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HISTORY OF ENGLISH LITERATURE ***




Produced by Laura Natal Rodrigues and Marc D'Hooghe at
Free Literature (Images generously made available by the
Internet Archive)





HISTORY OF

ENGLISH LITERATURE

FROM

"BEOWULF" TO SWINBURNE

BY

ANDREW LANG, M.A.

LATE HON. FELLOW OF MERTON COLLEGE
OXFORD

_NEW IMPRESSION_

LONGMANS, GREEN AND CO.

39 PATERNOSTER ROW, LONDON

FOURTH AVENUE & 30th STREET, NEW YORK
BOMBAY, CALCUTTA, AND MADRAS

1921




PREFACE.


A Preface to a book on the History of English Literature is apt to
be an apology, for a writer must be conscious of his inability to
deal with a subject so immense and so multiplex in its aspects. This
volume does not pretend to be an encyclopædia of our literature; or
to include all the names of authors and of their works. Selection has
been necessary, and in the fields of philosophy and theology but a few
names appear. The writer, indeed, would willingly have omitted not a
few of the minor authors in pure literature, and devoted his space
only to the masters. But each of these springs from an underwood, as
it were, of the thought and effort of men less conspicuous, whom it
were ungrateful, and is practically impossible, to pass by in silence.
Nevertheless the attempt has been made to deal most fully with the
greatest names.

The author's object has been to arouse a living interest, if it may
be, in the books of the past, and to induce the reader to turn to them
for himself. Scantiness of space forbids the presentation of extracts;
for poetry there is perhaps no better selection than that of the
Oxford Book of Verse by Sir Arthur Quiller-Couch.[1] For prose, the
Anthologies of Mrs. Barnett and Mrs. Dale may be recommended.[2]

It is unhappily the fact that the works of a majority of the earlier
authors are scarcely accessible except in the publications of learned
societies or in very limited editions; but from Chaucer onwards the
Globe Editions are open to all; and the great Cambridge "History of
English Literature" is invaluable as a guide to the Bibliography. It is
better to study even a little of the greatest authors than to read many
books about them. If the writer should perchance succeed in bringing
any readers to the works of the immortals his purpose will be fulfilled
But readers, like poets and anglers, are "born to be so"; and when born
under a fortunate star do not need to be allured or compelled to come
into the Muses' paradise.

That sins of commission as well as of omission will be discovered the
author cannot doubt, for through much reading and writing they that
look out of window are darkened, and errors come.


[1] University Press.

[2] Longmans, Green & Co.




CONTENTS.


Preface v

List of Authors xi

CHAPTER

I. Anglo-Saxon Literature: The Anglo-Saxon Way of
Living - Minstrels, Story-Tellers, and Stories - Beowulf - The
Wanderer - The Plaint of Deor - The Seafarer - Waldhere - The
Fight at Finnsburg

II. Anglo-Saxon Christian Poetry: Cædmon - Cynewulf
- Andreas - Dream of the Rood - Elene - Riddles - Phœnix

III. Anglo-Saxon Learning and Prose: Latin among the
Anglo-Saxons - Bede - Alcuin - Alfred - The Anglo-Saxon
Chronicle - The Monks and Learning - Ælfric

IV. After the Norman Conquest: Latin Literature - Walter
Map - Changes Since the Conquest

V. Geoffrey of Monmouth: The Stories of Arthur

VI. Layamon's "Brut": Ormulum - Ancren Riwle - The Owl
and the Nightingale - Lyrics - Political Songs - Robert of
Gloucester - Cursor Mundi - Devotional Books - Minot

VII. The Romances in Rhyme: Tristram - Havelok - King
Horn - Beues of Hamtoun - Guy of Warwick - Arthur and
Merlin - The Tale of Troy - The Story of Troy from Homer to
Shakespeare - King Alisaundre

VIII. Alliterative Romances and Poems: Gawain and the Green
Knight - Pearl - Huchowne 72

IX. Chaucer: Early Poems - The Dethe of the Duchesse - Other
Early Poems - Troilus and Criseyde - The Canterbury Tales 78

X. "Piers Plowman," Gower

XI. The Successors of Chaucer: Lydgate - Occleve - Hawes

XII. Late Mediaeval Prose: Wyclif - Chaucer's
Prose Style - Trevisa - Mandeville - Pecock: "The
Repressor" - Capgrave - Lord Berners

XIII. Malory

XIV. Early Scottish Literature: Barbour - Wyntoun - The
Kingis Quhair - Henryson - Dunbar - Blind Harry - The Buke of
the Howlat - Gawain Douglas - Sir David Lyndsay

XV. Popular Poetry. Ballads

Professional Poetry: Skelton - Barclay

XVI. Rise of the Drama: Heywood - Ralph Roister
Doister - Gammer Gurton's Needle - "Gorboduc"

XVII. Wyatt and Surrey. Gascoigne. Sackville: The Earl of
Surrey - Tottel's Miscellany - Gascoigne - Sackville

XVIII. Prose of the Renaissance: Elyot - Ascham - Lyly's
Euphues - Sidney - Sidney's "Defence of Poesie" Spenser

XIX. The Elizabethan Stage and Playwrights: John Lyly
- Peele - Greene - Lodge - Nash - Marlowe - Kyd - Shakespeare
- The Sonnets - Later Plays - Jonson - Jonson's Prose

XX. Other Dramatists: Beaumont and Fletcher - Chapman - John
Marston - Dekker - Middleton - Heywood - Webster - Massinger
- Ford - Shirley

XXI. Elizabethan and Jacobean Prose Writers: Hooker - "Martin
Marprelate" - Bacon - Raleigh - Overbury - Translators - Pulpit
Eloquence

XXII. Late Elizabethan and Jacobean Poets: Minor
Lyrists - Drayton - Daniel - Davies - Giles and Phineas
Fletcher - Corbet - Sir John Beaumont

XXIII. Late Jacobean and Caroline Prose: Burton - Herbert of
Cherbury - Browne.

Caroline Prose: Milton - Jeremy Taylor - Thomas
Fuller - Hobbes - Izaak Walton - John Bunyan - Clarendon

XXIV. Caroline Poets:
Crashaw - Herbert - Vaughan - Herrick - Carew - Lovelace
- Suckling - Habington - Cartwright - Davenant - Cowley
- Denham - Sherburne - Stanley - Browne - Cotton
- Waller - Marvell - Milton - Samuel Butler

XXV. Restoration Theatre: Congreve - Vanbrugh - George
Farquhar - Otway - Nat Lee - Dryden

XXVI. Augustan Poetry: Alexander Pope - Prior - Gay - Ambrose
Philips - Tickell

XXVII. Augustan Prose: Steele - Addison - Swift - De Foe

XXVIII. Georgian Poetry I.: Edward Young - James
Thomson - William Collins - Thomas Gray - The Wartons - John
Dyer - William Shenstone

XXIX. Georgian Poetry II.: Thomas Chatterton - William
Cowper - Literature in Scotland (1550-1790) - Robert
Burns - Charles Churchill - George Crabbe

XXX. Georgian Prose I.: The Great
Novelists - Richardson - Henry Fielding - Tobias Smollet

XXXI. Georgian Prose II.: Samuel Johnson - Oliver
Goldsmith - Edmund Burke - Horace Walpole - Laurence
Sterne - David Hume - Robertson - Edward Gibbon - Richard
Brinsley Sheridan - Lady Mary Wortley Montagu - Junius

XXXII. The Romantic Movement: Coleridge - Walter
Scott - William Wordsworth - Robert Southey - Shelley - Byron
- Keats - Walter Savage Landor

XXXIII. Later Georgian Novelists: Frances Burney - Mrs.
Radcliffe - Maria Edgeworth - Charles Brockden Brown - Jane
Austen - Walter Scott, the Novelist - James Fenimore
Cooper - Washington Irving.

Magazines and Essayists: Charles Lamb - Leigh Hunt - William
Hazlitt - Thomas de Quincey

XXXIV. Poets after Wordsworth: Philip Freneau - William
Cullen. Bryant - John Greenleaf Whittier - Henry Wadsworth
Longfellow - Alfred Tennyson - Robert Browning - Edgar Allan
Poe - Ralph Waldo Emerson - James Russell Lowell - Matthew
Arnold.

General Writers: John Ruskin

XXXV. Late Victorian Poets: Edward FitzGerald - George
Meredith - Elizabeth Barrett Browning - Christina
Rossetti - Dante Gabriel Rossetti - William Morris - Swinburne.

Poetic Underwoods

XXXVI. Latest Georgian and Victorian Novelists: Dickens -
Thackeray - The Brontë Sisters - Nathaniel Hawthorne - Oliver
Wendell Holmes - Charles Kingsley - George Meredith - Anthony
Trollope - George Eliot - Robert Louis Stevenson - Minor
Novelists

XXXVII. Historians: Thomas Babington Macaulay - Thomas
Carlyle - James Anthony Froude - Edward Augustus
Freeman - William Hickling Prescott - John Lothrop Motley - J.
S. Mill - Cardinal Newman - W. E. H. Lecky

Index (not included in this text ed.)




LIST OF AUTHORS.


Adamnan, Abbot (_c._ 625-704)
Addison, Joseph (1672-1719)
Ælfric (_c._ 955-1020)
Ailred (_c._ 1109-1166)
Ainsworth, William Harrison (1805-1882)
Alcuin (735-804)
Aldhelm, Bp. (_c._ 640 - 709)
Alexander, Sir William, Earl of Stirling (_c._ 1567-1640)
Alfred, King (849-901)
Andrewes, Lancelot (1555-1626)
Arbuthnot, John (1667-1735)
Arnold, Matthew (1822-1888)
Ascham, Roger (1515-1568)
Asser, Bp. (_fl. c._ 900)
Atterbury, Francis (1662-1732)
Austen, Jane (1775-1817)
Ayton, Sir Robert (1570-1638)
Aytoun, William Edmonstoune, (1813-1865)

Bacon, Francis (1561-1626)
Baillie, Lady Grizel (1665-1746)
Bale, John (1495-1563)
Bannatyne, George (1545-1608)
Barbour, John (_c._ 1316-1396)
Barclay, Alexander (_c._ 1475-1552)
Barnfield, Richard (1574-1627)
Barrow, Isaac (1630-1677)
Baxter, Richard (1615-1691)
Beattie, James (1735-1803)
Beaumont, Francis (1584-1616)
Beaumont, Sir John (1582-1628)
Beckford, William (1759-1844)
Beddoes, Thomas Lovell (1803-1849)
Bede (673-735)
Behn, Mrs. Aphra (1640-1689)
Bentley, Richard (1662-1742)
Berkeley, George (1685-1753)
Berners, Lord (1467-1533)
Besant, Sir Walter (1836-1901)
Black, William (1841-1898)
Blackwood, William (1776-1834)
Blair, Robert (1699-1746)
Borrow, George (1803-1881)
Boswell, James (1740-1795)
Bowles, William Lisle (1762-1850)
Braddon, Mary Elizabeth (1837- )
Brome, Richard (_fl. c._ 1623-1652)
Brontë, Anne (1820-1849)
Brontë, Charlotte (1816-1855)
Brontë, Emily (1818-1848)
Broome, William (1689-1745)
Brougham, Henry, Lord Brougham (1778-1868)
Brown, Charles Brockden (1771-1810)
Browne, Sir Thomas (1605-1682)
Browne, William (_c._ 1591-1643)
Browning, Elizabeth Barrett (1806-1861)
Browning, Robert (1812-1889)
Bryant, William Cullen (1794-1878)
Bunyan, John (1628-1688)
Burke, Edmund (1729-1797)
Burnet, Gilbert (1643-1715)
Burnett, James, Lord Monboddo (1714-1799)
Burney, Charles (1726-1814)
Burney, Frances (1752-1840)
Burns, Robert (1759-1796)
Burton, Robert (1577-1640)
Butler, Samuel (1612-1680)
Byron, George Gordon, Lord (1788-1824)

Cædmon (_fl. c._ 670)
Campbell, Thomas (1777-1844)
Campion, Thomas (_fl._ 1581-1619)
Canning, George (1770-1827)
Capgrave, John (1393-1464)
Carew, Richard (1555-1620)
Carew, Thomas (_c._ 1598-1639)
Carlyle, Alexander (1722-1805)
Carlyle, Thomas (1795-1881)
Cartwright, William (1611-1643)
Caxton, William (_c._ 1422-1491)
Chambers, Robert (1802-1871)
Chapman, George (_c._ 1559-1634)
Chatterton, Thomas (1752-1770)
Chaucer, Geoffrey (_c._ 1340-1400)
Chillingworth, William (1602-1644)
Churchill, Charles (1731-1764)
Churchyard, Thomas (_c._ 1520-1604)
Cibber, Colley (1671-1757)
Clarendon, Edward Hyde, Earl of (1607-1674)
Coleridge, Samuel Taylor (1772-1834)
Collins, Wilkie (1824-1889)
Collins, William (1721-1759)
Colman, George (1762-1836)
Congreve, William (1670-1729)
Constable, Henry (_c._ 1560-1613)
Cooper, Anthony Ashley, Earl of Shaftesbury (1671-1713)
Cooper, James Fenimore (1789-1851)
Corbet, Richard (1582-1635)
Cotton, Charles (1630-1687)
Coverdale, Miles (1488-1568)
Cowley, Abraham (1618-1667)
Cowper, William (1731-1800)
Crabbe, George (1754-1832)
Cranmer, Thomas (1489-1556)
Crashaw, Richard (_c._ 1613-1649)
Creighton, Mandell (1843-1901)
Cross, Mary Ann: "George Eliot" (1819-1880)
Cudworth, Ralph (1617-1688)
Cynewulf (_fl. c._ 750)

Dalrymple, Sir David, Lord Hailes (1726-1792)
Daniel, Samuel (1562-1619)
D'Arblay, Madame, _see_ Frances Burney.
Darwin, Charles (1809-1882)
Davenant, Sir William (1606-1668)
Davies, Sir John (1569-1626)
Day, Thomas (1748-1789)
De Foe, Daniel (1661-1731)
Dekker, Thomas (_c._ 1570-1641)
De la Ramée, Louise (1840-1908)
Denham, Sir John (1615-1669)
De Quincey, Thomas (1785-1859)
Dickens, Charles (1812-1870)
Disraeli, Benjamin, Earl of Beaconsfield (1804-1881)
Donne, John (1573-1631)
Douglas, Gawain (_c._ 1473-1522)
Drayton, Michael (1563-1631)
Drummond, William, of Hawthornden (1585-1649)
Dryden, John (1631-1700)
Dunbar, William (_c._ 1460-1520)
D'Urfey, Thomas (1653-1723)
Dyer, John (_c._ 1700-1758)

Edgeworth, Maria (1767-1849)
Edwards, Jonathan (1629-1712)
Edwards, Richard (_c._1523-1566)
Eliot, George, _see_ Mary Ann Cross.
Elliot, Jean (1727-1805)
Elyot, Sir Thomas (_c._ 1499-1546)
Emerson, Ralph Waldo (1803-1882), 579-82.
Etherege, Sir George (_c._ 1635-1691)
Evelyn, John (1620-1706)

Fairfax, Edward (_fl. c._ 1600)
Farquhar, George (1678-1707)
Fenton, Elijah (1683-1730)
Ferguson, Rev. Adam (1723-1816)
Fergusson, Robert (1750-1774)
Ferrier, Susan (1782-1854)
Fielding, Henry (1707-1754)
FitzGerald, Edward (1809-1883)
Fitzneale, Richard (_fl._ 1169-1198)
Fletcher, Giles (_c._ 1549-1611)

Fletcher, John (1579-1625)
Fletcher, Phineas (_c._ 1582-1650)
Florence of Worcester (_d._ 1118)
Florio, John (_c._ 1553-1625)
Forbes, Bishop Robert (1708-1775)
Ford, John (_fl. c._. 1613-1633)
Fordun, John (_d. c._ 1384)
Forster, John (1812-1876)
Fox, George (1624-1690)
Francis, Sir Philip (1740-1818)
Franklin, Benjamin (1706-1790)
Freeman, E. A. (1823-1892)
Freneau, Philip (1752-1832)
Froude, James Anthony (1818-1894)
Froude, Richard Hurrell (1803-1836)
Fuller, Thomas (1608-1661)

Galt, John (1779-1839)
Gardiner, Samuel Rawson (1829-1902)
Gascoigne, George (_c._ 1525-1577)
Gaskell, Elizabeth (1810-1865)
Gay, John (1685-1732)
Geoffrey of Monmouth (_c._ 1100-1155)
Gerald of Wales (_c._ 1147-1217)
Gibbon, Edward (1737-1794)
Gildas (_c._ 516-570)
Giraldus Cambrensis, _see_ Gerald of Wales.
Glanvill, Joseph (1636-1680)
Godric, St. (_c._ 1065-1170)
Golding, Arthur (_c._ 1536-1605)
Goldsmith, Oliver (1728-1774)
Googe, Barnabe (1540-1594)
Gosson, Stephen (1554-1624)
Gower, John (_c._ 1325-1408)
Gray, Thomas (1716-1771)
Green, J. R. (1837-1883)
Green, Matthew (1696-1737)
Greene, Robert (_c._ 1560-1592)
Griffin, B. (_fl._ 1596)
Grimald, Nicholas (1519-1562)
Grote, George (1794-1871)
Gwynne, Talbot (_fl. c._ 1862-1865)

Habington, William (1605-1654)
Hales, John (1584-1656)
Hall, Joseph (1574-1656)
Hallam, Henry (1777-1859)
Hamilton, William, of Bangour (1704-1754)
Hamilton, William, of Gilbertfield (_c._ 1665-1751)
Harington, Sir John (1561-1612)
Harry, Blind (_fl. c._ 1480-1492)
Harvey, Gabriel (_c._ 1545-1630)
Hawes, Stephen (_c._ 1475-1523)
Hawthorne, Nathaniel (1804-1864)
Haywood, Eliza (_c._ 1693-1756)
Hazlitt, William (1778-1830), 555-7.
Henley, W. E. (1849-1903)
Henry of Huntingdon (_fl._ 1125-1154)
Henry son, Robert (_fl. c._ 1462)
Herbert, Edward, Lord Herbert of Cherbury (1583-1648)
Herbert, George (1593-1633)
Herrick, Robert (1591-1674)
Heywood, John (_c._ 1497-1580)
Heywood, Thomas (_fl. c._ 1596-1650)
Higden, Ranulf (_d._ 1364)
Hobbes, Thomas (1588-1679)
Hogg, James (1770-1835)
Holland, Philemon (1552-1637)
Holland, Sir Richard (_fl. c._ 1450)
Holmes, Oliver Wendell (1809-1894)
Home, Henry, Lord Kames (1696-1782)
Home, John (1722-1808)
Hood, Thomas (1799-1845)
Hook, Theodore (1788-1841)
Hooker, Richard (_c._ 1553-1600)
Horner, Francis (1778-1817)
Howard, Henry, Earl of Surrey (_c._ 1517-1547)
Howell, James (1594-1666)
Huchown (_fl._ 1342-1377)
Hume, David (1711-1776)
Hunt, James Henry Leigh (1784-1859)
Hutcheson, Francis (1694-1746)
Huxley, T. H. (1825-1895)

Irving, Washington (1783-1859)

James I of Scotland (1394-1437)
James, G. P. R. (1799-1860)
Jeffrey, Francis (1773-1850)
Jocelin de Brakelond (_fl._ 1173-1202)
Johnson, Samuel (1709-1784)
Jonson, Ben (_c._ 1573-1637)
"Junius" (_fl._ 1768-1773)

Keats, John (1795-1821)
Kingsley, Charles (1819-1875)
Kingsley, Henry (1830-1876)
Kirke, Edward (1553-1613)
Knox, John (_c._ 1505-1572)
Kyd, Thomas (_c._ 1558-1594)

Lamb, Charles (1775-1834)
Landor, Walter Savage (1775-1864)
Langland, William (_c._ 1332-1400)
Lawrence, G. A. (1827-1876)
Layamon (_fl. c._ 1200-1220)
Lecky, W. E. H. (1838-1903)
Leighton, Robert (1611-1684)
Leslie of Ross, Bishop (1527-1596)
Lever, Charles (1806-1872)
Lingard, John (1772-1851)
Locke, John (1632-1704)
Lockhart, George, of Carnwath
Lockhart, John Gibson (1794-1854)
Lodge, Thomas (_c._ 1558-1625)
Longfellow, Henry Wadsworth (1807-1882)
Lovelace, Richard (1618-1658)
Lowell, James Russell (1819-1891)
Lydgate, John (_c._ 1370-1446)
Lyly, John (_c._ 1554-1606)
Lyndsay, Sir David (1490-1555)
Lytton, Edward George Bulwer (1803-1873)

Macaulay, Thomas Babington (1800-1859)
Mackenzie, Sir George (1636-1691).
Macpherson, James (1736-1796)
Malory, Sir Thomas (_c._ 1400-1471)
Mandeville, Sir John (_fl. c._ 1322-1357)
Map, Walter (_c._ 1137-1200)
Marlowe, Christopher (1564-1593)
Marryat, Capt. Frederick (1792-1848)
Marston, John (_c._ 1575-1634)
Marvell, Andrew (1621-1678)
Massinger, Philip (1583-1640)
Mather, Cotton (1663-1728)
Mayne, Jasper (1604-1672)
Meredith, George (1828-1909)
Meres, Francis (1565-1647)
Middleton, Thomas (_c._ 1570-1627)
Mill, James (1773-1836)
Mill, John Stuart (1806-1873)
Milman, Henry Hart (1791-1868)
Milton, John (1608-1674)
Minot, Laurence (_c._ 1300-1352)
Montagu, Lady Mary Wortley (1689-1762)
Montgomery, Alexander (_c._ 1556-1610)
Montgomery, Robert (1807-1855)
Moore, Thomas (1779-1852)
More, Henry (1614-1687)
More, Sir Thomas (1478-1535)
Morris, William (1834-1896)

Nairne, Carolina, Lady (1766-1845)
Napier, Sir William (1785-1860)
Nash, Thomas (1567-1601)
Nennius (_c._ 800)
Newman, John Henry, Cardinal (1801-1890)
Nicholas of Guildford (_fl._ 1250)
Nicolls, Thomas (_fl._ 1550
North, Christopher, _see_ John Wilson.
North, Roger (1653-1733)
North, Sir Thomas (_c._ 1535-1601)

Occleve, Thomas (_c._ 1368-1450)
Oliphant, May Margaret Wilson, (1828-1897)
Ormin (_c._ 1200)
Otway, Thomas (1652-1685)
Ouida, _see_ De la Ramée.
Overbury, Sir Thomas (1581-1613)

Painter, William (_c._ 1540-1594)
Palgrave, Sir Francis (1788-1861)
Parnell, Thomas (1679-1718)
Pater, Walter Horatio (1839-1894)
Payn, James (1830-1898)
Peacock, Thomas Love (1785-1866)
Pecock, Reginald (_c._ 1395-1460)
Peele, George (_c._ 1558-1598)
Pepys, Samuel (1633-1703)
Percy, Thomas (1729-1811)
Phaer, Thomas (_c._ 1510-1560)
Philips, Ambrose (1675-1749)
Poe, Edgar Allan (1809-1849)
Pope, Alexander (1688-1744)
Praed, Winthrop Mackworth (1802-1839)
Prescott, William Hickling (1796-1859)
Prior, Matthew (1664-1721)
Prynne, William (1600-1669)

Radcliff, Ann (1764-1822)
Raleigh, Sir Walter (_c._ 1552-1618)
Ramsay, Allan (1686-1758)
Randolph, Thomas (1605-1635)
Reade, Charles (1814-1884)
Reeve, Clara (1729-1807)
Reynolds, John Hamilton (1796-1852)
Rich, Barnaby (_c._ 1540-1620)
Richard, Prior of Hexham (_fl._ 1138-1154)
Richardson, Samuel (1689-1761)
Ritson, Joseph (1752-1803)
Robert of Gloucester (_fl. c._ 1260-1300)
Robertson, William (1721-1793)
Robynson, Ralph (_fl. c._ 1551)
Rogers, Samuel (1763-1855)
Rolle, Richard (_c._ 1290-1349)
Rossetti, Christina (1830-1894)
Rossetti, Dante Gabriel (1828-1882)
Rowe, Nicholas (1674-1718)
Rowley, William (_c._ 1585-1642)
Ruskin, John (1819-1900)

Sackville, Thomas (1536-1608)
St. John, Henry, Viscount Bolingbroke (1678-1751)
Savile, Sir Henry (1549-1622)
Scott, Alexander (_c._ 1525-1584)
Scott, John (1783-1821)
Scott, Michael (1789-1835)
Scott, Sir Walter (1771-1832)
Sedley, Sir Charles (_c._ 1639-1701)
Shadwell, Thomas (1642-1692)
Shakespeare, William (1564-1616)
Shelley, Percy Bysshe (1792-1822)
Shenstone, William (1714-1763)
Sherburne, Sir Edward (1618-1702)
Sheridan, Richard Brinsley (1751-1816)
Shirley, James (1596-1666)
Sidney, Sir Philip (1554-1586)
Simeon of Durham (_fl._ 1130)
Skelton, John (_c._ 1460-1529)
Smith, Horace (1779-1849)
Smith, Captain John (1580-1631)
Smith, Sydney (1771-1845)
Smith, William (_fl._ 1596)
Smollett, Tobias (1721-1771)
South, Robert (1634-1716)
Southerne, Thomas (1660-1746)
Southey, Robert (1774-1843)
Spencer, Herbert (1820-1903)
Spenser, Edmund (_c._ 1552-1599)
Stanley, Thomas (1625-1678)
Stanyhurst, Richard (1547-1618)
Steele, Sir Richard (1672-1729)
Sterne, Laurence (1713-1768)
Stevenson, Robert Louis (1850-1894)
Still, John (1543-1608)
Strachey, William (_fl._ 1609-1618)
Stubbs, William (1825-1901)
Suckling, Sir John (1609-1642)
Swift, Jonathan (1667-1745)
Swinburne, Algernon Charles (1837-1909)
Symonds, John Addington (1840-1893)

Talfourd, Sir T. N. (1795-1854)
Tautphœus, Baroness (1807-1893)
Taylor, Jeremy (1613-1667)
Temple, Sir William (1628-1699)
Tennyson, Alfred (1809-1892)
Thackeray, William Makepeace (1811-1863)
Thomas of Ercildoune (_d. c._ 1299)
Thomson, James (1700-1748)
Tickell, Thomas (1686-1740)
Tourneur, Cyril (_c._ 1575-1626)
Trevisa, John (_c._ 1326-1412)
Trollope, Anthony (1815-1882)
Turner, Sharon (1768-1847)
Tusser, Thomas (_c._ 1524-1580)

Udall, Nicholas (1505-1556)
Urquhart, Sir Thomas (1611-1660)
Ussher, James (1581-1656)

Vanbrugh, Sir John (1666-1726)
Vaughan, Henry (1622-1695)
Villiers, George, second Duke of Buckingham (1627-1688)

Wace (_fl._ 1170)
Waller, Edmund (1606-1687)
Walpole, Horace (1717-1797)
Walton, Izaac (1593-1683)
Wardlaw, Elizabeth, Lady (1677-1727)
Warton, Joseph (1722-1800)
Warton, Thomas (_c._ 1688-1745)
Warton, Thomas (1728-1790)
Watson, Thomas (_c._ 1557-1592)
Webster, John (_c._ 1580-1625)
Whetstone, George (_c._ 1544-1587)
Whittier, John Greenleaf (1807-1892)
Whyte-Melville, George John (1821-1878)
Wilkie, Prof. William (1721-1772)
William of Malmesbury (_c._ 1095-1143)
William of Newburgh (1136-1198)
Willoughby, Henry (_c._ 1574-1596)
Wilson, John (1785-1854)
Wither, George (1588-1667)
Wodrow, Robert (1679-1734)
Wood, Mrs. Henry (1814-1887)
Wordsworth, William (1770-1850)
Wyatt, Sir Thomas (1503-1542)
Wycherley, William (_c._ 1640-1716)
Wyclif, John (_c._ 1329-1384)
Wyntoun, Andrew (_fl. c._ 1413

Young, Edward (1683-1765)




CHAPTER I. ANGLO-SAXON LITERATURE.


The literature of every modern country is made up of many elements,
contributed by various races; and has been modified at different times
by foreign influences. Thus, among the ancient Celtic inhabitants of
our islands, the peoples whom the Romans found here, the Welsh have
given us the materials of the famous romances of King Arthur, and from
the Gaelic tribes of Ireland and Scotland come the romances of heroes
less universally known, Finn, Diarmaid, Cuchulain, and the rest. But
the main stock of our earliest poetry and prose, like the main stock
of our language, is Anglo-Saxon. The Anglo-Saxon tribes who invaded
Britain, and after the departure of the Romans (411) conquered the
greater part of the island, must have had a literature of their own,
and must have brought it with them over sea.

For all early peoples, even the least civilized, possess the germs of
literature. They have their hymns to their Divine Father above the
sky, and to gods and spirits; they have magic songs, to win the love
of women, or to cause the deaths of men; they have love-songs, and
songs of feats of war. They possess fairy-tales, and legends in prose
concerning gods and fabulous heroes; they have tales of talking birds
and beasts; and they have dances in which the legends of old heroes are



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