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Mr. L. W. Adamson. Some discussion followed,
and the idea seemed to be cordially approved by
the meeting generally, but of course subject to
various suggested alterations in the details of the
previous exhibition, and especially the desirability
of securing premises more appropriate for the dis-
play than could be obtained in the limited space at
disposal in the Black Gate.

in Ha Hf.
At the monthly meeting of the Stirling Natural
History and Arch^ological Society, held on
December 21, Mr. W. B. Cook read a paper en-
titled "Notes for a New History of Stirling." In
the first part of the paper he identified the site of
the old Playfield of Stirling, where the miracle
plays, mysteries, and moralities of the Middle
Ages were performed. This was the hollow between
the Ballangeich road and the Gowan Hills, in
which the westernmost houses in Lower Castlehill,
Ballangeich Cottages, and Mitchell Place have been
built. No place, Mr. Cook said, could be better
adapted for theatrical performances, as it was
sheltered on every side, and the rising ground to
the north and south, forming a natural amphi-
theatre, afforded excellent accommodation for the
spectators. Mr. Cook also suggested that this old



Playfield, rather than the exposed eminences in its
neighbourhood, was the probable site of the
rehgious rites of the earliest settlers on the rock of
Stirling. If it could be traced back to prehistoric
times, it linked the past centuries together in a way
which no object of antiquity in the district could
equal. Only the testimony of the rocks could reach
back to a remoter age. The Playfield of Stirling
was deserted prior to 1578, and appeared to have
become a sort of No Man's Land, which the Crown
appropriated and feued out to the royal servants.
The nrst feuar was Thomas Ritchie, servant to
James VI., and it was remarked as a curious coinci-
dence that a well in the Castlehill, now built up,
has been known for many generations as the
"Tammy Ritchie" well. The second part of the
paper was devoted to a description of the various
sites of the King's stables in Stirling, which were
originally on the low ground to the south-west of
Stirling Castle, and prior to 1538 were shifted to
the north side of the Castle, contiguous to the old
Playfield. The extent of stable accommodation
required when Stirling Castle was the abode of
royalty was shown from the Household Book of
James V. Mr. Cook's third note exposed a fabrica-
tion of a masonic charter in the possession of Lodge
"Stirling Ancient," 30, which set forth that the
building of Cambuskenneth Abbey had brought to
the district a large number of unskilled masons,
and granted to the masons of Stirling the privilege
of forming a lodge. Three of the witnesses to this
document were proved to be myths, and it was also
condemned by its date, March 5, 1147, which was
long anterior to the appearance of the annus
domini in Scottish charters. The object of the
author of this forged charter of David I. was no
doubt to give a hoary antiquity to the Stirling
Lodge of Freemasons, which, however, could law-
fully claim to have been founded by William Shaw,
Master of Works to James VI., and so rank third
instead of thirty in the order of Scottish lodges.
In his fourth and concluding note, Mr. Cook
endeavoured to fix approximately the age of Cam-
buskenneth Abbey Tower. The original bell-tower,
he said, was destroyed by lightning prior to 1361,
and there was no restoration of the tower before
1405, so that the building which now stood out so
prominently in the landscape was not older than
the fifteenth century, although it had been con-
sidered by certain architectural authorities to be as
old as the twelfth century, when the monastery
was founded.

Hfi : *
" Sixty Years' Reminiscences of Bradford " was the
title of a lecture delivered on January 7 by Mr.
George Field, of West Bank, Heaton, before the
Bradford Antiquarian Society. Mr. Field's
connection with Bradford began in the year 1837.
His father, a small top-maker in Devonshire, was
forced by the decline of the woollen industry in the
West of England to seek work further afield. After
a sojourn of a few years in Kidderminster, he came
North and settled in Bradford, where, owing to the
advent of machinery, the trade by which he gained
his livelihood had centred. Here he was soon
joined by his wife and children, among whom was

the lecturer. Mr. Field had a vivid recollection of
the journey. From Kidderminster Manchester was
reached by canal boat. A waggon conveyed the
travellers over the bleak Blackstone Edge to
Halifax, and the remainder of the journey was
performed on foot. His first home was in George
Street, a thoroughfare which, though it now has
rather an unsavoury reputation, was then considered
a respectable residential neighbourhood. Mr. Field
commenced work when nine years of age in a
Brussels carpet factory. On coming to Bradford
he worked for two years and a half at the comb,
leaving home at the age of fourteen. He had never
in his life had a day's schooling, all that he knew
having been acquired by self-tuition, pursued with
resolute perseverance. Having given this brief
sketch of his personal history, in order, as he ex-
pressed it, that his audience might be better able
to sympathise with his views, the lecturer proceeded
to deal with the persons and places occupying a
prominent position in the history of Bradford,
giving, besides his personal recollections, a short
historical account of each. Speaking first of Boiling
Hall, as being the most ancient, he referred to its
associations with Richard Oastler and the agitation
which resulted in the passing of the Factory Acts,
calling attention in passing to the fact that among
all the Jubilee celebrations which took place last
year it had occurred to no one to celebrate the
jubilee of the first of these beneficial measures. In
Spring Wood, which was part of the Boiling Hall
estate, Mr Field witnessed, in 1846, the cutting of
the first sod on the railway from Bradford to Low
Moor, the first line which put Bradford into direct
communication with the outside world. Coming
next to Scarr Hill, now the residence of the Mayor,
the lecturer pointed out that the old house had for
one of its earliest occupants, in the person of Mr.
Joshua Pollard, a man who was bitterly opposed,
first to the incorporation of Bradford, and after-
wards to every scheme undertaken by the young
municipality for the improvement of the town.
Joshua Pollard was a man of great personal
courage, and on the occasion of the Chartist riots
he showed this by relieving the Mayor, Mr. Milligan,
who was a very timid man, of the unpleasant duty
of reading the Riot Act to the infuriated mob.
Speaking of a fine specimen of fossil Stigmaria
found near Clayton, which had been purchased by
the authorities of Owen's College, Manchester,
Mr. Field regretted that for want of proper accom-
modation geological finds and antiquarian relics
should be allowed to leave the district. His ac-
quaintance with Horton Hall dated from 1840, the
hall then being occupied by Mr. Samuel Hailstone.
The building was the first in Bradford to be
licensed as a preaching place. It was also the
scene of many great functions, and was visited
from time to time by many eminent men. Bolton
Hall had had a chequered career, and of all
the families who had occupied it during the last
century, with the exception of the Laws, none
remained in Bradford. Mr. Field also gave a
number of interesting reminiscences of a similar
character of the Clock House and the Manor Hall
and their various occupiers, mentioning in connec-

I 2



tion with the latter place that it was under its roof
Mr. Gathorne Hardy now Lord Cranbrook was
born. He well remembered the old Talbot Hotel,
and when it was demolished many years ago he
bought from the late Mr. E. W. Hammond the
stone effigy of the dog which served as its sign.

* * *

At the December meeting of the Natural History
AND Antiquarian Society of the Isle of Man, held
at Douglas, the report of Mr. G. W. Lamplough.
the delegate of the society to the meeting of the
British Association at Toronto was received. The
Rev. T. Quine read a paper on "Manx Parish
Church Sites," in the course of which he remarked
that the parochial system in the island the consti-
tution of^ parishes and the establishment of parish
churches dates at the earliest from the middle of
the thirteenth century (Bishop Richard, the English-
man, first Baron Bishop of the island), but more
probably from the last quarter of that century
(Bishop Mark, first Scotch Bishop, a.d. 1275-1300).
Bishop Simon died in 1247, and in 1266, Magnus,
last King of Man. They were the last of the old
Manx-Norse kings and bishops ; henceforth there
was Scotch and English rule, and in the Church an
English bishop, then a succession of seven Scottish
bishops. The parochial system was exotic and
alien ; but as it had been introduced from England
into Scotland, so from Scotland most probably it
was introduced into the Isle of Man. Alluding to
the cathedral church of Peel, Mr. Quine observed
that in his opinion the cathedral was founded about
a century before parishes were constituted. There
is something more than a hint of a chapter of clergy
at St. German's about 1245. These were not all
resident, of course, but a resident body is implied.
There is evidence of a body of clergy at Maug-
hold in 1 160, and no doubt there were other
centres. There was no trace of a separation and
isolation of the clergy, as afterwards came to pass
in the parochial system. Mr. P. M. C. Kermode
followed by reading a paper on " Records of Sharks
in Manx Waters," referring more especially to a
specimen of a true shark lately captured at Derby

* *

At the annual meeting of the Clifton Antiquarian
Club, held on January 5, Colonel Bramble, F.S.A.,
briefly surveyed the changes which have taken
place at Bristol during the last forty years. He
observed as follows : " The boundaries of our city
have, since our last meeting, been very widely
extended, but its archaeological history has been
comparatively uneventful. We have, however, lost
that wonderful specimen of an aln-ost untouched
mediaeval street the Pithay. My experience of
Bristol is only of some forty years' standing. I
came to reside here in the spring of 1857, but
during that comparatively short period the changes
have been great. I would instance the entrance to
St. Nicholas and Mary-le-Port streets, which, when
1 first knew them, were so narrow that a single
crank-axled cart blocked both road and pathways ;
I have seen such a cart break through the wooden
cover of a cellar opposite St. Nicholas Church, and
effectually block the entire road, even to foot pas-

sengers, for nearly an hour. The opposite house
the Druid's Arms overhanging the road, was only
kept from falling against the north side of the
church by short, stout struts; and the same
method was adopted at the High Street end of
Mary-le-Port Street. In either case there was no
difficulty in shaking hands from the windows of
houses on the opposite sides of the street. The
houses at the corner of High Street and Nicholas
Street were pulled down, and I may mention that
the Angel Inn, contrary to popular belief, did not
stand at this corner, but further up High Street,
with a return at right angles into Nicholas Street.
There were two shops at the corner, which were
pulled down for widening the street, and the re-
maining houses, being imperfectly shored up, one
evening, about an hour after I passed there, slipped
down into the cellars. It is an ill wind that blows
no one any good. New and substantial buildings
took the place of the old ones, but the picturesque-
ness of the High Street was practically gone.
Further down St. Nicholas Street the Elephant,
popularly known as the Pig and Whistle, was,
about 1863, ' set back.' Up to that time there was
in this part barely room for a cart to pass, but the
obstruction was only for a short distance. To get
from College Green to Park Street you dipped down
into Frogmore Street and up again. Steep Street,
now obliterated, formed the wheel-road from Host
Street to Park Row. To pass to the Imperial Hotel
opposite King's Parade there was barely room for
two cabs to pass each other. At Pembroke Road,
then called Baths Acre Lane, you had to squeeze
against a wall to enable a cart to pass you, and the
top of St. Michael's Hill, near Highbury Chapel,
was little wider. Hampton Road was a country
lane. St. John's Road was a field path, and to get
on wheels from Pembroke Road to Clifton Park
you had to pass on the south or lower side of
Clifton parish church, and return by way of Rodney
Place. Since our last meeting, Mr. J. L. Pearson,
the architect superintending the restoration of the
cathedral, has died. So far, I believe, no selection
of a successor has been made by the Dean and
Chapter. We may be allowed to express a hope
that their choice may fall upon someone who may
have a reverent feeling, not only towards the build-
ing as a building, but also towards the great
historical and civic interests which attach to it as
a fine ecclesiastical building of date long antecedent
to the establishment of the see of Bristol. As I
have often taken the opportunity to impress on this
and kindred societies, architecture is not everything.
Do not leave the shell without the kernel ; do not
discard all historical and human interest for the
purpose of having a building architecturally perfect
and complete." In conclusion, the president stated
that their secretary, Mr. Hudd, was leaving for the
East in a week's time, and he was glad the club
had an opportunity of showing its goodwill by
asking him to accept a silver bowl, dated 181 1, and
a set of four silver candlesticks, dated 1779. These
gifts had been subscribed for by the members ; the
candlesticks bore a monogram specially designed
by Mr. Gough, and the bowl was inscribed with
these words : " Presented, together with a set of



four candlesticks, by the Clifton Antiquarian Club
to their honorary secretary, Alfred E. Hudd, Esq.,
F.S.A. January 5th, 1898."

Mr. Hudd, in acknowledging the gift, said it was
exceedingly kind of the members to give him such
a choice and valuable present. He had been taken
completely by surprise, and he had no idea such a
plot was being arranged. The presents would be
most valued by him, and would be a pleasure to
his wife and family.

lRet)ietri0 anD jl3otices
of if3eto T5ook0.

[Publishers are requested to be so good as always to
mark clearly the prices of books sent for review, as
these notices are intended to be a practical aid to
book-buying readers.l

Thk Dialect and Place-Namf.s of Shetland.
. By Jakob Jakobsen, Ph.D. Copenhagen. Cloth,
4to., pp. 125. Lerwick : T. and J. Manson.

Although this volume is described as containing two
"popular lectures" delivered at Lerwick, it is of a much
more solid character than such a description might seem
to imply. The book really contains a scientific and
scholarly treatise on the old Scandinavian language of
the Shetlands, and the many traces it has left of itself,
not merely in Shetland place-names, but in the
common speech of the people themselves. There is,
no doubt, something very appropriate in a Dane
crossing to Shetland, and for three years patiently
studying the language of the people, in order to
gather up the fragments of the old speech which still
remain ; but it is hardly creditable to Englishmen or
Scotchmen that it should have been left for Dr.
Jakobsen to do this. Yet had Dr. Jakobsen not
taken the work in hand, it is to be feared that in a
short time it would have been too late, and that much
which he has rescued for preservation would have
been wholly lost.

The old Scandinavian tongue as a common speech
died out in Shetland about the latter part of the
middle of last century. In 1774 an old man in
Foula repeated a Norn ballad, but could not translate
it, and could only give a general idea of its meaning
a sort of echo, as it were, of the end of the old
tongue as a spoken language. Yet, as Dr. Jakobsen
observes (p. 10), "The fact that about ten thousand
words derived from the Norn still linger in Shetland,
although a great number of them are not actually in
daily and only remembered by old people, is
sufficient to show that it cannot be very long since the
real Norn speech died. In several parts of Shetland,
especially Foula and the North Isle', the present
generation of old people remember their grand-parents
speaking a language that they could hardly under-
stand, and which was called Norn or Norse. But it
must have been greatly intermixed with Scotch, for
many of the old words now dying out and being sup-
planted by English are really Scotch, although they
are believed by many to be Norn.

The book comprises two parts : the first deals with
the language generally, and with the remnants of it
which are still to be found in the speech of the
people. Very remarkable indeed is the amount of
the old language. We quote the following example,
a nursery rhyme from Unst :

" Buyn vil ikka teea ;
Tak an leggen,
Slogan veggen,
Buyn vil ikke teea."
The translation of which is :

' The child will not be still ;
Take him by the leg.
Strike him against the wall.
The child will not be still."

As another specimen of conversational Norn, Dr.
Jakobsen quotes the following "goadik" or riddle
belonging to Unst, and given him by Mr. Irvine, of
Lerwick :

" Fira honga, fira gonga,
Fira staad upo sk0,
Twa veestra vaig a bee.
And ane comes atta driljandi."

This curious mixture of corrupt Norse and Scotch
is. Dr. Jakobsen says, a riddle about the cow's body,
and may thus be translated :

" Four hang (that is to say, the teats), four go (the
legs), four stand skywards (horns and ears), two show
the way to the town (the eyes), and one comes shaking
behind (the tail)."

We have said nothing of the examples of words and
combinations of words still employed in ordinary con-
versation which Dr. Jakobsen has collected, but the
whole of the first portion of the book is full of matter
of this kind, and shows that much more of the old
language still lingers in Shetland than is generally

The second part of the book deals with the place-
names, and is perhaps the more serviceable portion of
the book, though it covers a good deal of ground
already occupied by English and Scotch students.
There are, nevertheless, a good many new points
brought out by the author, and what he says in many
instances throws fresh light on obscure place-names,
and will be found of use by those who are occupied
with the study of English place-names affected by
Scandinavian influences. The book is a thoroughly
sound one, and its type and get-up do much credit to
the Lerwick house which has issued it.

* * *
The Stapeltons of Yorkshire. By H. E. Chet-
wynd-Stapylton. Cloth, 8vo., pp. xii, 333.
London : Longmans, Green and Co. Price, 14s.

A few years ago Mr. H. E. Chetwynd-Stapylton
contributed a series of very carefully prepared papers
on the old Yorkshire family of Stapelton to the
Journal of the Yorkshire Archaeological and Topo-
graphical Association, or, as it is now called since its
incorporation, the Yorkshire Archreological Society.
In those papers the author brought together an
amazing amount of information as to the history of
the family, its chief members, and its various
branches. It might have been thought that he had
exhausted all the sources of available information on



his theme, but that was not so, and we are told in the
preface that " great advances have been made in
genealogical investigation during the last ten years,"
which is very true, so that, as the author further
observes, "A great portion of my former work has
accordingly been re-written, and large additions have
been made." The result of this is that a very elabo-
rate history of the Stapeltons of Yorkshire has been
compiled, and that, we may add, in an interesting and
readable manner, which is saying a good deal as
ordinary genealogical works go. The Stapeltons are
traced from a small hamlet on the Toes, lying between
the towns of Richmond and Darlington. They have
become widely spread, and various distinct branches
of the Yorkshire family were developed at a fairly
early period, some of which have struck out branches
in other jiarts of England, while the Carlton branch
has become ennobled.

It is impossible to explain in detail the contents of
a book like this, but its main outlines may be
gathered from the titles of the different chapters,
which, after the Introduction, are as follow : The
Stapeltons of Richmondshire and Haddesley ; of
Cudworth ; of Bedale and Norfolk ; Sir Brian Stapil-
ton of Carlton and Wighill ; the Stapletons of Carlton ;
of Wighill ; of Warter ; of Myton ; and the Baronets
of Greys Court, Oxon.

So far as it is possible to test them, the statements
made seem to be accurate and carefully substantiated.
The only slip we have found occurs on page 33,
where the village of Brotton is described as being
" near Yarm." As a matter of fact, it is some twenty
miles from Yarm. On reading the statement, we
were for the moment under the impression that some
other and more obscure hamlet of the same name was
intended. This, however, is a small matter, and it
only serves to bring out into greater prominence the
general accuracy which marks Mr. Stapylton's book.
We ought to add that there are a number of illustra-
tions, more than fifty, we believe ; some of them are
good, but they are not perhaps the strongest feature
of the book.

* *
A History of the Church of the Holy Sepul-
chre, Northampton. By the Rev. J. Charles
Cox and the Rev. R. M. Serjeantson. Illustrated
by Thomas Garratt, architect. Cloth, 8vo, pp.
290. Northampton : William Mark.
This book is an excellent one in every respect. In
its way the Round Church at Northampton is one of
the most interesting of the lesser ecclesiastical structures
in the country. It is one of four its three fellows
being the Temple Church, in London ; St. Sepulchre's,
at Cambridge ; and the church of Little Maplestead,
in Essex. All of these are still in use, and besides
them there is the ruined chapel in Ludlow Castle.
There were three others, viz., the Temple in Holborn,
and the churches of Temple Bruer and Aislaby in
Lincolnshire, but all traces of the three last-named
have disappeared. The round churches in this coun-
try were in all cases the outcome of the Crusades, and
were intended to be more or less rough copies in plan
of the great circular shrine of the Holy Sepulchre at
Jerusalem. The origin of the church of the Holy
Sepulchre at Northampton is a matter of doubt. It
has been ordinarily attributed to the Templars, but

the authors of this book prove very conclusively that
such was not the case, and they suggest, with a great
deal of confidence and much show of probability, that
it is really due to Simon de St. Liz, who in 1096
joined the first crusade, returned to England, and
sixteen years later, out of religious zeal, made a second
and peaceful journey to the Holy City. The authors
can bring forward no direct proof of the fact, but seek
to establish it by what is known in the law courts as
" circumstantial evidence."

In the first chapter an admirable account is given
of the site of the Holy Sepulchre at Jerusalem, and of
the buildings raised above and around it. This chapter
contains the most concise and explicit account of the
matter that we are acquainted with, and some con-
jectural plans are added to help to make the explana-
tion clearer.

Subsequent chapters deal with the architecture and
architectural history of the church at Northampton,
and these portions are also freely supplied with plans
and illustrations. Nothing of interest is passed by,
and one is almost tempted to imagine that every single
stone in the older work must have been individually
subjected to a close scrutiny. If we have a criticism to
make it is that the opening paragraphs of Chapter IV,
are tinged a little too much by the theological stand-
point of the authors, more, we think, than is desirable
in a book of this kind. From the picture, too, of the
memorial font, shown in the photograph of the Round
on p. 81, we should be disposed to think that it does
not merit the commendation (p. 73) bestowed upon it.

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