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employed as Assistant Engineer on the Topeka, Salina and Western
Railroad.

In 1884, Mr. Appleton was appointed City Engineer of East
Saginaw, Mich., but preferring railroad work, he resigned to accept
the position of Principal Assistant Engineer on the Chicago, Mil-
waukee and St. Paul Railroad, which he held from 1885 to 1889. He
then went to the Union Pacific Railroad where he served as Engineer
of Buildings until the latter part of 1890. The late Mr. Bogue, one
of his classmates at college, was Chief Engineer of the Union Pacific
Railroad at that time, and on hearing of Mr. Appleton's death, he
wrote of him as follows: "I always had a great affection for him and
always found him a sweet-tempered, kindly-disposed man, who did
his duty."

In 1891, Mr. Appleton opened an office in Chicago, HI., for the
private practice of engineering, which he continued until 1895, when
he was appointed Engineer of Buildings and Water Supply with the
Great Northern Railroad. He rested this position in 1898 to accept
that of Chief Engineer of the Copper Range Railroad.

In 1900, Mr. Appleton entered the Government service as Assistant
to the Superintendent of Construction of the United States Life
Saving Service, in which capacity he had charge of the construction
of many of the life-saving stations along the Atlantic Coast and the
Great Lakes.

In 1902, at his own request, Mr. Appleton was transferred from
the Life Saving Service to the office of the Supervising Architect,
Treasury Department, as Superintendent of Construction, United
States Public Buildings, which position he held until his death at
Gardiner, Me., on August 3d, 1916. His first work while holding this
office was on the construction of the Post Office Building at Creston,
Iowa. This was followed by work on public buildings at Holyoke and
Northampton, Mass., Wheeling, W. Ya., Evanston, Wyo., East St.
Louis, Alton, Centralia, and Greenville, 111., Chelsea, Mass., the new
Custom House at Boston, Mass., New Bedford, Mass., and Gardiner,
Me. After the earthquake and fire in San Francisco, he was ordered
there to assist in the work of temporary repairs to protect Government
buildings. The deep and difficult foimdations for the new Custom
House at Boston, Mass., were constructed under his supervision, but
at his request and on account of advancing years, he was relieved from
that detail and transferred to New Bedford in 1913.



3 678 MEMOIR OF THOMAS APPLETOX

Mr. Appleton was married to Mary Louise Burnham, of Essex,
Mass., on October 1st, 1871, and is survived by his widow, one brother,
four sisters, and two stepsons.

He was the founder and first President of the Society of Con-
structors of Federal Buildings, which was organized, principally
through his efforts, in 1910, with the idea of promoting closer relations
between the Office and Field forces of the Supervising Architect's
Office, and thereby raising the efficiency of both. The success of this
organization, which has grown from a few members to include not
only the entire Field force of the Office, but also a considerable num-
ber of the Office force, is due to Mr. Appleton's never-failing interest
and activity in its affairs. He attended all its Annual Conventions
and was a generous contributor to the pages of its Journal, his last
paper, on the history and origin of the Society, having been published
in May, 1916.

In 1874, Mr. Appleton joined the Boston Society of Civil Engi-
neers and continued his membership in that organization for many
years after going West. He was a charter member of the American
Engineering and Maintenance of Way Association (now the American
Railway Engineering Association), and while in Chicago, he joined
the Western Society of Engineers and served as its Secretary for a
year or more. He was also a member of the American Society of
Mechanical Engineers from 1893 to* 1910, a member of Kilpatrick Post
No. 71, G. A. R., of Holyoke, Mass., and of the Zeta Psi Fraternity.

The following extract from a letter from the Acting Supervising
Architect, Mr. James A. Wetmore, to the Secretary of the Society of
Constructors of Federal Buildings, expresses the high estimate in
which Mr. Appleton was held by all who knew him:

u* * * In every relation with him, official and personal, I was
impressed with his devotion to duty, his ideals of rectitude and honor,
his kindly disposition, and his consideration for others. Endowed
with a pleasing personality, possessed of the requisite technical qualifi-
cations, gifted with tact and a disposition to find a way to overcome
difficulties, it was natural that he should be highly regarded by his
associates and co-workers in the Office and in the Field. I feel that in
his death, the public service has lost a faithful servant, your Society
a devoted adherent, and all of us a sincere friend."

Mr. Appleton's immediate superior, Mr. George O. Von Nerta,
Technical Officer of the Supervising Architect's Office, writes:

"* * * Where he stood out apart from the rest was in his ability
to conceive and carry into execution an improvement of far-reaching
effect."

Mr. Appleton was elected a Member of the American Society of
Civil Engineers on April 4th, 1883.



MEMOIR OF WILLIAM HARRY ARNOLD 1679

WILLIAM HARRY ARNOLD, M. Am. Soc. C. E.*



Died August 13th, 1917.



William Harry Arnold was born at SmitMeld, Pa., on September
22d, 186-4. From ISSO to 1883, he was a student at the Mt. Pleasant
Classical and Scientific Institute, at Mt. Pleasant, Pa., and from
January, 1883, to August, 1885, he served as an Apprentice in the
Erecting Shops of the Pennsylvania Railroad at Pittsburgh, Pa.

In September, 1886, Mr. Arnold entered Rensselaer Polytechnic
Institute, at Troy, N. Y., from which he was graduated in June,

1890, with the degree of C. E., having lost one year (1886), on account
of sickness.

In June, 1890, he entered the employ of Nier and Hartford, of
Chattanooga, Tenn., being engaged on general engineering work. He
remained in this position and with Hartford and Hebert, until June,

1891, when he was engaged by G. W. G. Ferris and Company, of
Pittsburgh, Pa., on general inspection work.

Prom April to September, 1895, Mr. Arnold served with the Barber
Asphalt Company, of Buffalo, N. Y., and then came to New York
City, as Office Manager for R. W. Hildreth and Company. He also
had charge of the field work for this Company in the vicinity of
New York.

From August, 1896, to April, 1899, Mr. Arnold was engaged with
various officers of the Corps of Engineers, U. S. A., generally around
New York City, first as Draftsman, and then as Inspector of harbor
improvements. This work included the Patchogue Jetty improvement,
the dredging of the South Amboy, N. J., Channel, the dredging of
the Bay Ridge and Red Hook Channels, New York Harbor, as well
as work in connection with battery emplacements at Fort Wadsworth,
N. Y., and Fort Taylor, at Key West, Fla.

In April, 1899, Mr. Arnold entered the employ of the W. H. Beard
Dredging Company, of New York City, as Superintendent and Engi-
neer, in complete charge of the dredging fleet and the reconstruction
of dredges and tugs, retaining this position until July, 1903, when
he became Superintendent of the fleet of the Hughes Brothers and
Bangs Dredging Company, of New York City.

From July to October, 1904, Mr. Arnold was employed by J. G.
White and Company, of New York City, on harbor work in the
Philippine Islands.

In March, 1905, he was engaged by the Bush Terminal Company,
of New York City, first as Superintendent of Floating Equipm.ent,

* Memoir prepared by the Secretary from information furnished by E. B. Ashby,
Cons. Etigr., Lehigh Valley Railroad Company.



1680 MEMOIR OF WILLIAM HARRY ARNOLD

including the design and construction of tugs, car floats, dredges, etc.,
until June, 1906, when he was made Chief Engineer of the Company.

In 1907, Mr. Arnold resigned his position with the Bush Terminal
Company to enter into private practice as a member of the firm of
Arnold and Andrew, Consulting Engineers, but, in 1909, the partner-
ship was dissolved, and Mr. Arnold became General Manager of the
Bay State Dredging Company, of Boston, Mass.

From 1912 until January, 1914, he was engaged in general engi-
neering work. On the latter date he was appointed Terminal Engineer
of the Lehigh Valley Railroad Company, in New York City, which
position he retained until his death, on August 13th, 1917. In this
capacity, Mr. Arnold had charge of the construction of the new ore
dock at Constable Hook, N. J., as well as the piers, pier sheds, and
dredging in New York Harbor and at Perth Amboy, N. J.

Mr. Arnold was elected a Member of the American Society of Civil
Engineers on May 1st, 1907.



MEMOIR OF EDWARD MANNING BIGELOW 1681

EDWARD MANNING BIGELOW, M. Ajn. Soc. C. E.*



Died December 6th, 1916.



Edward Manning Bigelow was born in Pittsburgh, Pa., on ISTovem-
ber 6tb, 1850, being one of five children bom to Edward M. and Mary
Steel Bigelow. He received his early education in the public schools
and after graduation entered the Western University of Pennsylvania
(now the University of Pittsburgh) where he studied civil engineering.

Upon leaving college he entered the service of the City of Pitts-
burgh in a subordinate position on the staff of the City Engineer,
which position he held until 1874 when he was promoted to engineer
in charge of certain street construction, working under a Commission
which was authorized by special legislative enactment. Subsequently,
the laws authorizing this work were declared unconstitutional, and
Mr. Bigelow left the service of the City for a short time. He was re-
employed by the City and served as- Assistant Engineer in charge of
survey's and the location of streets from 1876 to 1878, and in charge
of construction from 1878 to 1882.

On January 9th, 1882, he was unanimously elected City Engineer
by Council, which position he held until 1885, and from 1885 to 1888
he was City Engineer and Commissioner of Highways. At this time
the City Charter was changed, the Department of Public Works being
created, and Mr. Bigelow was then appointed Director of the Depart-
ment of Public Works, which office he held for two full terms of three
years each.

On June 1st, 1911, Governor John K. Tener of Pennsylvania
appointed Mr. Bigelow to the office of State Commissioner of High-
ways, which office he held until April, 1915. Mr. Bigelow was honored
by a re-appointment to the office of Director of the Department of
Public Works of Pittsburgh just prior to his death.

Mr. Bigelow's entire life was devoted to municipal improvements-
He was an engineer of broad vision and foresight; his plans for
improvements were always comprehensive, and provided well for the
future. Under his supervision many miles of Pittsburgh's streets and
sewers were laid out and constructed, including the boulevards. His
greatest achievement, and the one in which he took the most pride, was
the development of Highland and Schenley Parks. It was also under
his administration that work on the water purification plant was
started.

Mr. Bigelow was an honest, tireless, and conscientious worker, and
more than ordinary credit is due him from the people of Pittsburgh

* Memoir prepared by N. S. Sprague, M. Am. Soc. C. E.



1682 MEMOIR OF EDWARD MANNING BIGELOW

when it is considered that many of the improvements which he inaugu-
rated and carried through to successful completion were consummated
in the face of much criticism and abuse. The appreciation of his
services in the development of the parks was manifest by the erection
of a bronze statue placed at the entrance of Schenley Park, the cost
of which was defrayed by public subscription. He was known as the
"Father of the Parks".

The same characteristic plan on a large and comprehensive scale
was displayed by Mr. Bigelow during his tenure of office as Commis-
sioner of Highways of the State of Pennsylvania. Under his direction
plans were made for the improvement of a comprehensive system of
highways traversing the State in anticipation of securing funds for
their improvement. Many of the State highways were improved, and
much credit is due to him for the creditable work performed with the
limited funds at his disposal.

Even during periods when Mr. Bigelow was not connected with
the government of Pittsburgh, his interest in city affairs never ceased;
and his genius for planning and energy in advocating improvements
for the benefit of the city were always manifest.

Aside from Mr. Bigelow's professional career, he was a man of
affairs and took an active interest in financial, commercial, and social
activities. He was a Trustee of the Carnegie Institute of Technology
from the time of its founding, and took an active part in the develop-
ment of this institution. He was President of the Liberty National
Bank, the Liberty Savings Bank, and the Homewood Cemetery. He
was also a Trustee of Andrew Carnegie's benefactions, the Car-
negie Library and Institute, Carnegie Hero Fund Commission, the
Institute of Technology, and also of the Schenley Memorial Com-
mission. He was a member of, and also took an active part in, the
East Liberty Presbyterian Church, and his time and talents were
given freely in the raising of funds and for other purposes connected
with this church.

Upon Mr. Bigelow's death, the Council of the City of Pittsburgh
paid due respect by calling a special meeting of that body for the
purpose of honoring the memory of the late Director of the Department
of Public Works, and the following resolution was passed, which per-
haps is the best expression of the high regard and esteem in which his
services to the City of Pittsburgh are held by this community :

"Whereas, Almighty God, in His infinite wisdom, has seen fit to
remove from our midst one of Pittsburgh's most distinguished citizens ;
and

"Whereas, Edward Manning Bigelow was a man of stainless integ-
rity, of superb courage, and of great intellectual force; a man who
always walked in the highway of right; and in disaster stood erect; a
man to whom defeat was but a spur to further effort; a man who



MEMOIR OF EDWARD MANNING BIGELOW 1683

believed in the loyalty to man, in the sovereignty of the citizen, and
in the matchless greatness of this grand City; a man who gave freely
of his talents and genius to the up-building of the City of Pittsburgh,
who served the City for many years with a self-sacrificing devotion,
and whose master hand is indelibly impressed upon every section of
the City; and

Whereas, As he lived he died, with that tenacity of purpose which
characterized his life; while yet in love with life and raptured with the
world he bravely answered the call of the Master of the Universe and
passed to his eternal home beyond the utmost reach of human harm or
help. He has left with us his wealth of thought and deed — the memory
of a brave, imperious, honest man, who bowed alone to death ; therefore
be it

Resolved, that a copy of these resolutions be spread upon the Min-
utes of Council of Pittsburgh, and that a copy be sent to his bereaved
widow."

In addition to the foregoing resolution, many tributes of respect
were paid to Mr. Bigelow's ability as a citizen and public officer by men
prominently identified with the financial, commercial, and professional
affairs of the City.

Mr. Bigelow was elected a Member of the American Society of
Civil Engineers on December 4th, 1889.



1684 MEMOIR OF DANIEL WHEELER BOWMAN

DANIEL WHEELER BOWMAN, xH. Am. Soc. C. E*



Died March 14th, 1917.



Daniel Wheeler Bowman, the son of Quaker parents, Francis
Bowman and Elizabeth (Hammond) Bowman, was born in New Bed-
ford, Mass., on October 2d, 1844. In 1857 his parents purchased a
farm at Ledyard, Cayuga County, N. Y., and moved there. Mr. Bow-
man spent much time on this farm, lending to his life the enthusiasm
and interest which marked him throughout his later years. There he
acquired and developed his great love for Nature and growing things;
and this clung to him until his death.

He received his early education at Oakwood Seminary, Union
Springs, N. Y., from which he was graduated in 1865. He returned
and took a post-graduate course at the Seminary, on finishing which he
was given charge of a Friends Academy, in Ohio. In 1868, Mr.
Bowman went to Kansas on some survey work, returning the same year
to enter Cornell University where he took the Civil Engineering
Course. His life at Cornell was characteristic of the man : simple,
honest, and earnest. With an unusually alert mind and great applica-
tion, he stood very high in all his classes, and by his native kindness
and interest in his fellows and in all that pertained to the general
welfare, he endeared himself to his classmates and all who knew him.
He was graduated in 1872 in the first "through" class in Civil Engi-
neering. In 1883, Cornell University conferred on him the degree
of C. E.

Immediately after his graduation, Mr. Bowman was offered a posi-
tion as Instrumentman on some survey work for the New York Central
Railroad Company in New York State, which he accepted, and in
which position he continued for two years, resigning to become associ-
ated as Engineering Secretary to the late Capt. James B. Eads,
M. Am. Soc. C. E., who at that time was in charge of important jetty
work at the Southwest Pass of the Mississippi River. While on this
work, Mr. Bowman was directly under the late G. W. R. Bayley,
M. Am. Soc. C. E., and was sent to New York City and Washington,
D. C, on special missions in connection with his work. He also had
charge of the construction of the dredge, 0. W. R. Bayley, in Pitts-
burgh, Pa., in 1877, for use on the jetty work. At that time it was
the largest dredge built, and was an engineering triumph. While on
this work Mr. Bowman married Ida Portia, the daughter of Mr.
Bayley. Two sons and a daughter by this marriage survive him.

* Memoir prepared by N. R. McLure, M. Am. Soc. C. E., with the assistance of
Seymour P. Thomas, Esq.



MEMOIE OF DANIEL WHEELER BOWMAN 1685

After this work was finished, Mr. Bowman made some very exten-
sive computations for a proposed bridge across the East River at
Blackwell's Island, New York City, for Capt. Eads, in connection with
the competition then asked for by those contemplating this structure.
His ability as a Designing Engineer on this work was so marked that
he was sent by Capt. Eads to Phoenixville, Pa., in connection with
some work that was then being done for him by Clarke, Reeves and
Company (now The Phoenix Bridge Company). At that time the late
Adolphus Bonzano, M. Am. Soc. C. E., was Chief Engineer of this
concern, and was so attracted by the quick perception, ability to grasp
and solve difficult situations, and general engineering ability of young
Bowman, that he arranged for him to remain at Phoenixville as his
Assistant, in charge of estimating and designing. While in this posi-
tion Mr. Bowman designed the first Kinzua Viaduct, for the New York,
Lake Erie and Western Railroad Company, in McKean County, Pa.,
which, at that time, was one of the longest and highest railroad via-
ducts in the world. He designed the Albany and Greenbush Bridge
across the Hudson River, at Albany, N. Y., a double-deck structure
carrying railroad and roadway, with approach spans and a rim-bearing
draw-span. He also designed the difficult reverse curve on the New
York Elevated Railway work, at 110th Street, Boulevard Crossing.
This was bu-lt with Phoenix columns and latticed girders, and, at the
time, was considered quite a complicated structure. Another notable
bridge designed by Mr. Bowman at this period was that over Rondout
Creek, on the West Shore Railroad.

In 1885, Mr. Bowman resigned his position as Designing Engineer
of The Phoenix Bridge Company and went South, doing some bridge
inspection work for the Southern Railway, and, in 1888, he was made
Bridge Engineer for the Central of Georgia Railway. While in this
position he had charge of the rebuilding of many of the old bridges
on the line. In 1891, he was made Assistant Engineer of The Boston
Bridge Works, at Boston, Mass., which position he filled until 1894,
when he returned to Phoenixville, Pa., as Assistant Engineer for The
Phoenix Iron Company. In 1896, he went to Chicago, 111., with
several associates, and organized the Universal Construction Company,
of Avhich he became Chief Engineer. In 1897, he again returned to
Phoenixville as Assistant Engineer for The Phoenix Iron Company,
under H. H. Quimby, M. Am. Soc. C. E., then Chief Engineer. On
the resignation of Mr. Quimby from this Company in November, 1900,
Mr. Bowman succeeded him as Chief Engineer, in charge of the esti-
mating, computing, designing, detailing, and erection of the structural
steel fabricated by The Phoenix Iron Company. He continued as
Chief Engineer until February, 1914, when he was made Consulting
Engineer, which position he held at the time of his death.



1686 MEMOIE OF DANIEL WHEELER BOWMAN

In 1899 lie was married to M. Virginia Vanderslice, of Phoenixville,
Pa. The years of Mr. Bowman's best service were devoted to structural
steel, particularly as applied to bridge and building work, and there
are few localities of size in the eastern section of the United States
which have not, however unconsciously, felt the influence of his ability
through structures erected in their midst. These were improved in
construction by his ever watchful and able supervision of the design.

Mr. Bowman was broad and liberal in his views of life, a progres-
sive in more than one sense of the word, charitable in his nature, and
a friend and counsellor to those who sought his help and advice. Many
a young engineer has been started on the right path through his careful
and painstaking efforts in his behalf. He was a great lover of Nature,
and spent many days in his later life, in the open among his flowers
and fruit trees. He had an intense and loyal affection for Cornell,
his Alma Mater, and seldom missed returning at Commencement time
to renew his youth with the younger Alumni. Among a host of friends
and acquaintances, rarely was there a man who will be so sadly missed.

Mr. Bowman was elected a Member of the American Society of
Civil Engineers, on December 3d, 1912.



MEMOIR OF CHAELES ADOLPHUS CALDWELL 1687

CHARLES ADOLPHUS CALDWELL, M. Am. Soc. C. E.*



Died August 31st, 1916.



Charles Adolphus Caldwell, the son of Oscar Adolphus Caldwell and
Carrie B. Caldwell, was born in Macon, Bibb County, Ga., on October
18th, 1866.

He began his engineering studies in 1882 at Yanderbilt University
where he remained two years. In 1884, he entered Rensselaer Poly-
technic Institute, Troy, N. Y., and was graduated in 1888 with the
degree of C. E.

Shortly afterward Mr. Caldwell began his professional career under
F. T. Dabney, Chief Engineer of the Central of Georgia Railroad, on
the extension of this road from Savannah to Americus.

In 1890, he was made Assistant Engineer on the St. Augustine and
North Beach Railroad, in Florida, from which position he resigned to
return to Macon, to accept an appointment in the office of the City
Engineer. In 1894 he was associated with Capt. J. W. Wilcox, As-
sistant Engineer on the construction of the Fort Valley Water- Works,
and as Principal Assistant to the City Engineer on the construction
of 32 miles of sanitary sewers in Macon, Ga.

In 1898, he was the Principal Assistant Engineer, in charge of
construction work, for the Macon Gas Light and Water Company, dur-
ing the construction of a 5 000 000-gal. filter plant and a new pump-
ing station.

In 1899, Mr. Caldwell designed and supervised the sanitary sewer
system for the City of Valdosta, Ga., and, in the same year, as Chief
Engineer, designed and constructed a water-power development for
1 000 h.p., at Juliet, Ga., on the Ocmulgee River. Here he also built
a 3 000-spindle cotton mill, and a grist mill with a daily capacity of
8 000 bushels for the Juliet Milling Company.

From 1899 to 1907, he was engaged in the general practice of his
profession, with offices at Macon, Ga. Dviring this time, he had charge
of a large amo^mt of general engineering work, including a number
of highway bridges, a sanitary sewer system for Forsyth, Ga., and was
associated with J. N. Hazlehurst, M. Am. Soc. C. E., in making the
appraisal of the existing water-works property of the Macon Gas Light
xnd Water Company, and designing a proposed municipal water-
works system of 10 000 000 gal. daily capacity. In 1910, he and Mr.
Hazlehurst represented the City of Macon before the Board of Arbi-



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