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THE ANTIQUARY,



VOL. XXXVII.



THE



ANTIQUARY:



A MAGAZINE DEVOTED TO THE STUDY
OF THE PAST.



Instructed by the Antiquary times.
He must, he is, he cannot but be wise.

Troilus and Cressida, Act ii., sc. 3.



VOL. XXXVII.
JANUARY DECEMBER, 1901.



London : ELLIOT STOCK, 62, Paternoster Row.

1 90 1.



TME8ETTY CENTER
LIBRARY



NOTES OF THE MONTH.




The Antiquary.



JANUARY, 1901.



Ji3ote0 of tfte Q^ontt).



The British School at Rome was announced
to open in December. The director (Mr.
G. Rushforth) wishes it to be known that he
will be happy to explain the principal recent
discoveries relating to ancient and mediaeval
Rome to any University graduates and mem-
bers of the teaching staff of public schools
who may be visiting Rome during the Christ-
mas or Easter vacations. Those who wish
to avail themselves of this offer are requested
to communicate with the director as soon as
possible at the British Embassy.

^ "ij? ^
Workmen engaged in drainage excavations on
the site of New Place, Stratford-on-Avon, have
lately come upon the original foundations of
the "Great House," as "New Place" was
called before Shakespeare lived there. One
of the walls, 3 feet 6 inches in thickness, is
of solid stonework, and marks the eastern
boundary of the house. Running parallel
an ancient brick wall was also discovered,
and the investigations being continued, a
mediaeval well, 24 feet deep and about 5 feet
in diameter at top, was found at the extreme
end. It is constructed of huge blocks of
stone nearly 2 feet in thickness. The house
was built by Sir Hugh Clopton in the reign
of Henry VH., and it is thought that this
was Sir Hugh's private well, as there are clear
traces of a walled passage to it from the house.
Pieces of old pottery and glass, a broken
sack bottle, the material being exactly like
that used for Shakespeare's jug in the museum
VOL. xxxvii.



at the Birthplace, and other relics, have been
found, together with a number of stone Snows-
hill slabs, which probably formed the roofing
of the house. The old foundation walls and
well are to be preserved and shown, and in-
vestigations are still going on.

^ ^ ^
In 1895 the trustees of the British Museum
purchased a fine papyrus roll, written on both
sides, the obverse bearing a series of revenue
returns, dated in the " 7 " year of the Em-
peror Claudius, b.c. 46-47, and the reverse
a series of magic tales written in Demotic.
The latter, with a fine facsimile, have been
published by the Clarendon Press, Oxford,
accompanied with a translation and com-
mentary from the pen of Mr. F. LI. Griffith,
the Egyptologist. The stories are part of a
series which centre in a hero named Kha-
muas. High Priest of Memphis, the historical
original being the Prince Regent Kha-m-uas,
the son of Rameses II. The writer of these
stories has collected a great quantity of folk
legends which were current in Egypt at the
time when this manuscript was written, about
A.D. 70-80; and the papyrus may certainly
be described as one of the richest collections
of first century tales ever discovered.

^ ^ ^
Several old record books connected with
Furness Abbey have been found in H.M.
Office of Stationery, and in the old Latin are
several references which have not before been
translated. In a.d. i 138 the name of Furness
is shown to be derived from Furtherness, and
in 1266 mention is made of the death of
William de Middleton, Lord Abbot of Fur-
ness, " who diligently ruled for thirty years or
more, and he died an old man well stricken
in years." On Abbot St. Benedict's Day,
March 21, 1269, Sir Michael de Furness was
drowned on Leven sands. He had dined at
the Priory of Cartmel, and was crossing to
the Manor of Addingham, now the rectory of
Dr. Hayman. In 1272, on the morrow of
the Purification of St. Mary (February 3),
the Justices in Eyre came to Lancaster, where
the Abbot of Furness was appointed Chief
Justice; but he took means to have himself
withdrawn by letters of the lord the King,
which was done. On March 25, 1276, it is
stated in another part of the record book that
Richard, Bishop of Man and the Isles, died,



AOTES OF THE MONTH.



and was entombed in the Abbey of Fumess
on the day of the Annunciation of the Blessed
Virgin. Forty-six years later the Scots came
into England through the midst of Fumess
and the county of Lancaster, laying waste on
all sides, without any damage of their own,
collecting an immense booty of gold and
silver, animals, church ornaments, bedding,
linen, etc.

4 Jp 'J*

Canon Routledge reports that the trustees
have begun a systematic excavation of the
recently bought St. Augustine's Abbey Field
site, at Canterbury. The remains of the
early Saxon chapel of St. Pancras have been
uncovered a pigstye having been disestab-
lished in the process and the area excavated
to the floor. The plan, as now completely
revealed, is a valuable addition to the few
early Saxon plans that have been recovered
or have come down to us. Operations on
the site of the great abbey church of St. Peter
and St. Paul, which is known to cover the
sites of two other early Saxon churches viz.,
that built by King Ethelbert for St. Augus-
tine, and the Chapel of Our Lady built by
Eadbald were only tentative, partly on ac-
count of the approach of winter, and partly
owing to the impossibility of removing at
present the huge mass of earth, to the depth
of several feet, which was deposited twenty
years ago on the site of the presbytery.
Despite all hindrances, the north end of the
transept was opened out, with remains of an
apsidal chapel to the east. Certain walls at
the east end of the church have also been
partly unearthed, but the work here is at pre-
sent of too fragmentary a character for any
positive statement to be made. Among the
rubbish there were found many gaily painted
stones, together with carved and gilded Pur-
beck marble fragments, and bits of porphyry
and serpentine mosaic belonging (no doubt)
to some rich shrine, possibly that of St.
Augustine. Other buildings have been partly
traced, including the chapter-house, which
was over 80 feet long and nearly 40 feet wide,
also walls of a large hall running eastwards,
probably the infirmary.

i* 4p J?

At the sale of a part of Lord Ashburton's
library in November, some rare Americana
and other books brought high prices. A Re-



lation of Maryland, with map, 1635, fetched
;;^i6s, and ^240 was given for Winslow's
Good Nnvs from New England, 1624.
New England's Plantation, 1630, sold for
^^98 ; while Denton's Brief Description
of New York, 1670, dated, brought no
less than ^400. A copy of Pellicer's Don
Quixote, on vellum, in seven vols. (1797-98),
realized jQ^(>. A collection of Poetical Tracts
of tlie Seventeenth Century, by Waller and
others, was sold for jQgi. Some extra-illus-
trated books brought good prices. Lysons's
Environs, in eleven vols., sold for ;^62 ; and
Nichols's History of Leicester^ extended to
eight vols., realized ;^ioo.

4? "ifc* 4p

We hear that the Midhurst District Council
is trying to convert the famous "Close
Walks " at Cowdray, Sussex, which consist of
four avenues of ancient yews, into a sewage
farm. The attempt, for which we cordially
wish complete failure, recalls a curious story
of a fulfilled curse. At the dissolution of
the monasteries. Sir Anthony Browne ob-
tained a grant of Battle Abbey and the
Priory of Easebourne, the parish in which the
ruins of Cowdray are situate, and according
to a picturesque tradition one of the monks
cursed him to his face, and prophesied that
" by fire and water " his race should perish
out of the land. W" hat foundation there may
be for the story no man can say ; but un-
questionably the Brownes did so perish.

jj, cj, cj.

At the annual meeting of the Henry Bradshaw
Society, held in November, the membership
and the finances were both stated to be in a
satisfactory condition. Good progress, it was
reported, had been made with the works in
hand, and the volumes for 1900 were nearly
ready for distribution. These will consist of
the first portion of i\\t Directorium Sacerdotum,
or Sarum Pica, edited by Mr. Christopher
Wordsworth, and a volume of Coronation
Orders, edited by Dr. Wickham Legg. The
second part of the Pica will, it is hoped, be
ready for issue in 1901, and a volume of fac-
similes of early Hone P.M. V. is also in an
advanced stage. Among the other works in
preparation, or about to be undertaken, are
an edition of MS. Harl. 2961 (an eleventh-
century English Collectare), editions of the
consuetudinaries of St. Augustine's, Canter-



NOTES OF THE MONTH.



bury, and of Westminster, and of certain
English Pontificals.

^ '^ ^
A correspondent of the Times, writing from
Jerusalem, November 15, complains of the
wholesale destruction of historical monuments
which is permitted by the Turkish Govern-
ment. He says : " The following may serve
as examples. Two years ago a singularly
interesting historical treasure was found in
Jerusalem, the Cufic inscription at the en-
trance of the small mosque of Omar, once
standing within the arcaded porch of Con-
stantine's Basilica of the Holy Sepulchre, and
dating from the seventh century. It was cut
on a stone of the original Roman building,
and therefore in situ. On being found it was
voted a mystery, because the small mosque
of Omar was rebuilt on a quite different site
after the Crusades, and this fact is unknown
to modern natives of Jerusalem. However,
to please various parties the old stone was
torn from its position, and the inscription
was sawn off and sent to Constantinople for
better investigation. Its present fate is un-
known. The interesting and well-preserved
Church of St. Jeremiah of the thirteenth cen-
tury at Abu Gosh, near Jerusalem, has been
presented to the French Government, and a
proposed ' restoration ' is now on foot. An
article in the Rassegna Nazionale of Florence
last August gives an account of how it is to
be rebuilt in the interests of Catholicism as
opposed to the Orthodox Church, but no
mention is made of the archaeological interest
which will be completely destroyed by such
a ' restoration.' To-day a friend, returning
from a ride on the other side of Jordan, has
given me a deplorable account of what is
happening to the hitherto marvellously pre-
served cities of the Decapolis. The colonies
recently planted in that region have selected
the most famous cities for the purpose of
turning them into stone quarries. Gerash
(Gerasa) is filled with a Mahomedan colony
which is provided with carts (a very modern
innovation in the Levant), and the work of
destruction is proceeding in a methodical
manner. The famous ' street of columns ' is
disappearing before the picks of the settlers,
and the columns are being broken up for
building material. The curious circular
colonnade at one end of the city is not yet



touched. At Amman many of the well-pre-
served Roman monuments have disappeared
during the past year. The great theatre is
now nearly gone, and the carved stonework
of the temples and other public buildings is
being treated in the style of the unfortunate
remains at Famagusta, to which I referred
on a former occasion ; it is being defaced, or
rather ' refaced,' with new dressing before
being re-used to build the squalid huts of
modern days. Caesarea and Sebaste are ex-
amples of what has been done during the past
ten years in the way of destruction, perhaps
better known to your readers, but the same
system is now being carried out on a truly
colossal scale all round the Levant. It would
be difficult to enumerate the cities, towns,
castles, and isolated monuments which are
vanishing with the nineteenth century."

^ ^ ^
During the week ended December 8 Messrs.
Sotheby sold many autograph letters of in-
terest. The following is extracted from an
amusing epistle to Mrs. Garrick by the
famous player Kitty Clive. It is dated
"Chve's Den, September 22, 1775," and
was sold for ;^i8 :

" I delivered your message to Mrs. Franks,
and she seemed quite happy in being sure
she shall have the pleasure of seeing the
Garricks' ' Lsena.' She said everybody
admired Mrs. Garrick's character who had
heard of her ; my reply was natural and
wise ; that everybody must love Mrs. Garrick
when they was acquainted with her ; I speak
by experience ; I must not say one word to
the dear man (Garrick) to day, for I know he
is so busy in moulding up his new Pope for
to-morrow, that he would snap as he did at
his Jew when he held King Lear's map the
wrong end upwards ; I will not wish she may
be shocking ; but I will wish my poor pope
was brought back to the Castle of St. Angelo.
I have read of there being three popes at
one time. I believe the Garrick has at
present twice that number, but there was not
then, nor will be now, but one right pope ;
I wou'd give fivety pounds (and I am but
poor) that he thought so to. I have settled
with Mrs. Franks for next Thursday if it will
be agreeable to you ; if not, any other day
you will apoint I am sure will be so to her,
and I desire that you and Mr. Garrick wou'd

A 2



NOTES OF THE MONTH.



that day eat your mutton with the pivy, it
will be quite the thing, we will dine at a
quorter after two, so you will get home by
daylight."

J 4p "jp

Driffield, in Yorkshire, is fortunate beyond
most towns of its size in the possession of a
well-equipped museum of archaeology and
geology, which contains the extensive collec-
tions made by Mr. J. R. Mortimer. The





Yorkshire Wolds used to be one of the most
fruitful collecting grounds for prehistoric



relics in England, and Mr. Mortimer obtained
large numbers of specimens of flint and stone
implements with comparative ease, where
now, so often has the ground been gone
over, it is difficult to obtain a few good
examples. More important are the many
skeletons, with the vases and objects of
stone, bronze, bone, jet, etc., which have
been obtained from the numerous barrows,
the opening of which has been Mr. Morti-
mer's hobby during a period of some forty
years. He has examined more than 300,
and the Driffield Museum has been greatly en-
riched by his labours. The first illustration
on this page shows a very fine bronze dagger or
knife, with a bone pummel, obtained from a
barrow at Garton Slack. The handle con-
tains over forty bronze rivets. Our second
illustration shows a food vase, finely orna-
mented, found in a barrow at Fimber.

The museum, besides an abundance of
such relics of early Britain, contains many
Danish and American antiquities, Roman
and Romano-British pottery and other re-
mains, and an extensive geological section.
A fully illustrated and very carefully com-
piled catalogue of the contents of the Morti-
mer Museum, by Mr. T. Sheppard, F.G.S.,
to whose courtesy we are indebted for the
use of the two blocks, has lately been issued
by Messrs. A. Brown and Sons, Limited, of
Hull, and of 5, Farringdon Avenue, London,
E.G., at the very moderate price of is. net.

4f ^ ^
The recent demolition of No. 28, Leicester
Square one of the very few remaining old



NOTES OF THE MONTH.



houses in this historic thoroughfare is
especially interesting from the fact that
towards the latter part of last century it was
owned by John Hunter, the renowned sur-
geon, who built at the rear his famous
museum of comparative anatomy. One of
the first of the osteological treasures to find
a place within its walls was the skeleton of
O'Brien, the Irish giant, which is now in the
museum of the Royal College of Surgeons at
Lincoln's Inn. One of Hunter's neighbours
was Hogarth, who resided " on the east side
of Leicester Fields," at the Golden Head,
which afterwards developed into the Sab-
loniere Hotel, and is now the familiar build-
ing at the corner of the square known as
Archbishop Tenison's School. Hunter's
remains were originally buried in the adjoin-
ing church of St. Martin-in-the-Fields, and
in the square itself his memory is still per-
petuated by one of the busts which were
executed at the instance of the late Baron
Grant.

iH? ^ "ilp
Mr. Nimmo announces that the following
subjects will be included in his "Semitic
Series," the first volume of which we re-
viewed some months ago. There. is to be
a volume on Phoenicia, treating of history
and government, colonies, trade, and religion ;
one on Arabian discoveries and Arabian
religion and history until the time of the
Prophet; one on Arabic literature and
science since the Prophet's time ; and one
on the influence of Semitic art and mytho-
logy on Western nations.

^ ^ ^
It is reported from Carthage that the remains
of the ancient theatre of the Odeon, against
which Tertullian fulminated, have been
found. It is semicircular in form, and bears
many traces of vanished splendour. Several
statues of Graeco-Roman origin, with the
remains of colouring visible, with some por-
trait busts of the Caesars, have been found
on the site, and have been sent to the
Museum of Bardo.

^ ^ '^
Mr. P. E. Roberts, who has edited the second
volume of the late Sir William Hunter's
History of India, has been able to verify
soriie interesting facts concerning the con-
nection of descendants of Cromwell and



Milton with the East India Company. The
reconstruction of the company was one of
the Protector's great achievements. His
grandson. Sir John Russell (son of Crom-
well's youngest daughter), was Governor of
Bengal during the years 1711-13. His
great-grandson, also in the female line, Sir
Henry Frankland, was Governor of the same
Presidency in 1726-28. Mr. Roberts also
says that " another great-grandson of Crom-
well, Sir Francis Russell, seventh Baronet,
was a member of the Bengal Council," and
that the Protector's descendants long formed
one of the powerful family connections of
the East India Company. Mr. Roberts has
derived his information from Mrs. Frankland-
Russell - Astley, of Checkers Court, the
present representative of one of the Crom-
wellian branches. Milton's grandson, Caleb
Clarke, filled the office of " Parish Clerk " of
Madras, where he died in 17 19. The fact
is recorded in Professor Masson's Life of
Milton.

^ ^ ^
During recent excavations at Pompeii a
magnificent bronze statue of Grecian work-
manship, 4 feet high, has been brought to
light. The statue, which strongly resembles
the celebrated " Idolino degli Uffizi " of
Florence, is estimated to be worth ;^ 20,000.
It is in perfect preservation, and seems to
have been designed to support a lamp in
some villa outside the walls of Pompeii. It
is the most important discovery made at
Pompeii for the last thirty years.



I



OBnglanD's Itiest 8)anDicraft0.

By Isabel Suart Robson.

The Potter's Craft.

" No handicraftman's art can with our art com-
pare;
We potters make our pots of what we potters
are."

jOMPARED with pottery, all our
I handicrafts are but of yesterday.
How it first became known to
man that some products of the
earth were made edible by cookery and
others vastly improved we shall never know,




ENGLANUS OLDEST HANDICRAFTS.



for the discovery is older than history ; but
with the art of cookery, pottery followed
as a necessity. The first cook probably
fashioned for his own use the requisite pots
from the material which lay at his feet
clumsy clay vessels doubtless, half-baked in
the sun, but sufficiently serviceable.

From earliest times our countrymen have
made various kinds of earthenware, though
not always of artistic design or finish. Numer-
ous specimens of British make have been
found in the barrows or mounds it was their
custom to raise over their dead : dishes,
small vessels for holding incense, and
drinking-cups, made of local clay, with an
admixture of crushed stone to preserve the
shape in firing. In all instances these



distinctive decorations, they managed to
develop quite dissimilar wares. Three most
characteristic kinds of Romano-British pot-
teries we are able to identify through
existing specimens. The Castor ware, made
at Caistor in Northamptonshire, was a black
ware, ornamented with raised figures, chiefly
hunting scenes, and gladiatorial combats.
Great interest attaches to this pottery, from
the fact that it was the first well-ascer-
tained discovery of a Roman pot-works, and
at Caistor the first kilns of that period
were uncovered. It is computed that over
2,000 people were employed in the old
Castor pottery. The New Forest, or Crock-
hill, in buff or light reddish brown, was a
ware which continued to be manufactured




LATE CELTIC WARE.



primitive pots were formed entirely by the
hand, without the aid of potter's wheel or
lathe, and decorated simply but effectively
by impressing the moist clay with a twisted
cord or the end of a three-sided stick.

The Roman invasion did much for British
pottery. It seems to have been the custom
of the conquerors to establish pot-works
wherever they formed a town or village of
fair size ; kilns used by them have been
unearthed throughout the southern and
midland counties, where they made imita-
tions of the Samian and other noted wares
of Gaul and Italy in local clay. By using
only the clay of the district with various

* The illustrations to this article are borrowed,
by the courtesy of Messrs. George Newnes and Co.,
Limited, from their Story of the Potter, by Charles
F. Binns, a capital shilling's-worth, fully illustrated,
which gives a succinct, but very readable history
of pottery and porcelain in all parts of the world,
as well as some account of modern methods. Ed.



until the fifth "century ; and, lastly, there was
the Upchurch ware, made out of clay dug
from the marshes at the/ mouth of the
Medway. As this ware was always deco-
rated with dots or bosses, or incised lines
variously arranged, it was easily recognised
and must have achieved some reputation,
since we find examples of it scattered
throughout the country and even upon the
Continent. 'I'A well-preserved Upchurch
vessel was found among other relics of the
Roman period, in the Roman villa dis-
covered and laid open a few years ago at
Darenth in^Kent.

When the Romans left the country, they
seem to have carried much of the potter's
skill with them, for we find the Anglo-
Saxons so dissatisfied with British produc-
tions that they sent in haste for their own
potters. These Saxon craftsmen turned
their work upon a wheel, and produced



ENGLAND'S OLDEST HANDICRAFTS.



articles, coarse and poorly fired, but greatly
excelling British work both in potting
and finish. Whether they managed to
spread their superior knowledge we do not
know, but improvement in the pottery of
the country was so slow, and so seldom did
talent and enterprise come to its aid, that
the industry has practically no history until
the thirteenth century. Probably in each
district some man more deft at the work
than his neighbours supplied the local de-
mand for bowls, porringers, and water-pots,
and such necessary wares, decorating them
according to his own taste and skill.

At the beginning of the thirteenth cen-
tury potters, however, were extending their
labours beyond the circumscribed limits of
simple utility. Imagination and ingenuity
were being called into play, as may be seen
from the curious jugs now in Salisbury and
Scarborough Museums and elsewhere, which
take the form of warriors upon horseback.
The result, in this particular case, can
scarcely be justified on the score of artistic
beauty, but it is noteworthy as an indication
of a " forward movement " in the potter's
mind. Until the sixteenth century, the
potter's art was almost entirely confined
to the manufacture of common domestic
vessels, large coarse dishes, cruiskeens,
" tygs," pitchers, bowls, cups, candlesticks,
butterpots, and such articles. Many other
things were, however, imported from the Con-
tinent, and our own potters about this time
began to copy them a sufficient evidence of
the enterprising spirit gradually growing up
among those who followed the craft.

In the reign of Queen Elizabeth, one
William Simpson proposed to make " in
some decayed town within this realme"
such pots as had been until then imported
from Cologne, by which manufacture he
promised that " many a hundred poore men
should be sette at worke." Whether he was
successful or not we have no record, but
later we find two potters of Norwich, Jasper
Andries and Jacob Janson, claiming to be
" the first that brought in and exercised the
said science in this realm," and petitioning
Queen Elizabeth *' because they had so in-
troduced the science, and been at great



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