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different lines of action. We have first the men and women who are in
this association from an experimental standpoint. We have also a number
who are here with a commercial planting standpoint. Then we have another
group that represents the growing and selling of nut trees. But, in
addition to that and most important of all, we have another set that
represents the consuming public, notably Mr. Kellogg and his brother.
About their work there need not be a great deal said.

I remember, when I first began to become interested in nut culture, I
wrote to Dr. J. H. Kellogg. I don't remember at the present time where
he said his plantings were, but I wrote to him in connection with
pecans, and he said he had a grove of them planted. He said they were
quite large but they hadn't borne and he believed that they would not
bear in this section because it was so far north. He advised me to get
in communication with Mr. J. H. Jones. That was practically the
information I got from everybody I wrote to, so I went to see Mr. Jones.

Dr. Kellogg has advanced the idea of nuts as food. Not only that but he
has continuously stood for the belief that they are more suitable for
human food than many of the proteins of animal nature. In addition to
that he publishes one of the best health magazines in the country. Dr.
Kellogg is putting out a health magazine that is further advanced than
any other magazine that I know of. It gives me great pleasure to respond
to the address of welcome and I wish to thank Mr. Kellogg on the part of
the association and myself.




Report of the Secretary for 1934


The present secretary assumed office in September 1933 without the
benefit of previous membership in the association and knowledge of its
affairs. Considerable time has been spent in getting acquainted with
these affairs. President Frey, Mr. Reed, and Dr. Deming have been
especially helpful in orienting the secretary and assisting in answering
correspondence. The late Mr. Russell, and his successor, Mr. Walker,
have handled all matters referred to them in a prompt and efficient
manner. Much credit is due to Mrs. Russell for the efficient manner in
which she attended to the treasurer's duties during Mr. Russell's
illness.

One of the chief duties of the secretary is the answering of
correspondence pertaining to association affairs and inquiries regarding
nut culture. A total of 175 letters were written for the association.
Fifty-three were to the officers and Mr. Reed regarding association
affairs, while 122 concerned nut cultural problems and memberships. A
number of letters were referred to Mr. Reed and a few to Prof.
MacDaniels for reply. In addition to the correspondence addressed to the
association regarding nuts, an equal or larger number of inquiries
concerning nuts addressed to the station were also answered. A list of
names of people interested in nuts, but not members of the association,
is being accumulated from this correspondence.

The circular describing the association and its work was reprinted and a
list of nut nurseries and tree seedsmen prepared by Mr. Reed was
mimeographed. These were enclosed in all association and station letters
sent to non-members in answer to nut inquiries. Their effect in bringing
in new members and their influence on the sale of nut trees is of course
unknown. Dr. MacDaniels and Dr. Colby also used these circulars in
correspondence.

A list of available publications on nut culture has also been prepared
and will be mimeographed shortly.

A campaign to sell many of the surplus reports of the association was
planned, but owing to unforeseen obstacles the reports were not
available and the plans for selling them were shelved until after this
meeting. If the reports are soon assembled at Geneva it is planned to
circularize agricultural and horticultural libraries and attempt to
place complete or nearly complete sets in as many as possible.
Attractive prices will be made on sets of those reports of which we have
an oversupply.

A mimeographed list of cions available from the Bixby collection was
prepared at Mr. Reed's suggestion and sent to all members and other
interested persons. Mrs. Bixby received as many copies as she needed.

Mr. J. T. Bregger, editor of the American Fruit Grower, has cooperated
with the secretary in publishing notes pertaining to association
activities. He is desirous of publishing articles on nut culture. It is
to be hoped that contributions may be received from members interested
in various phases of nut growing. Other publications are eager for
articles on all phases of horticulture. If nut culture is to receive its
due publicity more than a few must take their pens in hand.

It is with great regret and sadness that the death on April 27, 1934, of
our treasurer, Newton H. Russell, is recorded. His enthusiasm, interest
and kindly personality will be greatly missed. He was very active in
promoting nut culture in Massachusetts. We have lost a valuable member.

The discontinuance of the National Nut News leaves us without an
official organ. This is a serious handicap to our work. The stimulation
of interest provided by the regular arrival of a publication containing
the latest news and newest developments in our field, is a valuable aid
in nut culture and association activities. The provision of such a
medium is one of our most pressing problems.

Our membership is at a low point and should be doubled. The secretary is
desirous of cooperating with the membership committee in a campaign to
increase the membership. With our dues at their present low figure it
should not be difficult to interest many in the association. Such a
campaign should follow several lines.

First: Every member should attempt to secure additional members.

Second: Many who dropped out when dues were high should be invited to
return.

Third: Attempts should be made to contact certain groups. All of the
northern experiment stations and agricultural colleges should have a
member of their horticultural department in the association. Groups such
as doctors, lawyers, nurserymen, farmers and others should be informed
of the association and what it offers to each.

Fourth: The agricultural college and experiment station libraries should
be induced to take out memberships and bring their sets of reports up to
date.

Such a campaign is more than one person can handle, and several should
participate in it.




Treasurer's Report

Year Ending August 31, 1934

RECEIPTS

Annual Memberships $266.75
Contributing Memberships 10.00
Sale of Reports 29.00
Sale of Bulletins 2.25
For Subscriptions to National Nut News 8.00
_______

Total $316.00 $316.00

DISBURSEMENTS

Reprints, K. W. Greene (for Mr. Bixby) $ 21.10
Printing 1931 Report, Balance, American Fruits Pub. Co. 50.00
Subscriptions, National Nut News 18.00
Printing 1932 Report, Lightner Pub. Corp. 200.00
Expenses Downingtown Convention, J. W. Hershey 13.82
Membership Dues, American Horticultural Society 2.00
Expense Handling Surplus Reports, C. A. Reed 9.69
Advertising, Lightner Pub. Corp. 4.00
Printing 1933 Report, Lightner Pub. Corp. 125.32
Release Expense of Account with Litchfield Savings Society 1.68
Loss on Check 2.00
Postage, F. H. Frey 12.10
Postage and Miscl. Expense for 1933 Report, F. H. Frey 19.92
Mimeographing, G. L. Slate 2.25
Printing, Postage and Supplies, C. F. Walker 12.45
Check Charges & Taxes .68
_______

Total $495.01 $495.01
Excess of Disbursements over Receipts $179.01

CASH ACCOUNT

Cash on hand or in bank as reported as of Aug. 31, 1933 $306.01
Account in Litchfield Savings Society as of Aug. 31, 1933 15.94
_______

Total cash on hand or in bank as of Aug. 31, 1933 $321.95 $321.95
Excess of Disbursements over Receipts 179.01
_______

Balance, Cash in bank, August 31, 1934 $142.94
Accounts, Due or Payable None


_Press and Publication Committee_

DR. DEMING:

We have had one or two articles in each issue of the National
Horticultural Magazine, published by the American Horticultural Society
in Washington. The editor has promised to have in each issue of his
magazine something relating to nuts. He is particularly anxious to get
short articles with a single illustration, articles about a page long
which will attract attention, be easy to read and stimulate interest in
nuts. I would be glad to receive articles of that nature for submission
to the editor.

It is unfortunate that we no longer have an official journal, the
National Nut News having gone out of existence. We have an opportunity
to make the American Fruit Grower, with which we have been acquainted a
good many years, our official journal, and that will come up in the
course of this meeting.


_Membership Committee_

MR. WALKER:

From our increase in membership - forty new members - and from their
addresses, one is able to judge of the work of Prof. Neilson, he being
very active in obtaining new members. There are others of our members
who also have been active and to whom credit is due for the increase in
membership.

An analysis of the membership of the past six years indicates that we
are on the increase again. We have retained over 90% of those who were
members last year. I feel as though we need not try to get everybody in
the world to plant nut trees. But there is no reason why we should not
greatly increase our membership.


_Program Committee_

PROF. NEILSON:

At nine o'clock tomorrow morning busses will be at the hotel to take us
to the Kellogg plant. About 10:30 we will proceed to the sanitarium. We
will try and meet at the Kellogg Hotel at 12:00 P.M. where we are to be
the guest of Mr. W. K. Kellogg for luncheon. After lunch, at one
o'clock, we will board the busses and proceed to the Kellogg farm. At
the farm we will look over the buildings for a few minutes, call at the
Kellogg School, and then stop for a few moments and look over our
bittersweet plantation. Then we will go on to the Kellogg Bird Sanctuary
and see what is being done there in conserving wild fowl.

After we leave the sanctuary we will visit a block of about fifteen
acres of hickory trees, where I have been doing top working experiments
for the last three or four years. Then we will inspect our variety
plantation of nut trees and proceed to Mr. Kellogg's estate. At 5:30 the
Kellogg Company will provide motor boats to take us for a cruise on Gull
Lake. At 6:30 we will have our dinner at Bunbury Inn on Gull Lake and
then have a few addresses and a business session.


_Report of Committee on Hybrids and Promising Seedlings_

DR. ZIMMERMAN:

One or two interesting seedlings have come to our attention during the
past year. One a hickory nut that was drawn to the attention of the
Pennsylvania Nut Growers' Association January last. It is a rather good
nut and bears very well. I think Mr. Hershey has some of the trees for
sale.

The other, a very interesting shellbark, came to my attention. The nut
is large, the best cracker for a shellbark that I have seen, the tree
itself is beautiful and, although the party who owns it says it bears
every other year, it seems to me to produce a good many nuts every year
that I have seen it.

Another, probably worthless, but interesting, seems to me to be an
English walnut x butternut hybrid. The party insists she planted walnuts
from a typical English walnut tree, but the trees from these nuts, of
which there are a number bearing small nuts, certainly have the earmarks
of the butternut. These plants will be kept under observation and a
later report given concerning them.

We have a number of first generation hybrids, but so far as I am aware
we have no second or following generation hybrids in the nut line. It
seems to me that if we plant a lot of the nuts from these first
generation hybrids and, when the plants are large enough, distribute
them to parties who will give them space and care for them until they
come into bearing, somebody sooner or later will get hold of some
valuable material. Work along this line I expect to advance through our
committee as rapidly as practical. It seems to me that the seedlings of
our first generation hybrids should not be destroyed as has frequently
been done in the past.

PROF. NEILSON:

I have seen quite a few hybrids between the heartnut and the butternut.
I believe the Mitchel is about the best.

DR. MACDANIELS:

We found that the tree had stood the winter very well and that it was
bearing a good crop. We brought along a few samples labeled the Mitchel
hybrid heartnut. It looked to me to be a promising nut.

PROF. NEILSON:

Mr. Mitchel thought it was a worthless butternut. I told Mr. Mitchel
that I thought it was well worth saving and I hope that one of these
days we shall succeed in propagating it.

THE PRESIDENT:

Mr. Stokes, in Virginia, has located some black walnuts that will be
excellent. Mr. Hershey's name and work have been mentioned. He writes me
that the territory of the Tennessee Valley is a wonderful lay-out and he
is putting on a contest for different kinds of nuts. He may have some
desirable nuts to present later on.

MR. SLATE:

If Mr. Reed is not planning to discuss those Jones hybrids in his paper
I wish he, or someone else who is acquainted with them, would make some
remarks to be placed on record.

MR. REED:

We think that the two most promising of the Jones hybrids are numbers 92
and 200. Those were Mr. Jones' own numbers. About three years ago we
began making an intensive study of them. Ninety-two seemed to bear
better and be a little more promising than 200, and so it was named
first. It was named Buchanan in honor of the only president of the
United States who came from Pennsylvania. Last year number 200 showed up
so favorably that it seemed well to name that one also, so just about a
year ago the name of Bixby was suggested and it met with universal
approval. That, I think, is all that I have to say about the hybrids. We
are watching them very closely.

From here east we had a very severe winter last year. Apple orchards
very, very old were killed all through the east and with them thousands
and thousands of English walnut trees. In Washington we have practically
no crop of filberts and our English walnuts were affected generally.

We have yet to find a single hybrid between black walnut and English
walnut which appears to be promising. There is a record, but I think we
should have brought to our attention from time to time what was known as
the James River hybrid. It was an enormous black walnut tree that grew
on the James River near Jamestown. It was visited in 1928 by Mr. Karl
Greene and Mr. Hershey. Mr. Greene said that the tree measured thirteen
feet in circumference. You don't often see trees as large as that in any
part of the country. That is in a part of the country where the English
walnut has not done well. The tree must have been somewhere around 200
years old when it died. It was probably grown from a hybrid between an
English walnut and a black walnut. Our American colonists brought the
English walnut with them about the same time they brought our first
apples and peaches and plums and everything else. This tree throws some
light on the question as to when the first English walnut first came to
this country.

A week ago yesterday I was riding along a country road down in Maryland.
I saw a row of trees. One tree in the middle of that row was as big as
any other three there. I slowed up and looked at them more closely. The
large tree was a hybrid and the others were not.


_Committee on Exhibits_:

On the tables Prof. Neilson has a number of plates of the northern pecan
at its best. Besides that he has two remarkable specimens of hybrid
hickories. One is a McCallister, and the other is of unknown origin.
There are also on the tables other remarkable nuts grown in this part of
the United States, in Ontario and in British Columbia. There are
chestnuts, English walnuts, Japanese heartnuts and others.

MR. REED:

You will recall that one year ago I was made custodian of the back
records of the association. Within two weeks of the time of last year's
meeting I personally procured the reports which were stacked away in Mr.
Bixby's barn, and took them to Washington. A little later Dr. Deming and
the late Mr. Russell made a trip to Redding, Connecticut, and sent me
500 pounds of back reports. Still later Mr. Karl Greene brought to me
about another 500 pounds of reports. I had then about 1900 pounds. We
put them in the basement of the building where our office was and then
we began to move around. It began to cost something to move them.

I communicated with Mr. Slate and found that there was abundant space at
Geneva, and the authorities were willing that they should be housed
there. So I had the reports tied up and arranged with a truck man to
move them to Geneva. I made the arrangements with a man who agreed to
move them for $25. Then he backed out. I didn't feel like incurring a
greater expense by sending them by railroad, so I waited until last week
and took a bundle from each year in my own car. They are in the
secretary's care at Geneva at the present time. The rest of the reports
will presently be stored in Mr. Littlepage's packing shed out in his
apple orchard. There are still a few reports in the Bixby's barn and Dr.
Deming can tell how many more he has.

THE PRESIDENT:

Each current report will be sold at $1.00 per copy and old reports at
50c a copy. If someone wanted an entire set we would sell all eighteen
or nineteen numbers now for $6.00.

The American Fruit Grower, published in Cleveland, Ohio, has agreed to
have the magazine appear as the official journal of the Northern Nut
Growers' Association.

MR. J. T. BREGGER:

We will deem it a privilege, and I'm sure an obligation, to take on this
responsibility of acting as official journal of your society and give to
you at least a column each month. We are already acting as official
organ of other horticultural societies and it seems to work out very
well. In addition to the column that your secretary would have each
month you could run further articles on nut growing, which would be of
additional interest to your members. You would have some 150,000 of our
readers who are interested in fruit growing, and who would be interested
in nut growing, as possible new members for your organization. They
would receive your announcements and articles each month and you could
get in touch with them, through that column, for additional membership.

MR. WALKER:

I move that the American Fruit Grower be made the official organ of the
Northern Nut Growers' Association, that the secretary be the official
correspondent with the American Fruit Grower, that the subscription
price be paid by the treasurer direct to the American Fruit Grower, that
the present membership fee remain the same, two dollars, to all members,
with the privilege of receiving the American Fruit Grower. The motion
was seconded by Prof. Neilson.

THE PRESIDENT:

Mr. Ellis has offered to donate $10.00 this year, if it is necessary, to
apply on subscriptions for the membership. I don't know that we will
have to call on him for this but it is certainly a display of fine
spirit.

DR. DEMING:

I want to express my great satisfaction that the American Fruit Grower
has offered to act as our official organ on such advantageous terms.
Fourteen years ago, before Mr. Bregger's career as an editor began, I
edited a nut column in the Fruit Grower. The motion was carried.

The following named were elected as committee to nominate officers for
next year: Dr. Deming, Colonel Mitchell, Professor Neilson, Mr. Weber,
and Dr. Colby.

Resolutions Committee: Professor Slate, Mr. C. A. Reed, and Dr. Colby.

Motion was duly made, seconded and carried that; honorary membership in
this association may be conferred upon any person by a majority vote of
members present at any business session or by letter ballot of members
in good standing and honorary membership should be conferred only on
individuals who have rendered outstanding or meritorious service in
connection with the promotion of interest in nut bearing plants, their
products and their culture.

Mr. W. K. Kellogg and Dr. John H. Kellogg were nominated for honorary
members of the Association and unanimously elected.




The Dietetic Importance of Nuts

_By_ DR. JOHN HARVEY KELLOGG, _Michigan_


Nuts, which supply the finest edible fats and proteins which science has
discovered, occupy the smallest place in the nation's food budget of any
of our substantial native foods. This is a remarkable situation well
worthy of consideration in view of the fact that, according to Prof.
Elliot of Oxford University and the eminent Prof. Ami of Montreal, and
many other paleontologists, nuts were the chief diet of the earliest
representatives of the race who appeared in the Eocene period of
geologic time. At that time, according to Prof. Elliot, the regions
inhabited by man bore great forests of walnut, hickory, and other nut
trees, the fossil relics of which are found in great abundance in
association with the remains of prehistoric man. It is significant,
also, that man's nearest relatives, the gorilla, orangutan, and
chimpanzee still stick to the original bill of fare. I once made an ape
so angry by offering him a bit of meat that he threatened to attack me
and finally, as I persisted in offering him the meat, seized it and
flung it as far away as possible, then scrubbed his soiled hand with
dust and wiped it on the grass to get rid of the taint of the meat. He
gave every evidence of feeling deeply insulted. Biology classifies man
as a primate along with the great apes and, according to the great
Cuvier, assigns to him along with other primates, a diet consisting of
nuts, fruits, soft grains, tender shoots and succulent roots.

The great ice sheet which crept down over the greater part of the
northern hemisphere during the glacial period destroyed the nut forests.
The greater part of the primate family, including man, moved South and
survive today in Central Africa, where, along with their furry cousins,
the gorilla and the chimpanzee, they still adhere to a dietary almost
wholly of plant foods. Those who remained behind were compelled to
resort to a flesh diet to avoid starvation. Flesh eating naturally led
to cannibalism, and the historians tell us that only a few thousand
years ago, the survivors of the glacial terrors who roamed the British
Isles, from which the ancestors of most Americans emigrated, roamed the
forests clad in the skins of animals and feasted upon their enemies.

When the grain-eating Romans conquered and civilized our barbarian
ancestors and taught them agriculture, plant foods again became the
chief sources of nutriment, but a meat appetite had been developed and
is still characteristic of the Anglo-Saxon race, while most of the rest
of the world are almost exclusively plant feeders. Four hundred millions
of Chinese eat so little meat that it is, in the case of south China,
not even mentioned in the national food budget. Sixty millions of
Japanese eat an average of 4 pounds per capita. Two hundred millions of
East Indians never taste meat. As a matter of fact, only Americans,
English, Germans and Scandinavians are large meat eaters.

Evidently, the American meat appetite as well as the American sugar
tooth is enormously exaggerated. It is somewhat encouraging, however, to
note that the eating habits of the American people are changing. Within


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Online LibraryAndrew LangNorthern Nut Growers Association Report of the Proceedings at the Twenty-Fifth Annual Meeting → online text (page 2 of 15)