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gravel and thus controlling the resistance of the stratum to the flow
of water. The average depth of the layer is about 20 ft., and not more
than one-fourth of it is above extreme low water. In a rough way,
it appears that during dry years the water in the river is below the
level of the surface of the sand and gravel stratum for about 4 months,
and sometimes it is 3 or 4 ft. below for weeks at a time.

Deep wells show that, beneath this water-bearing stratum of sand
and gravel, there are layers of shale and clay, rather irregularly spaced,
and interspersed with more or less sand and gravel. So far as it has
been possible to ascertain, however, the sand and gravel layers below



760 WATER SUPPLY OF PAEKERSBUEG, W. VA.

the main deposit are too thin and too variable as to continuity to
make them worth serious consideration in connection with a municipal
water supply.

The general conditions as to the present river bed at Lock and Dam
18, about 2 miles below Briscoe, are shown on the sectional profile,
Fig. 2.

Source of Ground-Water. — The second step in studying a ground-
water project was to ascertain the source of the water found in the
water-bearing strata, and particularly the source and direction of the
flow of water in such strata in the event that a municipal supply
were to be taken regularly therefrom.

Inspection of local conditions shows at once that the promontory
at Briscoe, with the rock extending across the river a short distance
beneath the river bed, clearly precludes the possibility of any sub-
stantial quantity of ground-water coming from points above Briscoe
and passing longitudinally down the bottom-lands. Accordingly, a
water entering the sand and gravel strata must come either from
the river, by infiltration through the bottom and sides of the river-bed,
or from the rainfall on the bottom-lands themselves or the upland
district immediately tributary thereto.

Inspection shows that these bottom-lands are traversed longitudi-
nally by Pond Run for the greater portion of the distance, and at
the upper or northern end there is another run which passes diagon-
ally across the bottom-lands and enters the Ohio at Vienna. These
surface streams have a drainage area of some 5 sq. miles back in the
hills. The hilly sections contain much clay and loam, and are generally
of an impervious character, as distinguished from the so-called sand
plains. Pond Run apparently has an almost impervious bed. Its slope
is exceedingly light, and the fine materials deposited show that, except
at times perhaps of heavy rainfall, no appreciable quantity of water
passes from this run into the water-bearing strata below.

Along the edge of the upland area there are a number of flowing
wells and wet places, showing clearly that the water entering the ground
in the hilly upland district meets impervious strata as it reaches the
edge of the bottom-lands, and that it is easier for it to force its
way to the surface than to enter the sand and gravel strata.

Of course, some rainfall on the bottom-lands themselves would reach
the underlying strata of sand and gravel, but the fine and impervious



WATER SUPPLY OF PARKERSBURG, W. VA. 761

nature of the 40-ft. layer of loam precludes this from reaching any
substantial volume. It must also be borne in mind that the loam
stratum is flooded with muddy Ohio River water from time to time,
and the surface at such periods is covered with a deposit of fine silt
and clay.

During wet weather, perhaps when the water in the Ohio is high,
it would appear that the water contained in the pores of the extensive
sand and gravel layers is largely from the river, but to some extent
it is from upland sources, the high river stage damming up some of
the upland water.

Messrs. Fuertes and Fuller were firmly of the opinion that, during
low-water stages in the Ohio, the water which can be drawn from
the strata is that which has been stored within the pores of the
material at times of previous high water. They were also certain
that, during low stages in the river, as this stored water is removed or
naturally flows away, whatever water enters these sub-surface strata
of sand and gravel is largely of river origin. They concluded, there-
fore, that, as a source of supply for a municipality, the water from
such strata, at the end of protracted droughts, must come from the
Ohio through the bottom or sides of the present river bed along
the bottom-lands below Briscoe.

Disposition of Ground-Water. — The next point on which it was
necessary to make inquiry, in studying the feasibility of a ground-
water supply, was the answer to the question: Where does the water
entering the porous sand and gravel layers in question now go ? The
answer is shown clearly by the studies which have been made and
the profiles of the water levels secured from different wells prior to
the occurrence of high water during the winter of 1909-10, as well
as in the study of various water levels or contours during and sub-
sequent to the January rise in the Ohio. Unquestionably, the water
in the porous sand and gravel layers, found at some distance below the
bottom-land, ultimately makes its way more or less irregularly and
slowly into the Ohio.

Several features of interest and importance were disclosed in
studying the question of the relation between the passage of the
water from the Ohio into what is practically a large underground
storage reservoir, as above described, the water storage therein, and



-762 WATEK SUPPLY OF PAEKERSBUEG, W. VA.

also the passage of water therefrom back into the river. This is
indicated by the diagrams, Figs. 3 to 10.

In the first place, it was found that the water in the porous sand
and gravel layers did not rise to such high levels as those found in the
river itself. This is indicated by the readings in test wells almost at
the bank of the river; and shows that, even during fairly high velocities
in the river, there is still so much mud and silt deposited on its sides
and bottom that a considerable head is required to overcome the
friction sufficiently to allow substantial quantities of the water to
pass through this thin and more or less impervious deposit.

In the second place, in discussing the question of the disposition
of the water stored in these sand and gravel layers, it is necessary
to consider the character of the material, and especially the finer
particles of sand making up the water-bearing stratum or under-
ground storage reservoir. In this regard the observations showed that
considerable head was required in order to cause the water to flow
in substantial quantities through the sand interspersed with gravel.
For instance, it was found that the river water scarcely affected the
level of the water in wells 2 000 ft. from the river, notwithstanding
that in the river itself there was a 20-ft. rise during the period in
which the observations were made.

This shows two important features: one is that this underground
reservoir fills from the river only to a slight extent during floods of
short duration; the other is that considerable water cannot be removed
at a single point without creating quite a steep slope on which the
water will flow to the point of removal. This means that the water
stored in this underground reservoir can by no means be removed
entirely; in fact, in order to remove a substantial portion, it would
be necessary to establish points of withdrawal at quite frequent
intervals throughout the area in question.

Pertaining, however, to the answer to the main proposition set
forth under this heading, it may be said that the water stored in this
sand and gravel layer during floods makes its exit into a falling river
with quite steep slopes when the quantity stored is great. Considering
these underground sand and gravel layers as a storage reservoir, there-
fore, it is seen that, after having once been filled during a protracted
flood, the reservoir, in the absence of any pumping, slowly becomes
emptied as the river falls. Here it may be pointed out that, although



WATEK SUPPLY OF PARKERSBUEG, W. VA. 763

the mud deposits on the bottom and sides of the river bed are of
much significance in controlling the rate at which this underground
reservoir will fill, they seem to be of less significance as regards its
emptying, on account of the lifting of the deposits from the sides
of the stream bed by the pressure of the ground-water in its flow
to the river.

Collection of Ground-Water. — The next step in considering a
ground-water proposition, particularly one like that at Parkersburg,
where a flowing underground stream does not exist, is to ascertain
the best means of drawing or collecting the water from the porous
sand and gravel layers containing it.

It is true that during the pumping tests the bottom-lands were so
saturated with water that the withdrawal of 500 000 gal. or m.ore
per day from a single 12-in. well made very little impression on the
surrounding water levels. A cone of depression was noticeable, particu-
larly during the latter portion of the pumping period, but the infor-
mation obtained therefrom was slight when compared with that
available from other sources. This is indicated by the diagrams,
Figs. 3 to 10.

The studies by Messrs. Fuertes and Fuller showed clearly that dur-
ing the pumping period, from January 17th to February 5th, 1910, the
groimd-water contours were nearly parallel to the river. In other
words, there was substantially no difference in the elevation of the
ground-water at approximately equal distances back from the river
throughout the entire length of the bottom-lands. This fact tends to
show that the quality and porosity of the underlying porous strata
of these lands are not materially different throughout their length.
It also shows that there is no substantial flow of water longitudinally
through the porous strata forming the underground reservoir in
question. Therefore, they concluded that it would not be judicious
to provide for the removal of ground-water by a line of wells at right
angles to the river bank. This is shown by Figs. 3 to 10.

The records obtained by Mr. Knowles in December, 1908, show that,
even when less than ,350 000 gal. per 24 hours were pumped from a
12-in. well, the water level was lowered in the well about 13 ft. with-
out lowering the surface materially at points less than 200 ft. from
the well. Furthermore, this cone of depression had its apex below
the surface of the rock on which the sand and gravel strata rest.



764



WATER SUPPLY OF PARKERSBURG, W. VA.




ANUARY,



18TH, 1910, 2 P.M



600



•390



580 «



St rf ace of ground-water



Loam



Gravel



Pigs. 3 to 10 show surface of ground-water each day at the stated times, from
January 18th to February 10th, 1910, inclusive, during the pumping of the 12-in. _

test well designated as Well No. 3, and drilled by Morris Knowles in 1908. Pumping

from this well was started January 17th and continued at a rate of about 460 000 gal.

daily until February 2d at 5 p.m., when the rate was increased to about 590 000 gal.

daily. Pumping was stopped February 8th at 2 p.m. River began to rise about
■ noon Jsauary 2Tth.. Elevation at that time was 577.00 —



S^'^P^



570



560.2



550



f-Cl( A^'\



Gravel



Rock



540



300 600 900 1200 1500

Distance from River, in Feet.
Fig. 3.



1800



2400




JANUARY,



19TH, 1910, 2 P.M



500



590



580 .5



Note effect of sudden rise of river on forcing river water back
into gravel layers; also obliteration of cone of depression by
sudden access of large quantities of water entering the ground
under the high head due to the elevation of the river surface .



560 o



550



rff '



540



300 600 900 1200 1500

Distance from River, in Feet.
Fig. 4.



1800



2100



2400



WATER SUPPLY OF PARKERSBURG, W. VA.



765




JANUARY,



21ST, 1910, 2 P.M.



600



590



580 S



560 o



550



Kiver reached its highest stage on this day, but ground-water
continued to rise until January 24th. See diagram of that date.




600 900 1200 1500

Distance from River, in Feet.
Fig. 5.



1800



24.00



540




JANUARY, 24TH, 1910, 2 P.M.



600



590



580



570 %



560 o



Ground-water reached its greatest height on this day although river
reached its highest stage about noon. January 21st, three days before.






TT



?H y^rr



300 600 900 1200 1500

Distance from River, in Feet.
Fig. 6.



1800



2100



766



WATER SUPPLY OF PAEKP:RSBURG, W. VA.




From now on observe the gradual flattening of the
slope of the ground-water as the river falls.



600



590



580 JO



570



560 .2



550



.■■i^■•^•^^ "



W^^^f^W^



540



300 600 900 1200 1500

Distance from River, in Feet.
Fig- 7.



1800



2100



2400




600



590



580



Rate of pumping at this time Is 480000 gallons daily;

3 hours later the rate was increased to 590 000 gallons daily-



^ \ yjA / " C



560



300 600 900 1200 1500

Distance from River, in Feet.
Fig. 8.



1800



2100



2400



WATER SUPPLY OF PARKERSBURG, W. VA.



76';




FEBRUARY,



6TH, 191



600



590



580 «



570 "S

o

JS
560.2



By about this date the water that ran back into the gravel,
during the flood, hcd practically all run out again and the ground-
water sloped naturally toward the river, instead of away from
it, as it had done during the flood.




550



540



600 900 1200 1500 1800

Distance from Rirer, in Feet.
Fig. 9.



2100



3400




600 900 1200 1500 1800

Distance from River, in Feel.
Fig. 10.



2100 2400



768



WATER SUPPLY OF PARKEESBURG, W. VA.



The volume of water whicli could be pumped from this well at the
end of this protracted period of low water, therefore, was limited by
the flow which could reach the bottom of the sand and gravel strata
at any given location for the removal of water ; at the point in question
the limit seemed to be less than 500 000 gal. daily.

These data led to the conclusion that it would be less advantageous
to attempt to place an underground collecting gallery at or near the
bottom of the porous strata in question than to collect water by a series
of wells, assuming that the investment cost would be kept at about
the same figure.




600 800 1000 1200

Distance from River, in Feet



Fig. 11.

Taking everything into account, and considering only the geological
conditions, it is perfectly clear that the best method of collecting an
underground water supply from the district in question would be by
a series of wells, each not less than 10 in. in diameter, parallel with
the river, and approximately 400 ft. apart.

Mr. Knowles' recommendation for a line also perpendicular to the
river was influenced by the lay of the land which was being given to
the city by the Senator Camden estate provided the land was used
for water-works purposes.



WATEK SUPPLY OF PARKERSBUKG, W. VA. 769

Furthermore, as a safeguard during protracted periods of drought,
it was the opinion of Messrs. Fuertes and Fuller that it would be
wise to sink these wells in a line parallel to and about 200 ft. from
the bank of the river, rather than at a greater distance, and not at
right angles thereto.

Available Quantity of Ground-Water. — The investigations of
Messrs. Fuertes and Fuller showed clearly that, during high and
moderate stages of the Ohio, a supply of ground-water ample for all
needs of the city exists in the porous sand and gravel layers in the
bottom-lands above the Camden Farm.

It was also their opinion that it was reasonably certain that, at
the end of low-water periods, a well-designed system of wells would
provide for the needs of the city for some time to come.

To obtain a supply of 4 000 000 gal. daily from wells, it would be
necessary to provide at least ten wells of the size and positions above
mentioned; and further, in order to insure this volume of water at
the end of protracted periods of drought, it would be essential to
provide a plant for increasing artificially the quantity of water filtering
in from the river, through its bottom and sides, to the wells in
question. Messrs. Fuertes and Fuller considered it possible to secure
an increase of infiltration by means which are noted subsequently in
describing the feasible methods of securing a ground-water supply
under local conditions.

Quality of Ground-Water. — During the Fuertes and Fuller inves-
tigations particular attention was paid to the quality of the water,
both as shown by the results of analyses of samples made during Mr.
Knowles' investigations, and also of analyses of samples taken during
the pumping tests and analyzed jointly by Professor Merriam, of
Marietta, and by Mr. J. R. McClintock, who served as Resident
Engineer during these tests. In brief, these analyses showed a water
which was of excellent appearance, and satisfactory in every way
for domestic and manufacturing uses. There was a slight tinge
of turbidity in the well water when examined in 1-gal. bottles, but
it was so slight that it would not be noticed in a tumbler. At
times of increasing suddenly the rate of pumping, or on starting
up the pump after it had been shut down for a few minutes, slight
increases in the turbidity were observed, but these quickly disappeared.



770



WATER SUPPLY OF PAEKERSBUEG, W. VA.




WATER SUPPLY OF PARKERSBUEG, W. VA. 771

All samples analyzed were tested, without any effort to eliminate the
slight turbidity mentioned.

Briefly stated, the bacteria in the well water ranged from 14 to 170,
and averaged 63 per cu. em. The total hardness of the well water
ranged from 76 to 98, and averaged 90 parts per million. The river
water samples collected on the same days showed a total hardness
ranging from 52 to 71, and averaged 63 parts per million. Corre-
sponding figures for wells in the Beechwood district were 88, 102, and
94, respectively.

Samples of well water taken from the test well were analyzed care-
fully for iron, and found to contain about 0.5 part per million. There
was no sign of this iron precipitating out, and experience elsewhere
shows that, with the quantity of iron above stated, difficulties are not
encountered.

Samples of water taken from test wells contained rather objection-
able quantities of iron in some instances, evidently due to the water
dissolving iron during long intervals of standing in contact with
the metal.

Slightly increased quantities of iron were found in the water of
the well at the steel works, but not to an objectionable degree. This
greater quantity of iron is explained partly by the flow of water
through a long line of pipe and partly by the connection which the
well has with underground porous strata where the water remains in
contact with pervious layers for many months and perhaps years.

Messrs. Fuertes and Fuller, taking everything into consideration,
had no hesitancy in stating that the quality of the water from the
porous sand and gravel layers of the bottom-lands at and above the
Camden Farm is thoroughly satisfactory for domestic and manu-
facturing purposes. They placed the water from such wells in the
same general class as filtered water obtained from a properly built
and well operated filter plant treating water from the Ohio River in
the vicinity of Parkersburg.

There are some slight differences in the quality of the water from
wells and from filters, the principal feature of which would be the
hardness on account of the wells yielding water coming largely from
the Ohio River at times when it is in flood and fairly soft. Messrs.
Fuertes and Fuller did not attach much importance to this difference,
because ultimately, during low-water periods, the well water would



772 WATEE SUPPLY OF PAEKEKSBUKG, W. VA.

also have its source in the Ohio. So far as quality is concerned, they
put waters from filters and from wells in the vicinity of the Camden
Farm on a parity. However, the writer is somewhat partial to the
natural water when equally free from bacteria and other objectionable
qualities.
Most Practicable Method of Securing a Ground-Water Supply.

Messrs. Fuertes and Fuller discussed and considered from various
viewpoints the most practicable method of securing a ground-water
supply, and their conclusions may be briefly summed up as follows.

It is not feasible to secure a municipal water supply for the City
of Parkersburg by galleries or wells running at right angles to the
Ohio River.

Wells of very large diameter, or tunnels, would not be a fruitful
investment, on account of the steep slopes of the cones of depression
which would be formed around the points of withdrawal of water.
Small wells, not less than 12 in. in diameter, afford by far the best
way of collecting the ground-water supply from the porous sand and
gravel layers in the bottom-lands at and above the Camden Farm.

These wells should be in a line parallel to the river, about 400 ft.
apart, and about 200 ft. from the bank.

A deep tunnel for receiving the flow of the wells is far less expedient
than a force main receiving the waters from individual wells, due to
the expense of tunneling at the depths required, and other local
conditions.

Description of Well- Water System as Considered by Messrs.
Fuertes and Fuller.

The studies of the plant necessary to carry out most economically
and advantageously the methods just described of securing a ground-
water supply from the locality in question, are briefly described as
follows.

Extent. — Ten wells should be established, in a line extending along
the river front, approximately 200 ft. from the bank, and 400 ft. apart.

Location. — As the well layout would cover about 4 000 ft., it is
not feasible to place all the wells on the Camden Farm, or, in fact,
all below the Steel Works, as the porous underground strata do not
extend a sufficient distance down stream. It is assumed, therefore,
that the well plant will extend to above the Parkersburg Iron and



WATER SUPPLY OF PARKEESBUEG, W. VA. 773

Steel Works. Prudence, however, would suggest that they should
not reach above the lower end of Neal's Island, on account of the
shallowness of the channel east of that island, the absence of scouring
velocities therein, and the imperviousness of the stream bed.

Wells. — It is contemplated to sink shafts, 7^ ft. in diameter, brick
lined, and 40 ft. deep, or down to the top of the porous sand and
gravel layer. In each there should be a cased well, 12 in. in diameter,
with a brass strainer for a length of at least 20 ft. at the lower end.
This 12-in. pipe would be connected with a centrifugal pump placed
at the bottom of the 7i-ft. shaft, the masonry wall of which would
be extended up to above extreme high water, some 12 ft. above the
ground level in this locality.

Comparison of Well-Water Supply with Filtered Supply from the

Ohio Kiver.

In the report of Messrs. Fuertes and Fiiller comparative estimates
of cost were given, both for the well-water supply and filtered river-
water supply to provide an average daily yield of 4 000 000 gal. and
be capable of supplying water for short periods at a maximum rate
of 6 000 000 gal. per 24 hours.

In substance, this report stated, on the basis of figures detailed
therein, that the cost of construction and of operation of a first-class
well system and a first-class filter system at the Camden Farm site
were substantially on a parity as to the quality of water and as to
the cost, both of construction and of operation, and that either plant
could be depended on to supply such quantity of water as would be
needed by the City of Parkersburg for some years to come. Mention
is to be made of the fact, with reference to the well-water supply,
that the estimates of cost include a suitable charge for land required
to insure the adequacy of the system.

Further, the report stated that, by placing the filter plant nearer
the site of the present i)umping station, the investment cost could
be made less for the filter plant, but with no substantial difference
in operating and maintenance expenses between either plant at
either site. The report finally recommended that all interests of the
city would be best served by the establishment of a filter plant, near
the site of the then existing water-works pumping station, to supply
the city with properly filtered Ohio Eiver water.



774 water supply of parkersburg, w. va,

Smith Infiltration System.

An injunction suit, as already stated, prevented the city officials
from acting independently of the full Water-Works Commission in



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