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I



Columbia ^nibersiitp
intfjeCitpofiOieiol^orfe



LIBRARY




GIVEN BY









A HISTORY OF SCOTLAND



FROM



THE ROMAN OCCUPATION



ANDREW^ LANG



IN THREE VOLUMES
VOL. 11



WITH A FRONTISPIECE



NEW YORK
DODD, MEAD, AND CO.

EDINBURGH AND LONDON

WILLIAM BLACKWOOD AND SONS

1902



June 6 1S14



Printed by
William Blackwood & Sons, Ediftburgh, Scotland.






v-L



PREFACE.



The number, variety, complexity, and importance of the
events and characters of the Reformation and the reign
of James VI. fill the present volume. Concerned with a
period of less than a century, the volume is based on
documents far more numerous than exist for the previous
fifteen hundred years. After the accession of James VI.
to the English throne (1603) the student loses the invalu-
able guidance of Mr Tytler, who lacked, indeed, the Spanish
evidence first seriously explored by Mr Froude, but who is
certainly, beyond all rivalry, the most learned and impartial
historian of Scotland.

The present writer has made use of the printed Calendars
and State Papers, and, in many cases, has had recourse to the
original MSS. in the Record Office and the British Museum.
Through the generosity of Father Pollen, S.J., he has had
the advantage of using Father Stevenson's transcripts of the
Cambridge MSS., for the most part once in the possession
of the Regent Lennox. These have been more copiously
employed by the author in his ' Mystery of Mary Stuart '
(1901). To the kindness of the Earl of Haddington, and
of Lady Cecily Baillie-Hamilton, the author owes his know-
ledge of the Sprot papers as to the Gowrie Conspiracy, —
papers which he has edited for, and presented to, the Rox-



VI PREFACE.

burghe Club. To the Rev. John Anderson, of the General
Register House, and to Mr Gunton, Librarian at Hatfield
House, he is very greatly indebted for assistance and ad-
vice ; not less to Father Pollen ; and on several points he
has had the advantage of consulting Dr Hay Fleming and
Major Martin Hume. He must also express his thanks to
Mr Maitland Anderson and Mr Smith, of the University
Library, St Andrews, and to Miss E. M. Thompson, who
made many transcripts from the MS. Records, and helped
in verifying references. The portrait of James VL is repro-
duced by permission of the Curator of the Scottish Gallery
of National Portraits, Mr Caw.

The author must apologise for any errors in fact which
have escaped his attention, or are due to that subconscious
bias from which no historical student can be free. In his
opinion the hardships of the Catholics, after the Reforma-
tion, have been rather cavalierly treated by many of our
historians, and he has therefore dwelt upon a point too
much neglected. As Sir Walter Scott observed in a private
letter, our sympathies — at the period here treated, and later
— are apt always to be with the party which is out of power.

A. LANG.



CONTENTS OF THE SECOND VOLUME.



CHAPTER I.

FROM THE cardinal's DEATH TO THE REGENCY OF
MARY OF GUISE, 1546-1554.



Anarchy ....
Arran besieges the castle
Knox on the scene .
Early career of Knox
The call of Knox .
The French take the castle
Domestic treachery
English invasion . .



Battle of Pinkie

Mary at Inchmahone

French aid arrives (1548)

Mary lands in France (1548)

Peace (1550) .

Martyrdom of Adam Wallace

Mary of Guise to be Regent

The regency of Mary of Guise (1554)



CHAPTER II.

THE REGENCY. THE MARRIAGE OF MARY STUART,
1554-1559-



Hope of social reforms .


23


Popular literature .


32


The French unpopular .


24


Godly ballads ....


33


New men and Knox


25


Knox recalled to Scotland (1557)


34


Knox in England .


26


Weak war with England {1557)


35


Knox stirs up English Protestants


27


Protestant riots (1557)


36


Knox and Calvin (1555) .


28


Knox's scruples and " Blast " .


37


Knox and Lethington (1555) .


29


The first godly band (1557)


38


Knox and Mary of Guise (1556)


30


Mary marries the Dauphin (1558)


39


State of public opinion .


31


Mary Stuart ....


40



Vlll



CONTENTS.



CHAPTER III.



THE WARS OF THE CONGREGATION.



Martyrdom of Milne. Discontents

(1558)

Protests of the Congregation (1558)

Quentin Kennedy .

The beggars' warning (1559) .

"The battle approacheth " (1559)

Was Mary of Guise treacherous ?

Confusion of evidence

The wrecking of Perth .

Priests condemned to die

Conference at Perth

The Regent garrisons Perth

The ruin of St Andrews .

Edinburgh seized . .



43
44
45
46

47
48

49

SI

52

S3
S4
S6



Proposed marriage of Arran and
Elizabeth ....

Protestants evacuate Edinburgh

Singular statements of Knox .

Perfidy of Elizabeth

The open rebellion .

The wars of the Congregation

Protestant league with England
(1560)

The English besiege Leith (1560)

Huntly deserts the Regent

Knox's safe prophecy

Death of Mary of Guise .

The Treaty of Edinburgh (1560)



CHAPITER IV.

THE REFORMATION CONSUMMATED, 1560-1561.



The Protestants infringe the treaty


73


Details of the infringement


74


A revolutionary Convention (1560)


75


Confession of Faith


76


Circular reasoning .


17


Persecuting Acts


78


The old clergy


79


" Knox's Liturgy " .


80


Preachers, how appointed


82


Social and educational reforms


83


Failure of these hopes (1561) .


84


The new ethics and theology .


8=;


Scottish economy in thought .


86


Knox unchristian .


87


Misery of the Catholics .


88



The age of ruin

Ninian Winzet (1562)

Winzet not answered, but exiled

Knox's measure of success

Arran, Elizabeth, and Amy Robsart

(1560)

Missions to Mary and Elizabeth
Death of Francis II. Wooings

Arran

Mary a widow. Lord James Stewart
The queen of many wooers (i5tit)
A compromise suggested
Declined by Elizabeth (1561) .
Mary leaves France (1561)
Predestined doom of Mary



of



CHAPTER V.

MARY IN SCOTLAND, I 56 1- 1 563.



Knox meets Mary .... 105

" I will defend the Kirk of Rome" 106

Mary's reception .... 107

Sunday amusements . . . 108

" Excursions and alarums " . . 109

Negotiations with Elizabeth (1561) . no
Alliance of Bothwell and Arran

(1562) Ill

Madness of Arran .... 112



Lethington visits London

Mary between Rome and England

Elizabeth will not meet Mary .

County family scandals .

Mary overthrows Huntly (October

1562)

Mary's motives

Knox's suspicions of Mary

Buchanan's romance



CONTENTS.



IX



CHAPTER VT.
Mary's marriage, 1563-1565.



Chastelard

Lethington's marriage diplomacy

(1563)

Persecution of Catholics .
" God save that sweet face ! " .
Knox wooes a young lass
Elizabeth proposes the return of

Lennox ....
Knox " convocates the lieges"
War of Kirk and State (1563)
Tyranny of pulpiteers (1564) .
Dudley proposed for Mary's hand
Elizabeth opposes Lennox's coniin



124



125

126
127



129
130

131
132

133
134



Elizabeth causes ' ' strange tragedies " 135



The English send Darnley

The English snare (1565)

Riccio "creeps in" (1564)

Uninvited return of Bothwell (1565)

Bothwell exiled

Darnley to marry the Queen .

Darnley braves Elizabeth

Charges of treachery

The Raid of Baith .

Murray declines to come to Court

Marv's marriage . . .



136
137
138
139
140
141
142
143
144
145
146



CHAPTER Vn.



THE TWO MURDERS, 1565-1567.



Scandal about Riccio (1565)
Mary pursues Murray
Murray retreats to England
The comedy of Elizabeth
Darnley's feud with Riccio
Mary's attitude to religion
Mary's aim toleration ? .
Massacre or murder?
Secret conspirings (February 1566)
Darnley's murder covenant (1566)
The ghost of Douglas treason
The slaying of Riccio
Parliament dismissed
Mary recovers power
Isolation of Darnley . ,



149

150



154
15s
156
157
158

159
160
161
162
163
164



Birth of James VL (1566)
Darnley threatens Murray
Bothwell and Darnley
Band against Darnley (October 1566)
Mary visits Bothwell at Hermitage
Mary's illness at Jedburgh
The Craigmillar conference
Darnley : plot and counterplot
The affair of Hiegait (1566-1567)
Mary brings Darnley to Kirk-o'

Field (1567).
Murray secures his alibi .
Death of Darnley (Feb. 10, 1567)
"Jesu ! Paris, how begrimed you

are 1 "



165
166
167
168
169
170
171
172
173

174

i/S
176

177



CHAPTER MIL



THE PRISONS OF MARY STUART, 1 567- T 568.



Mary suspected .... 181
Murray retires to France . .182
"Ainslie's band" (April 19, 1567) . 183
Bothwell abducts Mary . . .184
The fall of Mary . . . .185
Mary marries Bothwell (May 15,
1567) 186



Mary surrenders at Carberry .

Treachery of Lethington

' ' The facts are only too well proved '

The casket is seized

Mary signs her abdication

Throckmorton saves Mary

Character of Murray



187



190
191
192
193



CONTENTS.



Murray Regent. Bothvvell in Den

mark .....
Murray's party disunited (1568)
Mary escapes from Lochleven
Mary defeated at Langside
Elizabeth's diplomacy
Mary is deceived
Rival duplicity of Mary .
Mary denies the casket letters



194

195
196
197
198
199
200
201



The letters shown at York . , 202

Subtleties of Lethington . . . 203

Negotiations (November 1568) . 204

Murray produces his charges . . 205

Weakness of Mary's commissioners 206

The " Articles " against Mary . 207

Examination of the casket letters . 208

The inquiry huddled up . . . 209



CHAPTER IX.

REGENCIES OF MURRAY AND LENNOX, 1568 1572.



Maiy is threatened .... 213

Civil war imminent (1569) . . 214
Murray intrigues with Norfolk (1569) 215
Murray in spring 1569 . . . 216
Schemes for Mary's release . . 217
Norfolk a suitor of Mary . . 218

Murray deserts Norfolk . . . 219
Murray's party reject Mary's pro-
posals ...... 220

Crawford impeaches Lethington . 221
Lethington's sin against Mary . 222

Lethington true to Norfolk
The rebellion of the North (1569) .
Murray tries to get possession of
Mary (1570) ....

Vengeance overtakes Murray .
Murray's funeral ....

Randolph works for civil war .



223
224



226
227
228



" The Douglas wars " . . , 229

Sussex and Lethington . . . 230

The mystery of Lethington . . 231

The treaty of Chatsworth . . 232
Knox preaches against Kirkcaldy

(December 1570) . . . 233

The Ridolphi plot (1571) . . 234

Mary loses Dumbarton . . . 235

New actors ..... 236

Murder of Lennox .... 237

Morton and Archibald Douglas . 238

Failure of Ridolphi's plot . . 239

Mar Regent. Siege of the castle . 240

Tulchan bishops (1572) . . . 241

Intrigue to hand over Mary (1572) . 242
Death of Mar. Failure of intrigue

{1.572) 243



CHAPTER X.



REGENCY OF MORTON, 15 7 2-1577-T 581.



Death of Knox (Nov. 24, 1572)
Pacification of Perth (Feb. 1573)
The castle surrenders to England
Death of Kirkcaldy and Lethington
Condition of the country
State of the Kirk .
Morton's corruption
The General Assembly .
Mongrel Episcopacy
Andrew Melville to the rescue
Raid of the Reidswire (1575) .
Strong rule of Morton
He inclines to Mary (1576-77)
Argyll works against Morton (1578)



247
248
249
250

251
252

253
254
255
256
257
258

259
260



Fall and recovery of Morton . .261
Mary's new intrigue (1578) . . 262
Death of AthoU (1579) . . . 263
The Hamiltons exiled . . . 264
.Arrival of Stewart d'Aubigny . . 265
Intrigues of d'Aubigny (1579-1580) . 266
D'Aubigny (Lennox) secures Dum-
barton 267

Elizabeth deserts Morton (1580) . 268

Arrest of Morton (Dec. 31, 1580) . 269

Plots and forgeries (1581) . . 270
Trial of Morton . . . .271

Execution of Morton (1581) . . 272



CONTENTS.



XI



CHAPTER XL



KING AND KIRK, 1581-1584.



Morton and the Kirk


. 276


Claims of the Kirk .


• 277


James a Protestant ,


. 278


Mary's intrigues (1581) .


• 279


Cross intrigues by Jesuits


. 280


Lennox's vain hopes (1582)


. 281


Jesuit blunders


. 282


A national covenant


. 283


A band against Lennox (1582^


. 284


The Raid of Ruthven (1582)


. 28s


An English murder plot .


. 286


James and Lennox .


. 287


The raiders play for safety


. 288



Lennox leaves Scotland . .
Death of Lennox (1583) .
James deserts his mother
James shakes off the raiders .
James a free king .
James's letter to Guise .
Throckmorton's plot
James writes to the Pope (1584)
Plot and execution of Gowrie .
Flight of the preachers .
The Kirk overthrown (1584) .
"The Black Acts".



289
290

291
292

293
294

29s
296
297
298
299
300



CHAPTER XH.

THE END OF MARY STUART. THE TRUTH ABOUT THE
MASTER OF GRAY. I 5 84- 1 587.



Cecil schemes to separate James

from Mary ..... 304

" Graius an Paris ? " . . . 305

"What has your house done?" . 306

Perfidy of James .... 307
The castle plot and the Border

meeting 308

Latin and Greek of Arran . . 309
The Master will betray Mary . .310

Mary and the Master , . • 311

English intrigues against Arran (1585) 313

The exiles let slip .... 314

All the exiles return (1585) . . 315

Raid of Stirling. Fall of Arran (1585) 316



Disappointment of the Kirk . .
Fall of Adamson (1586) .
Walsingham entraps Mary (1586) .
James receives Archibald Douglas .
League with England
Mary condemned to die .
James desires her strict confinement
Honesty of the Master .
Embassy of the Master (1587)
Error of Mr Froude
Honesty of the Master .
Proof from Logan of Restalrig
The preachers and Mary (1587)
Death of Mary (1587)



317
318
319



321
322
323
324
32s
326

327
328

329
330



CHAPTER Xni.



THE KING OF MANY ENEMIES, 1587-1593.



After Mary's death .

Dilemma of Elizabeth

The Master suffers for his religion

Parliament of 1587 .

The case of Habakkuk .

Condition of the country



• 334


The Armada (1588) . . . 340


• 335


Death of Angus .... 341


• 33*5


" Fiddler's wages " . . . . 342


• 337


Scottish Catholics and Spain (1589) 343


• 338


The king " weary of life " . . 344


• 339


The king pursues his rebels . . 345



xn



CONTENTS.



Courage of James .

The king's marriage

The king seeks his bride

The king's return (1590)

Elizabeth on Puritans

Witchcraft

Beginning of Bothwell

(1591) . . .
Preachers claim jurisdiction
Bothwell attacks Holyrood
" The great band " .



• 346


• 347


• 348


• 349


• 350


• 35^


troubles


• 353


• 354


• • 355 1


. • 356 1



Murder of the bonny Earl (1592)

Maitland driven from office

Bothvvell's apology .

The Kirk secures her charter (159:

"The Laird of Wanton Logie"

Danger of the king .

The Spanish Blanks (1593)

Elizabeth abets Bothwell

The king's notes as to Spain

Protestant anxiety .

Bothwell captures the king (1593)



357
358
359
360
361
362
363
365
366

367
368



CHAPTER XIV.



INTRIGUES OF SPAIN, ENGLAND, AND BOTHWELL, I593-I595-



Bothwell and Colville trap the king

(1593)

Terms of Bothwell ....
Bothwell acquitted of witchcraft
Strange intrigue of Elizabeth .
James escapes from Bothwell .
Impossibility of religious toleration
Morals of the age ....
Presbyterian excommunications

(1593)

Alliance of Bothw^ell and Gowrie
James prevents a battle royal .
The godly plot to trap the king ( 1593) 382
Vain attempt at compromise (1594)
Prince Henry born, and threatened





Bothwell's raid. Gowrie retires to




372


Padua ......


385


373


A menacing preacher


386


374


Kirk and king ....


387


375


Huntly receives foreign gold (1595)


388


376


Casuistry of Bothwell


389


377


Colville deserts Bothwell


390


378


Bothwell turns Catholic .


391




Battle of Glenrinnes


392


379


The king scatters the rebels .


393


380


Argyll imprisoned (1595)


394


381


Exile of Huntly and Bothwell (1595)


395


382


Death of Maitland ....


396


383


The troubles with Mr Black .


397


384


Financial reform ....


398



CHAPTER XV.



THE KING CONQUERS THE PREACHERS, 1596- 1 597.



The Octavians (1596)

The mystery of Pourie .

Outpouring of grace

Bochim .....

" Here end all sincere Assemblies "

Kinmont Willie (1596) .

Cecil and Pourie

Forgeries of Pourie

Huntly returns

Insolence of Andrew Melville .

War of Kirk and king

Declinature of jurisdiction



402

403
404

405
406
407
408
409
410
411
412
413



The prophets to be judges

The prophets banished Edinburgh

The king truckles .

Riot of December 17 (1596)

Maclean in the tumult

James terrifies the burgesses .

Mr Bruce appeals to Hamilton

" Of all fools the worst " .

James re-enters Edinburgh (January

I, 1597) ....
Death of Arran



414

415
416
417
418
419
420
48 1

422
423



CONTENTS.



xm



CHAPTER XVI.



JAMES ON ILL TERMS WITH ENGLAND, 1597 1600.



Toleration and democracy . . 426

VictcB causes 427

The Synod of Fife . . . .428

Assembly of Perth (1597) . . 429

Submission of Huntly and Errol . 430

Witch-burnings . . . -431

Episcopacy restored (1598) . . 433

Irish complications (1598) . . 434



Celts refuse rent .... 435

Bad terms with England (1598) . 436

Death of Lachlan Maclean (1598) . 437

The judges defy the king {1599) . 438

" A hair in the king's neck" . . 439

The doubtful letter to the Pope . 440

Preachers and plaj^-actors . » 441



CHAPTER XVII.



THE GOWRIE CONSPIRACY, 160O.



GowTie's religion


444


Ramsay to the rescue


. 456


An useful Scot


445


Death of Gowrie


. 457


Gowrie at Court


446


The king returns to Falkland .


. 458


The convention on finance


447


Evidence of Craigingelt .


• 459


Conspiracies of Colville (1598)


448


Henderson vanishes


. 460


Gowrie in August .


449


Henderson turns king's evidence


. 461


The evidence ....


450


Henderson in the plot? .


. 462


Andrew Henderson


451


Evidence of Oliphant


• 463


The pot of gold


452


Restalrig ....


• 464


The turret ....


453


Affairs of the Kirk .


• 465


The king said to have ridden away


454


Position of the preachers


. 466


The king cries " Treason ! " .


• 455


Scotland still anarchic .


• 467



CHAPTER XVIII.



JAMES SUCCEEDS TO ELIZABETH, 160I-161O.



James and Essex (1600-1601)
Cecil intrigues with James
The holiday of August 5
Trouble with Mr Bruce (1602)
Better relations with England .
More of Mr Bruce .
James King of England (1603)
James's religion
Governs Scotland by the pen
Hampton Court Conference (1604) .
The Assembly of Aberdeen (1605) .
Declared seditious . . . ,
The golden Act . . . ,



471
472

473
474
475
476

477
478

479



483



" No bishops !" .
Trial of the preachers (1605) .
Threat and counter-threat
Alarm of the Council (1606) .
Cadmeian victories .
Strife of nobles and bishops (1606)
'File Melvilles maltreated
Abuse of prerogative
Linlithgow convention (1606) .
Oppression of the ministers (1608)
Persecution of Catholics .
Success of the persecution
Letter of Ogilvie of Pourie



484

485
486
487



490
491
492
493
494
495
496



XIV



CONTENTS.



CHAPTER XIX.

THE LAST YEARS OF JAMES VI., 1603-1624.



Abortive scheme of Union


500


"A mere hotch-potch " .


• 5"


Ths Posi-nafi {1608)


SOI


The king visits Scotland (1617


. 512


Fall of Balmerino .


£02


Innovations in worship .


• 513


Confessions of Balmerino


503


Calderwood in trouble .


• 514


Consecration of bishops (i6ro)


504


The Articles of Perth (1618)


• 515


Reforms of administration


505


Black Saturday (1621)


. S16


Persecution of Catholics (16 13)


506


Sermons under censure .


• 517


Martyrdom of Father Ogilvie (1614




Death of James (1625)


. 518


1615)


507


James sowed the wind .


. 519


Jesuits and saints .


509


Character of James .


. 520


General Assembly (1616)


510







CHAPTER XX.



HIGHLANDS AND BORDERS, 1603-161O.



fiorder commissioners (1605)
Lord Maxwell executed
The Highlands
Company of the Lewes
Celtic feuds
The Macgregors
The nameless clan
Band of Icolmkill
Lochiel . .



523

524
525
526

527
528

529
530
531



Glen Nevis Camerons . .
Macneils and Macleans .
Escape of Dunluce .
Argyll recovers Kintyre and Isla
Quieting of the Highlands
Orkney .....
Execution of the Earl of Orkney
(1615)



532

533
534
535
536
537

538



CHAPTER XXI.



SOCIAL CONDITIONS.



Feuds


542


Scots abroad . ,






552


The Auchendrane murders


543


Mines and mint






553


Capture of Auchendrane


544


The leather trade .






554


Sympathy with criminals


545


Imports and exports






555


A Logan malefactor


546


Kindly tenants






556


A minister's feud


547


A lady's day .






557


The Kirk and morality .


548


Books and booksellers






558


Witchcraft ....


549


St Andrews University






559


Lent


550


Godscroft on Mary .






561


Plague


551











APPENDIX.

A. The Casket Letters ....

B. Logan of Restalrig and the Gowrie Conspiracy



563
569



A HISTORY OF SCOTLAND FROM THE
ROMAN OCCUPATION.



CHAPTER I.

FROM THE cardinal's DEATH TO THE REGENCY OF
MARY OF GUISE.

1546-1554-

The first volume of this History ended when the great Cardinal
Beaton died, butchered in his Castle of St Andrews. He fell in the
hour of apparent victory : he had successfully resisted the feudal
claims made by Henry VHI. to sovereignty over Scotland. In that
resistance he had shone as a patriot, but he had also opposed, and
to some extent dominated, the Scottish tendency towards Protest-
antism. As a friend of national independence, he had, no doubt,
been chiefly animated by attachment to the interests of his Church,
and that Church, partly by her corruptions, partly by the weakness
which had made her the victim of the great Houses, was, in Scot-
land, doomed. For the next three years resistance to the English
feudal claims to sovereignty over Scotland was to be maintained by
a woman, by a priest, and by Arran, the wavering Governor.
Henry VHI. was not long to outlive his murdered ojiponcnt, but
Henry's contradictory aims, first to prove that the Scottish crown
was his own, worn by " pretensed kings," next, to win the hand of
the child, the " pretensed queen," for his son, were to be pursued
by that scourge of Scotland, Hertford, under his new title of the

VOL. II. A



2 ANARCHY.

Protector Somerset.^ Everything combined to make the Scottish '
resistance difficult. Thus the two Douglases, Angus and Sir
George, displayed a double treachery so vacillating and profitless
that it seemed rather the result of ingrained habit than of settled
policy. The nobles would on one day defy England, and renounce
all their engagements with her, and on the next would secretly
renew their treasonable " bands." For a little money, Argyll — for
weariness of his English captivity, Huntly — would abandon the
patriotic attitude, only to assume it again on fair occasion. The
residence of English garrisons, with their vernacular Bibles, at
Dundee and on the Border, may have encouraged a genuine evan-
gelical belief among the populace ; among the gentry the same
causes bred a hypocrisy which sickened even a Scottish spy.
In a convention of the nobles at Stirling, within ten days after
the Cardinal's murder, complaints of anarchy were heard. The
rent-collectors of ecclesiastical landlords were being mobbed, and
compelled to eat their summonses. Crowds of tenants were
collecting to resist evictions by lay landlords. Arran was later
pelted with stones by the women of Edinburgh, and driven to take
refuge in St Giles' church. -

The first object of the Government, after the Cardinal's death,
was to bring the murderers to trial, and to rescue St Andrews Castle,
now a Scottish Gibraltar at English service. Knox illustrates the
slender hold of law on Scottish minds by representing the action of
Government as a mere piece of priestly and feminine vindictiveness.
The Cardinal's death was " most dolorous to the Queen-Dowager,
for in him perished faithfulness to France, and the comfort to all
gentlewomen, and especially to wanton widows. His death must be
revenged." ^ By " wanton widows " the Reformer means us to
understand Mary of Guise, the queen-mother. What part would
the Douglases take in the " revenge " of the man they had lately
schemed (according to a report given by Knox) to destroy ? Influ-
enced, says the Reformer, by a desire to secure Beaton's rich abbey



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