American Institute of Electrical Engineers.

The Montreal electrical hand-book; being a guide for visitors from abroad attending the International electrical congress, St. Louis, Mo., September, 1904 online

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and contains the following machinery for receiving and
converting the power received : Six direct connected
induction motor generator sets, each having a rated
capacity at the direct current end of 500 K. W. Two of
these units were built by the Westinghouse Electric and
Manufacturing Company, and four by the Canadian
General Electric Company. The units are started from
the direct current side only. They are brought up to
speed using the direct current generator as a motor, and
when at approximately normal speed, as indicated by the
position of the field rheostat, the induction motor is
connected to the alternating current circuit. By a change
of connections and adjustment of the generator field, the
unit is then made to take its share of the load. The
switchboard for the control of these units is of blue
marble, 26 feet long and 8 feet high, and has a gallery
with brass hand rails and tile flooring similar to the
switchboard in Main Power House.

The building is provided with an overhead crane of
20 tons capacity.

At the north side of the Power House proper and ad-
joining the same is the Boiler house, which is divided
into two sections, one section contains a group of sixteen
Lancashire boilers of two hundred and fifty horse-power
each, made by Daniel Adamson & Co., Dunkinfield,
England, arranged in two batteries, each boiler is fitted
with a dead load safety valve, a six inch steam nozzle, a
combined low water alarm and safety valve, and a Gov-
ernment pop valve on the cover of the manhole. At a
temperature of about four hundred and fifty degrees the
gases pass into a Green economizer which heats the feed
water at a temperature of about two hundred and fifty
degrees. The second section of the boiler house contains
a battery of Six Babcock & Wilcox water tube boilers of
two hundred and fifty horse-power each, also a battery of
six Lancashire boilers of 300 horse-power each, built by the
Caledonia Iron Works Company of this City. All of
these boilers are fitted and equipped in the same manner



Electrical Handbook 777




178 The Montreal



as the Lancashire boilers, previously described. The
boilers are fed by six Northey pumps through duplicate
pipes. There are two chimneys, one of which is the
highest in the City, the core is circular with an inside
diameter of twelve feet, and rises to a height of two
hundred and fifty-six feet above the fire grate. With a
view to obviating danger from fire the buildings have all
been made practically fireproof w y ith Granolithic or
cement doors, etc.

The Mechanical, Wood Working and Electrical
shops of the Company as well as the Stores department is
situated at the corner of St. Catherine and Harbor
streets in the East end of the City. These shops are solid
brick buildings on stone foundations and cover an area
of 77,000 feet. In the Carpenter, or Wood working shop,
which also embraces the Paint shop, cars requiring to be
overhauled or repaired are attended to, and all new cars
required are built. The Company, ever on the alert to be
up-to-date and provide for the comfort of its patrons,
commenced some years ago building larger cars : These
cars have two trucks and are equipped with four forty
horse-power motors each, improvements are added from
time to time, among which may be mentioned the large
cars of the Park & Island Railway Company built at
Montreal Street Railway shops. These cars are fitted
with chair seats, air-brakes,, electric bells, etc. The
latest improvement in cars, are those which are now
being built, some of them are actually in commission.
They are fitted with seats both cross and longitudinal, air-
breaks, electric bell, electric heaters, enlarged platforms
back and front, and are~o constructed that the windows
can be closed or opened, and may be used for either
Summer or Winter service, without change, instead of
having to transfer 'the trucks from open car bodies to
closed car bodies and vice- versa, entailing considerable
expense to the Company.

The Company is also, at present, transforming some
of their present open cars so that by simply putting on
one side and changing' the location of the seats, which



Electrical Handbook 179-




180 The Montreal



can be done in a very short time, they can be changed to
closed cars, this will also do away with the expense and
labor in transferring trucks. In addition to the Carpenter
shop there is also the Machine shop and Blacksmith shop
fitted with all the necessary machinery and plant for
supplying the requirements of all departments. Here is
also situated the Brass Foundry in which all brass and
copper castings required are made. Immediately above
the Machine shop is the Winding room fitted with all
the necessary machinery where all the electrical repairs
are attended to.

The rolling stock of the Company consists of nearly
eight hundred cars, including sweepers and plows, the
whole of which, but with few exceptions have been built
by the Company. The car stations of the Company are
situated at St. Henry, in the West End of the city, Hoche-
laga in the East End, St. Denis Boulevard in the North
End, and Cote streetin the Center of the city. All of these
buildings (with the exception of Cote street, which was
formerly used as a horse stable) have all modern improve-
ments ; are heated by Sturtevant Hot Air System, are of
solid stone foundations with iron girder roofs.

There are also car storage sheds situated at St. Denis
Boulevard and St. Henry for storing open cars and closed
cars out of sen-ice.



Electrical Handbook 181



Electrical Development of Ottawa City
and Vicinity.

OTTAWA, the capital city, with its 60,000 happy
and progressive inhabitants, occupies an advan-
tageous position at the junction of the great
river bearing its name, with the Gatineau and
Rideau rivers. These streams flowing from the West,
North and South respectively, drain an immense territory.
They contain many falls and rapids and Ottawa stands in
the centre of a region remarkable for the wealth of its
water powers. It has been estimated that within a radius
of about fiftv miles from trrs dtv mav he fov.nd water




View of Ottawa Post Office.

powers aggregating 500,000 H.P. at low water. Many of
the falls are of great size and while few of these powers
have been utilized for the operation of machinery, their
development, in the majority of cases, could be effected
without serious engineering difficulties and at moderate
cost.



182



The M o n t r e a I



One of the principal falls within this region is that
known as the ' ' Chaudiere Falls ' ' where the Ottawa
river drops some 40 feet. Its situation at the very door
of the city has made of Ottawa, and its sister city of Hull
across the river, a centre of electrical activity. Two
miles above the city are the " Little Chaudiere " rapids
where. nearly 20,000 H.P could be obtained under a head




of 10 feet. A few miles above this are the " Deschenes "
rapids of equal power and head now partially developed.
Thirty miles up stream are the ' ' Chats Falls ' ' where the
river drops 40 feet and 75,000 H. P. could be developed
under favorable engineering conditions. At "Portage
du Fort", 50 miles from the city 25,000 H. P. could be
obtained under 15 feet head. A little higher up the river
at Calumet Island are the ' ' Mountain Chute ' ' and



Electrical Handbook 183



"' Grand Calumet Falls ", the first a drop of 20 feet and
the latter 56 feet. On the other side of the island, the
west channel, is a succession of rapids forming a fall of
70 feet. At " High Falls ",56 miles from Ottawa on the
Coulogne river, a tributary of the Ottawa, a fall of 138
feet is estimated at 11,000 H. P., and at a distance of 60
miles " High Falls " on the Black river, another tributary,
6,000 H. P. could be obtained under a head of 120 feet.

On the Gatineau river the following powers are avail-
able : 5 miles from Ottawa "Farmers Rapids", 20 ft.
high, 8,000 H. P. ; 6 miles away " Chelsea Falls ",39 ft.
head, 15,000 H. P. ; 7 miles away " Eaton's Chute ", 20
ft. head, 8,000 H. P. ; 14 miles away " Cascades ", 12 ft.
head, 5,700 H. P. ; 18 miles away, 4,000 H. P. under 10 ft.
head ; 30 miles away " Paugan Falls ", 60 ft. head, 24,000
H. P. Thus on this river within 30 miles of the city,
approximately 65,000 H. P. could be obtained at low
water.

On the " Lievre " river, emptying into the Ottawa 20
miles below the city, an almost equal amount of power
could be developed in 30 miles. The principal falls
known as " High Fall ",28 miles from Ottawa in an air
line, could alone furnish 32,000 H. P. under a head of
1 80 ft.

There are also many smaller water powers on tribu-
taries of the rivers named.

The estimates are based on the natural flow of the
different streams at low water and represent the power
which would be available on the shafts of turbines having
an efficiency of 80 per cent.

All these rivers are enormously increased in volume
during spring freshets and many of the powers could be
much improved by storing the water during seasons of
flood and allowing it to escape so as to increase the flow
<luring periods of low water.

At Ottawa, it will be found that water is used some-
what wastefully. The present developments are the result
of individual efforts rather than concerted action. Some
years ago the owners of saw mills who were practically



184 The Montreal



the only users of water for power, built in partnership the
present low timber dam which stretches across the river
just above the falls, but beyond this no systematic develop-
ment has taken place. While much pow r er is used, much
more could be secured by a scientific rearrangement of
the works at Ottawa, and specially by some system of
water storage in the upper reaches of the river which con-
tain many and extensive natural reservoirs. At the
present time the Dominion Government is sending out
Engineering parties with a view of ascertaining the
possibilities in the matter of water storage.

There is nothing particularly original here in the
manner of using water ; some of the users take their
supply in the open stream above the dam, others draw
water through square timber flumes 15 to 20 feet square
and varying in length up to about 200 feet. These flumes
terminate in artifical ponds built of timber, hewn out of
( the rock, or walled in with concrete, where the water is
allowed to reduce its speed before entering the gratings
leading to the turbines. With the exception of one or two
plants, where vertical submerged turbines are used, all
the works are operated by horizontal turbines, also sub-
merged in large box flumes or penstocks and discharging
into steel draft tubes. From these the water is lead to the
river below the falls through open canals cut in rock or
through natural channels between islands which form
part of the city. The working heads vary from 20 to 35
feet.

THE OTTAWA ELECTRIC COMPANY.

Among the undertakings for the generation of electri-
city for light and power The Ottawa Electric Co. may be
considered the oldest because it represents a consolidation
of three pioneer companies ; The Ottawa Electric Light
Co. established in 1881 for lighting the city streets by
means of arc lamps. The Chaudiere Electric Light &
Power Co. which introduced incandescent lighting in
1886 and The Standard Electric Company of Ottawa, Ltd.
which entered the same field in 1891.



Electrical Handbook 185



This consolidation took place in 1894. In the year
1900 Ottawa was visited by a devasting conflagration
which destroyed the greater part of the united works.
This naturally led to a complete reconstruction of the
generating plant on modern and efficient lines. Some
idea of the success and growth of this undertaking may
be obtained from its records which show that when the
campany was organized in 1894 the installation con-
sisted of : In 1904 we find :

Incandescent lights, 42,152 Incandescent lights, 126,657

Arc lights 440 Arc lights 986

Motors 68 Motors 186

No. of Customers. . . 2,720 No. of Customers. . . 6,757

a result which must be deemed remarkable considering
the population of the city.

The generating works consist of a Central Station
operated by water and two auxiliary stations, one of
which is operated by steam and used only when water
power is much reduced through "ice troubles" in winter,
or other causes.

The Central Station is a brick building 150 x 45 ft.
with steel framework and cinder concrete roof water-
proofed, built on foundations of concrete laid on solid
rock about 18 ft. below the street level. The walls en-
closing the water intake, the flumes and penstocks are
built of concrete reinforced by steel framework imbedded
in the walls. There are three generating units of 1,000
H. P. each with provision for a fourth unit. They are
Westinghouse two-phase A. C. generators running at 180
r. p. m. and giving 2,300 volts at 60 cycles. These are
directly connected to turbine sets, each consisting of
three 39 in. wheels of Stillwell-Bierce manufacture, (Day-
ton, Ohio) mounted on the same horizontal shaft and
discharging into a tail race, partly under the building
and parallel to it, through two steel draft tubes, one being
common to two wheels. At the lower end of the build-
ing the tail race, about 30 ft. wide and covered by a con-
crete arch on which the building rests in part, becomes
an open channel emptying into the river 100 .ft. away.



1 86 The Montreal



The water is taken at the upper end of the building and
is led into a large covered concrete flume parallel to and
lying outside the building. From this flume water is
admitted through lateral openings into concrete square
penstocks, one for each set of turbines which are sub-
merged therein. The working head is 25 to 28 feet.




A Turbine Unit.

Two exciters, either capable of exciting all the gene-
rators, are also directly connected to independent turbi-
nes in separate penstocks.

The generators mentioned supply current directly for
incandescent lighting and for power to induction motors.
Direct current power at 500 volts is supplied through a
Westinghouse Rotary Converter of 300 K. W. and the
street arc lamps, (D. C. enclosed type) are operated by
current from 6 Western Electric Co. multicircuit arc ge-
nerators driven in pairs by direct coupling to 3 Westing-
house 2 phase induction motors of 250 H. P. each.

All the distribution is controlled from this central
station. Current from the generators in the auxiliary
stations is carried to this station, all generators being
paralleled. The distributing switchboards are in thi s



Electrical Handbook 187



station. Oil switches are used exclusively. The arrange-
ment is somewhat novel ; all switches and station trans-
formers being placed high up on the walls of the station.
The switches being connected to the operating handles
on the switchboard panels by cranks and rods. This ar-
rangement in connection with a fireproof building and
fireproofed cables reduces to a minimum liability of dam-
age from electrical troubles.

The speed of the waterwheels is controlled by Lom-
bard governors.

The hydraulic auxiliary station, a substantial stone
building is equipped with two Westinghouse A. C. gene-
rators of 1,000 H. P. 2 phase 60 cycles, running at 327
r. p. m. and belted to jack shafts which are driven,
through crown, wheel and pinion gearing, by vertical
turbines of Canadian manufacture known as the ' ' New
American."

The steam auxiliary station has a capacity of about
i,ooo H. P. Westinghouse generators belted to Wheelock
tandem-compound condensing engines.

Tha services of this company not only cover the city,
but extend into all adjoining suburbs and throughout the
neighbouring city of Hull.

THE OTTAWA ELECTRIC RAILWAY COMPANY.

This company which has had a most successful career
and has served as a model for other electric railway
undertakings throughout Canada was organized in 1891..
In July of that year it started operations with 14 cars
shortly after, it absorbed The Ottawa Street Railway Co.
the old horse car line, and electrified it.

It is worthy of note that this was the first company to
attempt running cars throughout a Canadian winter. It
succeeded in overcoming all difficulties and established a
basis for successful winter operation, notwithstanding
predictions of failure from many wiseacres.

The progressive policy of this company in establishing
parks and pleasure grounds out of town, notably Rokc-



1 88 The Montreal



cliffe Park and Britannia-on-the-Bay, has made of Ottawa,
always a favoured city, a place most pleasant to live in.

The progress of this enterprise has been very rapid ;
To-day it has 41 miles of track reaching from the centre
of the city, 4.41 miles in one direction and 7.28 miles in
another. It has in regular use 105 motor cars and 6
trailers. Westinghouse equipments are used throughout,
motors ranging from 30 to 50 H. P.

The road is double track with "T" rails varying in
weight from 56 to 80 Ibs. per yard, the heavy rails laid in
60 ft. lengths on heavy cross ties with ' ' continuous ' ' rail
joints make an ideal roadbed.

The generating equipment consists of a single unit of
1200 K. W., a Westinghouse D. C. generator running at
600 volts, supplemented by a storage battery of 268
chloride cells of a capacity of i ,000 ampere hours, with
booster, floating on the system. The generator is direct-
connected to six 54 in. wheels of Stillwell-Bierce manu-
facture mounted on one horizontal shaft, all being sub-
merged in a large box flume made of concrete reinforced
with steel frame into which water is drawn directly from
an arm of the Ottawa river which is dammed at this
point. The discharge through 3 steel draft tubes, is
-carried through an open canal at right angles to the
station building, into the stream just below the dam.
The head is 20 feet.

A motor-generator unit of 1,000 K. W., the motor
being a 2-phase A. C. induction motor, permits in case of
need of obtaining power from any of the several A. C.
generating stations in the vicinity.

The park at Britannia-on-the-Bay is the chief pleasure
resort about Ottawa. Grounds have been laid out beauti-
fully. A pier over 1,000 feet long extends into Lake
Deschenes and the place is a favorite with all classes for
boating, bathing, etc.

During the past year the cars of the company carried
5,000,000 passengers.



Electrical Handbook 189



THE HULL ELECTRIC COMPANY.

About 1893 this company was chartered to build a
tramway through the City of Hull and for nine miles out
to the pretty village of Aylmer on the north, or Quebec
side of the river above Ottawa, and also to supply light
and power in Hull and Aylmer. The company showed a
progressive spirit and gradually improved its property
and extended its lines. At this time it operates 10 miles
of double and 6>^ miles of single track with 17 motor
ears, 4 trailers and 2 electric locomotives. Large and
commodious cars run from Ottawa near the Post Office
across the famous Interprovincial bridge, through Hull
to " Deschenes " and past the Golf Links, Aylmer, on to
Victoria Hotel all popular summer resorts and to
Queens Park, at attractive place of amusement owned by
the company, on the north shore of Lake Deschenes and
elose by " The Victoria Yacht Club." Canadian General
Electric Co.'s equipments are used on the cars.

The generating station is situated on the north bank
of the Ottawa River at Deschenes Village. It is a w r ooden
structure, metal covered and metal roofed containing the
following electrical equipment : 2 Canadian General 350
K.W. D.C. 600 volts, multipolar railway generators which
carry a load varying between 200 and 500 K. W. 2
Canadian General A. C. monocyclic generators, 2,300
volts, 60 cycles, used for the supply of light and power in
Hull, Aylmer and Deschenes. All machines are belted
to horizontal shafts driven, through crown wheel and
pinion gearing, by vertical turbines submerged in timber
box flumes.

Lake Deschenes, an expansion of the river Ottawa,
forming a large body of water several miles long, ends
here and the Deschenes rapids begin. Conroy Island
divides the stream and the channel between the island
and the mainland was utilized at a forebay, w^ater being
feaken at the level of the lake above and discharged below
the rapids after dropping ten feet to the turbines.

This company which began operations in 1896 is now
oontrolled by the Canadian Pacific Railway Company.



The Montreal



DESCHENES ELECTRIC COMPANY.

About 1892 this company, which receives its power
supply from the Hull Electric Company, just described,
stretched three armored cables across the river to a point
near the centre of the city of Ottawa. Power was taken
from the Deschenes power house by pole line about six
miles and delivered to the cables at 2,200 volts. At the
Ottawa end the cables were buried along the bank of the
Rideau Canal to the Russell House, which hotel and the
Russell Theatre adjoining, are lighted by this company.
It did not extend its operations further, having no fran-
chise to use the city streets.

THE OTTAWA POWER COMPANY.

This company commenced operations in 1900. It was
organized for the purpose of supplying electrical energy
to the Ottawa Carbide Company, Limited, whose exten-
sive works for the manufacture of calcium carbide are
situated within a few hundred yards of the power house
of the former company in the city of Ottawa. The power
house is a substantial stone building with metal roof and
steel frame ; the box flumes for the turbines, the found-
ations and arched tail race are all built of heavy masonry.
There are two pairs of 60 inch ' ' Leff ell ' ' wheels sub-
merged, operating under about 30 ft. head ; their hor-
izontal shafts pass into the power house where they are
direct-connected to two revolving field A.C. generators of
1500 K.W. The generators are single phase, 2200 volts,
60 cycles. The two exciters are connected to extensions
of the generator shafts. Novel features in this station are
that the exciters furnish current at 250 volts, are much
larger than necessary for exciting purposes, and that they
also furnish current for the operation of all the motors
required in the carbide factory. All these machines are
of "Canadian General " manufacture.

The switchboard is mounted on a gallery overlooking
the machinery.

The regulation of speed is accomplished by means of
" Lombard " governors.



Electrical Handbook



At the carbide factory oil cooled transformers are used
to step down to about 75 volts, at which pressure current
is delivered to the furnaces. This plant is operated at full
load day and night.

CAPITAL POWER COMPANY.

This company with power station at Deschenes, using
practically the same water power development as the
Hull Electric Company just described, commenced oper-
ations in 1901 and at the present time sells its entire out-
put to two customers only, for manufacturing purposes,
viz: The E. B. Eddy Co., who are extensive manufac-
turers of paper, pulp, matches, pails, tubs, etc., in the
city of Hull, Quebec and The Geo. Matthews Co., a large
pork packing establishment in the same city. The for-
mer company employs water power and steam as well as
electricity in the operation of its several factories.

The power house of the Capital Power Co. is L, shaped.
The power house proper being at the centre and the two
wheel houses forming the arms.

The wheel houses, each about 150 x 30 feet, are built
of steel frame with concrete foundations and walls, and
metal roof. The power house, a building about 75 x 35;
feet is of brick with steel framework on concrete founda-
tions, with roof of metal, over asbestos. One wheel house
contains 5 turbines, the other 6. All turbines are 61 inch
"Trump" vertical wheels submerged in concrete box flu-
mes and geared, by crown wheel and pinion, to horizon-
tal shafts. 5 Wheels in each wheel house are connected
to one shaft which extends through the wall into the
power house. The odd wheel drives a countershaft to
which the exciters are belted.

There are two generators direct connected to the ho-
rizontal shafts. They are of " Canadian General" manu-
facture, A. C. 3 phase, revolving field, 500 K. W. genera-
tors operated at 10,000 volts and 60 cycles and running at
180 r. p. m.

There are 3 exciters, 2 of "Canadian General" and
one of "Westinghouse" manufacture all of 17 K. W.



The Montreal



The turbines are controlled by " Woodward " govern-
ors of the horizontal and friction type. The working


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Online LibraryAmerican Institute of Electrical EngineersThe Montreal electrical hand-book; being a guide for visitors from abroad attending the International electrical congress, St. Louis, Mo., September, 1904 → online text (page 10 of 11)