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burg, Ohio, 1838) and an "Essay" (Bos-
ton, 1839). He received the honorary
degree of Doctor of Divinity from Miami
University and from Indiana University
in 1837, and from Dartmouth College in
1839. He was the author of: "Intro-
duction to the Criticism and Interpreta-
tion of the Bible" (1835) ; "The Religious
Element in Education" (1844); "The
Right Interpretation of the Sacred Scrip-
tures" (1853); "Origin and History of
the Books of the Bible, both Canonical



and Apocryphal" (1867). He was a mem-
ber of the Old Testament Company and
of the American Committee on Bible re-

He was married in Portland, Maine, in
1832, to Eliza, daughter of Rev. Bennett
Tyler; she died in 1834. In January,
1836, he was married to Harriet Eliza-
beth, daughter of Rev. Lyman Beecher.
As the author of "Uncle Tom's Cabin"
she acquired a world-wide reputation.
She bore him four sons and three daugh-
ters. Dr. Stowe died in Hartford, Con-
necticut, August 22, 1886.

STEARNS, William A.,

Clergyman, Author, Educator.

William Augustus Stearns, fourth pres-
ident of Amherst College, was born at
Bedford, Massachusetts, March 17, 1805.
His father, Rev. Samuel Stearns, of Bed-
ford, and both his grandfathers were min-
isters of the gospel, and his brothers were
well known as distinguished preachers
and teachers.

He was prepared for college at Phillips
Academy, Andover, and was graduated
from Harvard College, Bachelor of Arts,
1827, and Master of Arts, 1830. He then
entered Andover Theological Seminary,
from which he was graduated in 1831.
Among his classmates were Professor
Felton and the Rev. Dr. Sweetser. He
was ordained to the Congregational min-
istry, December 14, 1831, and was pastor
of the Prospect Street Church, Cam-
bridgeport, Massachusetts, from 1831 to
1854, retiring in the latter year on account
of having been chosen president of Am-
herst College, to succeed the Rev. Ed-
ward Hitchcock, resigned. He adminis-
tered the affairs of the college until his
death, his administration being especially
memorable for a succession of donations
and bequests amounting in the aggregate

to nearly eight hundred thousand dollars,
making it a period of large and liberal
foundations. Even the Legislature shared
in the prevailing generosity, and upon
the provision that the college should
establish three free scholarships, which
was immediately done, the sum of $25,000
was paid over to it between the years of
1861 and 1863. During the latter year
the Legislature made another especial ap-
propriation of $2,500 to the department
of natural history. The presidency of Dr.
Stearns was also the period of scholar-
ships and prizes. At its commencement
there was not a single scholarship save
the distribution of the income of the
charity fund, which really constituted so
many ministerial scholarships. The first
scholarship at Amherst, therefore, was
established in 1857, by Eleazer Porter,
of Hadley. The only prizes that had
existed previous to this were those for
elocution, which had been merely nomi-
nal. Under President Stearns a number
of regular prizes were established. Six
college edifices were built during his
term of office. The style and character
of these, as compared with the former
buildings, has led to the comment that
Dr. Stearns found the college brick and
left it marble. Meanwhile the curricu-
lum kept pace with the more material ad-
vancement. Three new departments —
hygiene and physical education, mathe-
matics and astronomy, and Biblical his-
tory, interpretation and pastoral care —
were all established under Dr. Stearns,
and the spiritual welfare of the college
and of the community was encouraged
and strengthened by a number of relig-
ious revivals. Among these, that of 1858
exceeded all others in power and interest,
leaving less than twenty in the whole
college undecided in their convictions.
As a natural result of this moral awaken-
ing the general tone of the college was


bettered in every way. Dr. Stearns was
the author of: "Infant Church Member-
ship" (1844); "Infant Church Members'
Guide" (1845); "Life and Select Dis-
courses of the Rev. Samuel H. Stearns"
(1846) ; "Discourses and Addresses"
(1855); and "A Plea for the Nation,"
posthumous (1876). Dr. Stearns died at
Amherst, Massachusetts, June 8, 1876.

THOMAS, Benjamin F.,

Lawyer, Jurist, Congressman.

Benjamin Franklin Thomas was born
in Boston, Massachusetts, February 12,
1813, a grandson of Isaiah Thomas, noted
as the Revolutionary wartime editor of
the "Massachusetts Spy."

When he was six years old his parents
removed to Worcester, where he had his
early educational training. He then en-
tered Brown University, from which he
was graduated at the early age of seven-
teen. He studied law in Cambridge, and
was admitted to the bar on his coming
of age, and entered upon practice in
Worcester. He held several local offices.
In 1842 he was a member of the Massa-
chusetts House of Representatives, and
was subsequently Commissioner of Bank-
ruptcy. From 1844 to 1848 he was judge
of probate of Worcester county. He was
a Whig in politics, and was a presidential
elector in 1848, supporting General Tay-
lor's candidacy for the presidency. He
was called to the bench of the Supreme
Court of Massachusetts in 1853, and
adorned the position until 1859, when he
resigned and resumed the practice of law,
establishing his office in Boston. He was
elected as a Conservative Unionist to the
first Congress of the Civil War period
(March, 1861, to March, 1863). In 1868
he was nominated as Chief Justice of the
Supreme Court of the State, but the
Council failed to confirm the nomination,

and he devoted the remainder of his life
to his law practice. He was a man of
much ability, and given to historical and
antiquarian pursuits. He was at one
time president of the American Anti-
quarian Society of Worcester, and wrote
a memoir of its founder, Isaiah Thomas,
who was his grandfather. He published
a "Digest of the Massachusetts Laws
Concerning Towns and Town Officers"
(1845), ar >d a number of pamphlets. He
received the degree of Doctor of Laws
from Brown University in 1853, and in
the following year from Harvard Uni-
versity. He died in Salem, Massachu-
setts. September 27, 1878.



Amos Adams Lawrence was one of
those strong characters who made possi-
ble the peopling of Kansas with an anti-
slavery element strong enough to save
that region from pro-slavery domination
in the bloody times there previous to the
breaking out of the Civil War.

He was born in Boston, Massachusetts,
July 31, 1814; son of Amos and Sarah
(Richards) Lawrence, and grandson of
Samuel and Susanna (Parker) Lawrence
and of Giles and Sarah (Adams) Rich-
ards. He was prepared for college by
the Rev. Dr. Jonathan F. Stearns, then
entering Harvard College, from which
he was graduated Bachelor of Arts in
1835, and Master of Arts in 1838. He
first entered upon a mercantile business,
but soon interested himself in larger con-
cerns, becoming a leading manufacturer
of cotton, and president and director of
several banks and industrial corporations
in Massachusetts. He became associated
with Eli Thayer and others in the coloni-
zation of Kansas by Free-soilers in 1853,
and was treasurer of the Emigrant Aid


Association, an organization which fur-
nished the means for settlers to migrate
from New England to Kansas, and to
which he was a most liberal contributor.
He was twice nominated for Governor
of Massachusetts by the Whigs and
Unionists. At the outbreak of the Civil
War he aided in recruiting the Second
Massachusetts Volunteer Cavalry Regi-
ment. His benefactions to educational
institutions were many and continuous.
He built Lawrence Hall for the Epis-
copal Theological Seminary in Cambridge
at a cost of $75,000, and was its treas-
urer for several years. He was also treas-
urer of Harvard College, 1857-63, and an
overseer, 1879-85. In 1846 he gave $10,000
for the establishment of a literary insti-
tution in Wisconsin, then called "The
Lawrence Institute of Wisconsin," and
situated at Appleton. He secured the
Appleton Library fund and gave over
$30,000 toward the support of the insti-
tution, which was rechartered in 1849 as
Lawrence University. He was a mem-
ber of the Massachusetts Historical Soci-
ety. The town of Lawrence, Kansas,
was named in recognition of his services
in making Kansas a Free State.

He was married, in 1842, to Sarah Eliz-
abeth, daughter of the Hon. William
Appleton, and their son William became
seventh Protestant Episcopal Bishop of
Massachusetts. He died in Nahant, Mas-
sachusetts, August 22, 1886.

TALBOT, Thomas,

Manufacturer, Governor.

Former Governor Thomas Talbot, of
Massachusetts, was a native of the State
of New York, born at Cambridge, Wash-
ington county, September 7, 1818, son of
Charles and Phoebe (White) Talbot,
grandson of Joseph White, of Temple-
more, and of William Talbot, who came

to America in 1807, and with his son
Charles engaged in the manufacture of
broadcloth. He was of Irish descent, one
of his ancestors being Thomas Talbot,
first Earl of Shrewsbury.

His father dying when he was six
years of age, his mother removed soon
after to Northampton, Massachusetts,
where he began attending the common
schools. When twelve years of age he
went to work in a woolen mill, where he
continued until 1835, when he entered
the employ of his brother Charles, who
had established a broadcloth factory at
Williamsburg, Massachusetts. He was
master of all the mechanical processes
of manufacture, and in 1838 he was made
superintendent of the factory, also attend-
ing school in the intervals of his labors.
In 1840 he became a partner of his
brother, the factory being removed to
Billerica, Massachusetts. They pros-
pered from the outset and enlarged their
facilities from time to time, in a few years
becoming wealthy manufacturers on a
large scale.

Thomas Talbot was repeatedly elected
to the State Legislature, and from 1864
to 1869 was a member of the' Governor's
Council. He allied himself with the Re-
publican party at its formation in 1856.
In 1872 and 1873 he was elected Lieu-
tenant-Governor of Massachusetts, and
when Governor William B. Washburn
was sent to the United States Senate in
1874, Mr. Talbot succeeded him in the
executive chair. His course as Governor
was marked by fearless and sturdy de-
votion to what he believed to be right.
He refused to sanction a bill passed by
the Legislature repealing the prohibitory
law of the State, and this, with some of
his other official acts, among them the
approval of a law making ten hours a
legal day's labor, caused his defeat by a
small majority when he was a candidate



for Governor in 1874. He carried with
him into retirement, however, the deep
and sincere respect of the better classes,
and when he was again a candidate in
1878 he was elected by a majority of
15,000 over the other candidates in the
field. He served until January 1, 1880.
His last years were spent in Billerica,
to whose interests he was sedulously de-
voted. He was an ardent friend of edu-
cation, a devout Christian, and a fre-
quent and generous contributor to all de-
nominations. Industry, prudence and
energy were his dominant characteristics,
and the source of his success. His career
was throughout a pure, useful and honor-
able one. He received the degree of Doc-
tor of Laws from Harvard University in

He was twice married, (first) in 1848,
to Mary H. Rogers, of Billerica, who
died in 1851, and (second) in 1855, to
Isabella W., daughter of Joel Hayden,
of Williamsburg, Massachusetts. He
died in Lowell, Massachusetts, October
6, 1886.

SANGER, George P.,

Lawyer, Jurist, Author.

George Partridge Sanger was born at
Dover, Norfolk county, Massachusetts,
November 27, 1819, son of Ralph and
Charlotte (Kingman) Sanger. His earli-
est American ancestor was Richard San-
ger, who came from Hingham, England,
to Hingham, Massachusetts, in 1636. His
grandfather, Zedekiah Sanger, was a dis-
tinguished classical scholar, teacher and
clergyman. He was graduated at Har-
vard in 1771, and received the degree of
D. D. from Brown University in 1807.
Ralph Sanger was graduated from Har-
vard in 1808, studied divinity, and was
pastor at Dover, Massachusetts, for more
than fifty years. He was a member of
the Massachusetts Legislature ; became
iiASS-voi. in-s

chaplain of the State Senate in 1838, and
received the degree of Doctor of Divinity
from Harvard in 1857.

George Partridge Sanger was prepared
for college by his father, and at the
Bridgewater Academy in 1833-34. After
teaching in the district school at Dover
in 1834, and at Sharon in 1835, ne entered
Harvard College in 1836, from which he
was graduated in 1840. For two years
following he taught a private school at
Portsmouth, New Hampshire. In 1842
he was appointed proctor at Harvard
College, where he also entered the Law
School, receiving the degrees of Bachelor
of Laws and Master of Arts in course.
In 1843 ne became tutor in Latin, served
as such until 1846, and was afterward for
several years a member of the committee
for examination of the undergraduates in
Latin. He was admitted to the Boston
bar in 1846, and formed a partnership
with Stephen H. Phillips, of Salem, Mas-
sachusetts. In 1849 he was appointed
assistant United States District Attorney,
continuing during the Taylor-Fillmore
administration. In January, 1853, Gov-
ernor Clifford appointed him on his mili-
tary staff, and in the following October
he became district attorney for the Suf-
folk district, this last appointment neces-
sitating his removal from Charlestown
to Boston, where he resided until 1867,
when he removed to Cambridge. While
in Charlestown he served for two years
as a member of the board of aldermen.
In the summer of 1854 he was appointed
by Governor Washburn as a judge of the
Court of Common Pleas, which position
he filled with ability until that court was
abolished in 1859, when he resumed the
practice of law in Boston. From 1861 to
1869 he served again as district attorney
for Suffolk county, in i860 being also a
member of the Boston common council.
He was president of the John Hancock
Mutual Life Insurance Company from


the time of its organization until 1873.
In 1873 he was a member of the lower
house of the Legislature, and in June of
that year was appointed by President
Grant, United States Attorney for the
District of Massachusetts; and was re-
appointed by President Hayes in 1877,
and by President Arthur in 1882. At the
expiration of his last term of service, in
1886, he returned to the general practice
of law in Boston. Judge Sanger spent
much time in writing on legal and other
topics. From 1848 until 1862 he was edi-
tor of the "American Almanac and Re-
pository of Useful Knowledge ;" he was
editor of the Boston "Law Reporter" for
many years, and editor of the "Statutes
at Large" from 1855 to 1873. In i860 he
and Judge Richardson were appointed by
the State Legislature to prepare and re-
vise the publication of the "General Stat-
utes," with which labor they were occu-
pied annually until 1882.

Judge Sanger was married, December
14, 1846, to Elizabeth Sherburne, daugh-
ter of Captain William Whipple and
Eleanor Sherburne (Blunt) Thompson,
of Portsmouth, New Hampshire. He
died at the residence of his son, at
Swampscott, Massachusetts, June 3, 1890.
Four sons survived him, all graduates of
Harvard : John White, William Thomp-
son, George Partridge, and Charles Rob-
ert Sanger.

HIGGINSON, Thomas Wentworth,

Reformer, Author.

Thomas Wentworth Higginson, a lead-
ing spirit among the reformers of his day,
and a prolific author, was born in Cam-
bridge, Massachusetts, December 22,
1823, son of Stephen and Louisa (Stor-
row) Higginson, and a descendant of
Rev. Francis Higginson (1588-1630). His
mother was the daughter of a British
naval officer, who was imprisoned at

Portsmouth, Maine, during the American
Revolution, and afterward married a
Portsmouth maiden of the Wentworth
and Appleton families.

Thomas Wentworth Higginson was
prepared for college at the private school
of William Wells, then entering Harvard
College, from which he was graduated in
1841. He then taught for a time in Mr.
Weld's school at Jamaica Plain, Massa-
chusetts, later becoming a private tutor
in the family of his cousin, Stephen Hig-
ginson Perkins, of Brookline. His first
intention was to become a lawyer, but
he abandoned it to study theology, and
entered the Harvard Divinity School, from
which he was graduated in 1847. His
first charge was in Newburyport, where
he was pastor of the First Religious Soci-
ety until 1850. He became somewhat un-
popular because of his anti-slavery views
and his active interest in politics, espe-
cially as he allowed himself to be nomi-
nated for representative in Congress in
1848. After resigning his pulpit he re-
mained two years in Newburyport, teach-
ing classes, writing for the newspapers,
and organizing evening schools. In 1852
he was called to the Free church of
Worcester, Massachusetts, and remained
with it until 1858, when he abandoned
the ministry to devote himself to literary

His activity in the anti-slavery cause,
led to his indictment at Boston, Massa-
chusetts, in 1854, in connection with
Theodore Parker, Wendell Phillips and
others, for the murder of a deputy United
States marshal while they were seeking
the rescue of the arrested fugitive slave,
Anthony Burns, but the defendants were
all discharged by reason of a flaw in the
indictment. In 1856 he went to Kansas
to assist in organizing the Free State
movement, and later became the friend
and confidant of John Brown, of Osawo-
tomie. He was well acquainted with the



leaders in John Brown's raid on Harper's
Ferry, and was generally credited with
being engaged in an enterprise to rescue
John Brown ; but this has been shown to
be incorrect. Mr. Higginson wished to
arrange one, but Brown absolutely re-
fused; his wife was brought from North
Elba, Mr. Higginson hoping that she
would persuade him, but he would not
receive her. What he did do, which
probably gave rise to the story, was to
arrange an expedition to rescue Stevens
and Haslett when imprisoned at Charles-
ton, Virginia, awaiting execution. Mr.
Higginson with some twenty companions
stayed a week at Harrisburg, under com-
mand of Captain Montgomery, of Kan-
sas, awaiting an opportunity ; but the
plan had to be abandoned because of
snowfalls making detection certain ; so,
at least, Captain Montgomery thought.

At the beginning of the Civil War Mr.
Higginson recruited a company of infan-
try in Worcester for the Fifty-first Regi-
ment Massachusetts Volunteers, and was
commissioned captain. Later he was made
colonel of a regiment of freed slaves,
which he recruited in South Carolina —
the first regiment of such material to be
mustered into military service of the
United States. He was wounded at Wil-
ton Bluff, South Carolina, in August,
1863, and the following year was
obliged to resign on account of disability.
He then resumed his literary work, re-
siding at Newport, Rhode Island, until
1878, when he returned to Cambridge,
Massachusetts. He was a member of the
Legislature of Massachusetts and chief
of the Governor's staff, 1880-81, and a
member of the Massachusetts Board of
Education, 1881-83. He was State Mili-
tary and Naval Historian from 1889 to
1891, and in this capacity he compiled
"Massachusetts in the Army and Navy"
(two volumes). He was long an earnest


advocate of woman's suffrage, the higher
education of women, and the advanced
education of the young of both sexes.
He was particularly pronounced in favor
of the advancement of women, believing
that "a man's mother and wife are two-
thirds of his destiny." He was a volu-
minous writer, and perhaps no author
has contributed more frequently to the
higher class of American periodicals ; sev-
eral of his books are made up of essays
which first appeared in the "Atlantic
Monthly." As a historian he has written
much for both old and young, and sev-
eral of his books have been translated
into French, German, Italian and modern
Greek. In 1896 he presented uncondition-
ally to the Boston Public Library his
"Galatea collection of books relating to
the history of woman," numbering about
one thousand volumes. He was elected
a member of the Massachusetts Histor-
ical Society and of the American Histor-
ical Association, and a fellow of the
American Academy of Arts and Sciences.
Harvard University conferred upon him
the degrees of Master of Arts in 1869 and
Doctor of Laws in 1898, and the Western
Reserve University gave him that of Doc-
tor of Laws in 1896.

He was the author of: "Thalatta"
(with Samuel Longfellow, 1853) ; "Out-
door Papers" (1863) ; "Malbone, an Old-
port Romance" (1869) ; "Army Life in a
Black Regiment" (1870); "Atlantic Es-
says" (1871) ; "The Sympathy of Relig-
ions" (1871, translated into French) ;
"Oldport Days" (1873) ! "Young Folks'
History of the United States" (1875),
translated into French, 1875, Italian and
German, 1876; "History of Education in
Rhode Island" (1876); "Young Folks'
Book of American Explorers" (1877);
"Short Studies of American Authors"
(1879) ; "Common Sense About Women"
(1881), translated into German; "Life of



Margaret Fuller Ossoli" (1884) ; "Larger
History of the United States" (1885) ;
"The Monarch of Dreams" (1886), trans-
lated into French and German ; "Hints
on Writing and Speechmaking" (1887);
"Women and Men" (1888) ; "Travellers
and Outlaws" (1889); "The Afternoon
Landscape" (1890); "The New World
and the New Book" (1891) ; "Life of the
Rev. Francis Higginson" (1891) ; "Con-
cerning All of Us" (1892) ; "Such As
They Are," poems (with his wife, Mary
Thacher Higginson, 1893) ; "English His-
tory for Americans" (1893) ; "Massachu-
setts in the Army and Navy" (official
State publication); "Book and Heart:
Essays on Literature and Life" (1897) ;
"Tales of the Enchanted Islands of the
Atlantic" (1898) ; "Cheerful Yesterdays"
(1898); "Old Cambridge" (1899); "Con-
temporaries" (1899) ; "A Reader's His-
tory of American Literature" (1903);
"Part of a Man's Life" (1905); "Life of
Stephen Higginson, Member of Conti-
nental Congress" (1907); "Carlyle's
Laugh and Other Surprises" (1909) ; be-
sides several translations and edited
works, and numerous contributions to
periodical literature.

Mr. Higginson married (first) Mary
Elizabeth Channing, his second cousin,
a woman of strong character and much
individuality, who was the original of
"Aunt Jane" in his story "Malbone." His
second wife was Mary (Thacher) Hig-
ginson, niece, by marriage, of Professor
Henry W. Longfellow, and author of
"Room for One More" and "Seashore
and Prairie." Mr. Higginson died in

TROWBRIDGE, John Townsend,


John Townsend Trowbridge, author,
was born in Ogden, New York, Septem-

ber 18, 1827, son of Windsor Stone and
Rebecca (Willey) Trowbridge, grandson
of Daniel and Prudence (Badger) Trow-
bridge and of Alfred and Olive (Cone)
Willey, and a lineal descendant of Thomas
Trowbridge, who brought his wife and
two sons to America from Taunton, Eng-
land, in 1634, and settled in Dorchester,
Massachusetts, removing to New Haven,
Connecticut, in 1639. Windsor S. Trow-
bridge (father) was one of the first
settlers of Ogden, Monroe county, New
York, in 1812, and followed the occupa-
tion of farming.

John Trowbridge attended the common
schools of the neighborhood during the
winter months, the remainder of the year
assisting his father with the work of the
farm. He taught himself the rudiments
of French, Greek and Latin, in which he
later became proficient. During the
winter of 1844-45 ne served in the capac-
ity of teacher in a classical school at
Lockport, New York, and in the latter
named year removed to Lisle, Illinois,
where for one year, 1845-46, he taught
school and performed farm work, princi-
pally the raising of wheat, and in 1846
returned to Lockport, New York, where
he filled the position of teacher in the dis-
trict school for one year, 1846-47. In May
of the latter named year he removed to
New York City, having decided to devote

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