,
in 1883, he became assistant editor of
the "Boston Pilot," a position for which
he was well adapted. A man of activ-
ity, eminently social, interested in all
public matters, sensitive and independ-
ent, Mr. Roche, without any premedi-
tation or affectation, performed much
energetic and brilliant work. In 1886
he published "Songs and Satires," a dis-
tinct success, and an earnest of health-
ful and unhurried growth ; and this was
followed by "The Story of the Fillibus-
ters," in 1891. In the same year, on the
death of John Boyle O'Reilly, Mr. Roche
became chief editor of the "Boston Pilot,"
and he published a biography of his
friend and fellow-laborer. In 1895 he
wrote "Ballads of Blue Water," and this
was followed by "His Majesty the King,"
in 1898, and "By-ways of War" in 1904.
He was elected secretary of the Papyrus
Club, January 1, 1885, and was chosen
president January 4, 1890. He was also
a member of the Botolph Club. He was
United States Consul at Genoa, Italy,
from 1904 to 1907, and in the latter year



was transferred in the same capacity to
Berne, Switzerland. He died the next
year.

In the words of a literary associate,
"Mr. Roche was, first, a scrivener and
chronicler, utterly impersonal, full of joy
in deeds, a discerner between the ex-
pedient and the everlasting light, wholly
fitted to throw into enduring song some
of the simple heroisms of our American
annals. We bid fair to have in him an
admirable ballad-writer, choosing in-
stinctively and from affection 'that which
lieth nearest,' and saying it with truth
and zest. His muse, like himself, is
happy in her place and time; none too
much at the mercy of sentiment, coming
through sheer intelligence to the conclu-
sion of fools, and going her unvexed
gypsy ways with an "all's well!' ever on
her lips."



WALKER, James,

Clergyman, Educator.

The Rev. James Walker, nineteenth
president of Harvard College, and whose
services were of incalculable value to that
institution, was born in Burlington, Mas-
sachusetts, then a part of Woburn, Au-
gust 16, 1794. He was graduated from
Harvard College, Bachelor of Arts, 1814;
Master of Arts, 1817, and at the Divinity
School in 1817. From 1818 to 1839 he
was pastor of the Unitarian church at
Charlestown. He was successful as a pas-
tor and lecturer, and did much good in
advocating and encouraging school and
college education. He was a close stu-
dent of literature and philosophy, and
from 1831 to 1839 was editor of the
"Christian Examiner," the official organ
of the Unitarian church. In 1839 he was
chosen Alford Professor of Moral and
Intellectual Philosophy, Natural Religion,
and Civil Polity at Harvard College ; was



26



ENCYCLOPEDIA OF BIOGRAPHY



an overseer of Harvard, 1825-36, and a
fellow, 1834-53. He was acting presi-
dent, 1845-46, and president from Febru-
ary 10, 1853, to January 26, i860, suc-
ceeding President Sparks, who had re-
signed. He received from Harvard Col-
lege the honorary degrees of Doctor of
Divinity in 1835, and of Doctor of Laws
in i860; and from Yale that of Doctor of
Laws in 1853.

Harvard College had gained rapidly in
public favor as well as in efficiency, during
the administrations of Presidents Everett
and Sparks, and it was during the term of
the latter that the office of regent was
created, and President Sparks in the divi-
sion of duties, had made the office of
president less trivial as to functions, and
to operate more as a balance wheel in the
complicated machinery of the college, and
to bear upon the education and moral
well-being of the students at large, rather
than to fill the chair of higher professor-
ship. He alone, among all the presidents
of Harvard in its earlier days, directed
his attention to each class in the several
departments, attending at least one exer-
cise in each term, and informing himself
of the condition of every department in
the university, and bringing himself into
intimate personal relation with every
officer and teacher. The custom thus
established afterward became the rule
of the university, and as President
Walker had as a member of the faculty
been a witness of its effective working,
he was well prepared to carry forward
the reform. The personal attachments
he had formed as Alford Professor, he
retained and enlarged as president, and
at the same time won the undivided sup-
port of his associates. Among the im-
provements introduced during his admin-
istration were the erection of the Apple-
ton Chapel, Boylston Hall, and the Gym-
nasium, and the Museum of Comparative



Zoology was also founded in his time.
He resigned his office in i860, and en-
gaged in literary pursuits. He left his
valuable library and $15,000 in money to
the college. He was a member of the
Massachusetts Historical Society, and a
fellow of the American Academy of Arts
and Sciences of Boston. He published,
among numerous sermons, lectures and
addresses, three series of lectures on
"Natural Religion," and a course of
Lowell Institute lectures on "The Philos-
ophy of Religion ;" "Sermons Preached
in the Chapel of Harvard College ;" "A
Memorial of David Appleton White,"
and a "Memoir of Josiah Quincy." After
his death a volume of his "Discourses"
was published. He was the editor of sev-
eral college textbooks.

He died in Cambridge, Massachusetts,
December 23, 1874. A mural monument
was erected to his memory in Harvard
Church, in Charlestown, May 14, 1883.



SUMNER, Edwin V.,

Distinguished Army Officer.

General Edwin Vose Sumner, who as
a soldier of the old school made a distin-
guished record during both the Mexican
and Civil wars, was born in Boston, Mas-
sachusetts, January 30, 1797; son of
Elisha (1760-1839) and Nancy (Vose)
Sumner; grandson of Seth ; great-grand-
son of Colonel Seth ; great-great-grand-
son of William ; great-great-great-grand-
son of Roger, and great-great-great-
great-grandson of William and Mary
Sumner, who came to Dorchester, Mas-
sachusetts Bay Colony from Dorchester,
England, in 1636. William Sumner, the
immigrant, served in the General Court
of Massachusetts for thirteen years. His
maternal grandfather. Colonel Joseph
Vose, was descended from Robert Vose,
an early settler of Milton, Massachusetts.



ENCYCLOPEDIA OF BIOGRAPHY



Edwin Vose Sumner was educated at
Milton Academy, Massachusetts. He
was appointed lieutenant in the Second
United States Infantry in March, 1819,
and served in the Black Hawk war. He
was advanced to a captaincy in the Sec-
ond Dragoons in 1833, and for some years
served on the Indian frontier. He was
given command of the School of Cavalry
Practice at Carlisle, Pennsylvania, in
1838. In 1846 he was commissioned
major, and as such took the field in
Mexico. In April, 1847, he led the noted
cavalry charge at Cerro Gordo, where he
was wounded, and was brevetted lieu-
tenant-colonel for conspicuous gallantry.
At Contreras and Churubusco he com-
manded the reserves, and at Molino del
Rey checked the attack of 5,000 Mexican
lancers, winning the brevet of colonel,
and receiving special praise from General
Worth for skill and courage. He com-
manded the brigade of horse in the occu-
pation of the City of Mexico, which post
he held until January, 1848. He was
commissioned lieutenant-colonel of the
First Dragoons, July 18, 1848. From
185 1 to 1853 he commanded the Depart-
ment of New Mexico. Later he visited
Europe for the purpose of observing
foreign cavalry discipline and drill. He
was promoted to colonel of the First
Cavalry in 1855, and was in command of
Fort Leavenworth, Kansas, in 1856,
where he incurred the displeasure of the
Secretary of War and was removed. In
July, 1857, he led an expedition and de-
feated the Cheyenne Indians at Solomon's
Fork. He was commander of the Depart-
ment of the West, 1858-61.

In 1861 he was senior colonel of cavalry
in the United States service. He was
chosen to escort President-elect Lincoln
from Springfield to Washington. On
March 16, 1861, President Lincoln ap-
pointed him brigadier-general in place of
General David E. Twiggs, removed, one



of the first military appointments made
by President Lincoln, who said: "It is
the best office in my gift." General Sum-
ner was ordered to supersede General Al-
bert Sidney Johnston in the command of
the Department of the Pacific, and he is
credited with saving California to the
Union. Being anxious for more active
duty he was recalled, and in March, 1862,
was attached to the Army of the Poto-
mac and given command of the First
Army Corps. He commanded the left
wing at the siege of Yorktown ; was sec-
ond in command to McClellan in the
whole Peninsular campaign, and fought
at Williamsburg. At Fair Oaks his celer-
ity in crossing the Chickahominy enabled
him to support McClellan before Long-
street could arrive with his Confederates.
He commanded his corps in the Seven
Days' battles, and was twice wounded.
In recognition of his services on the
Peninsula he was commissioned major-
general of volunteers, and brevet major-
general in the United States army, to
date from May 31, 1862. On the re-
organization of the army he was assigned
to the Second Corps, and was soon after
wounded at Antietam. In the charge of
the right grand division under Burnside,
he crossed the river at Fredericksburg
against his judgment, summoned the
town to surrender, and made the attack
on Marye's Heights, December 13, 1862.
Relieved at his own request, January 28,
1863, on General Hooker's appointment
to the chief command, he was presently
ordered to the Department of the Mis-
souri, but on his way thither died at Syra-
cuse, New York, March 21, 1863, express-
ing his loyal patriotism with his last
breath. "He was a grand soldier, full of
honor and gallantry," and probably the
oldest man to fill with entire efficiency so
conspicuous a military position as he did
during the Civil War.



28



ENCYCLOPEDIA OF BIOGRAPHY



ALLEN, Charles,

Lawyer, Jurist, Congressman.

Charles Allen, a jurist of commanding
ability, and whose legal decisions were
regarded as peculiarly able, was born in
Worcester, Massachusetts, August 9,
1797. He was educated at Harvard Col-
lege, from which he was graduated, stud-
ied law, was admitted to the bar in 1821,
and began practice in Braintree, soon re-
moving to Worcester, which was his
place of residence throughout the re-
mainder of his life. He was a member
of the Massachusetts House of Repre-
sentatives for four terms between 1829
and 1840, and of the State Senate in 1835,
1838 and 1839. In 1842 he was a member
of the Northeastern Boundary Commis-
sion which paved the way for the famous
Ashburton treaty which saved the United
States and Great Britain from impending
war. In the same year he became judge
of the Court of Common Pleas, holding
his seat upon the bench for three years.
In 1847 he declined to be a candidate for
the Supreme Court. He was elected by
the Free-Soil party to the Thirty-first and
Thirty-second Congresses (1849-51), and
in the latter year became editor of the
"Boston Whig," afterwards "The Repub-
lican." In 1853 he was a member of the
State Constitutional Convention. In 1859
he became Chief Justice of the Superior
Court of Sussex county, remaining upon
the bench until 1867, when he resigned.
He was a delegate to the Peace Congress
of 1861, called to avert if possible the
then threatening civil war. He died in
Worcester, Massachusetts, August 6,
1869.



STOWE, Calvin E.,

Clergyman, Educator. Author.

The Rev. Calvin Ellis Stowe was born
at Natick, Massachusetts, April 6, 1802,
English descent. His father dying



of



when he was six years of age, he was
early apprenticed to a papermaker. Hav-
ing attracted attention by his passion for
reading and investigation, he succeeded
by friendly aid in securing a scholarly
education and was graduated from Bow-
doin College, Brunswick, Maine, in 1824,
with the degree of Bachelor of Arts, re-
ceiving that of Master of Arts in 1827.
From 1825 to 1828 he was a student at
Andover Theological Seminary, during
which time he translated Jahn's "Hebrew
Commonwealth" (Andover, 1828, Lon-
don, 1829). In 1828 he became editor of
the "Boston Recorder," the oldest relig-
ious paper in the country, and served as
such for two years, meantime making a
translation of Lowth's "Lectures on the
Sacred Poetry of the Hebrews."

In 1830 he entered upon his career as
a university teacher and preacher, and
was Professor of Latin and Greek at
Dartmouth College, New Hampshire, to
1833 ; of Biblical Literature in Lane The-
ological Seminary, Cincinnati, Ohio,
l8 33-5°; of Natural and Revealed Relig-
ion in Bowdoin College, 1850-52, and of
Sacred Literature in Andover Theolog-
ical Seminary from 1852 to 1864, when
he retired on account of failing health
and settled at Hartford, Connecticut. In
1837 he made an extensive tour in Europe
in order to investigate the various sys-
tems of elementary instruction, and pub-
lished on his return a "Report" (Harris-



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