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Northern Nut Growers Association Report of the Proceedings at the Twenty-Fifth Annual Meeting online

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undoubtedly lowered the temperature to below the melting point of the
paraffine. This lowered temperature was also doubtless beneficial to the
life processes of the graft union.

Direct coating of the trunks of newly set trees with the aluminum paint,
without the use of wax, was also tried with satisfactory results.
Applied direct to the dormant buds of the sweet cherry, however, it
proved toxic, as the buds never developed. This was no doubt due to the
bronzing liquid rather than to the aluminum.

The material is very easily applied, either with a brush or spray, and
makes a silvery, impervious and very durable coating. It should be
completely effective as a preventative of sun-burn of the bark of tender
species, especially to cover the creosote applications sometimes used by
tree surgeons. Such black coverings often defeat their purpose in the
hot sun by killing the living tissues by the absorption of the sun's
heat.

At the present time manufacturers are being corresponded with looking to
the development of a bronzing liquid that shall be non-toxic to buds.

Now if some investigator will come forward with a non-toxic, water
soluble coating material for the roots of nursery stock, Professor
Neilson's dream will be fully realized.

Last year Mr. Homer Jacobs of the Davey Tree Expert Company gave us a
very excellent report of his company's experiments with various coatings
used in connection with the moving of large trees. It is to be hoped
that they will add aluminum bronze paint to the list of materials
tested, and give us the benefit of their findings at our next
convention.

In the meantime, the private experiments mentioned will be continued.

d. A publicity stunt for the furtherance of nut culture is being tried
in the way of vases filled with sprays of Oriental chestnut, with
opening burrs, displayed in the windows of our leading department store,
with a showing of fall goods. A card gives credit for the display.

Judging from the enthusiasm with which the store manager and the window
dresser received the suggestion, it would appear that the idea could be
used almost anywhere. If living sprays were not available, a display of
nuts hardy to the locality could doubtless be used in the same manner.
Cards identifying the nuts and stating they were grown (or could be
grown) locally would add to the interest.

It is a matter of deepest personal regret that, due to a combination of
New Deal, raw deal and general lack of a great deal, I am unable to be
with you other than in spirit.

I salute you.




Nut Culture in Ontario

_By_ GEORGE H. CORSAN

_Islington, Ontario_


As most of you know, I was away from my place for six years, but in the
meantime my nut trees grew and yielded. The past season has been most
severe on nut trees and plants. Last winter the winds came straight
across the land without any apparent obstruction, and it blew all winter
long and we had no snow. Then a dry summer with a little moisture in the
fall has created a situation that was never known before. Last year I
gathered nine large baskets of filberts but this year I secured only
about three baskets of filberts and these from bushes that were in a
protected place. Most of the male catkins had frozen. The filberts in
the unprotected places died. A Burlington Hican (purchased as a
Marquardt) lived under circumstances that hardly any other tree could
withstand. One Stanley shellbark lived and one died. It is strange how
hardy the pecans are. Not a bud was killed last winter. It is seldom
that the pecans mature a crop as the summer season is too short in
Ontario, but they grow well and make a beautiful tree. We find that
hickories grafted on pecan stocks do well, putting on two and one-half
to three feet of new growth in a year. The butternut is so common around
certain parts of Ontario and Quebec that the people do not even bring it
to market, but they do appreciate it.

I am carrying on a program over the air as I am the "Nut" man of station
CFRB and follow the farm report on prices at 1:45 o'clock each
afternoon. We are trying to influence the farmers to plant nut trees
along the lanes, around the barns and in the pastures and thus beautify
the farms and bring the boys and girls back from the cities. None of the
work that has been done in the research line of agriculture has
approached the value of the work that Prof. Neilson has done here in
Michigan in the last few years. The surface of the farms can be planted
to grains and vegetables and yield practically nothing, but you can
plant a nut tree and it will reach down into the sub-soil with its long
roots and bring up the finest food in the form of nut meats.




Nut Growing on a Commercial Basis

_By_ AMELIA RIEHL, _Illinois_

(_Read by Title_)


I have several times given figures stating the size of our chestnut crop
and the income from year to year. To this I might add that the crop last
year amounted to 6,423 pounds and was sold at wholesale for $1,082.76.
Because we do a good part of the work ourselves, it is hard to figure
the cost of harvesting. But the amount we paid out in cash comes away
below $100.00. We still think it pays to grow chestnuts, though things
look pretty bad around here now.

This was the third very dry season we have had in succession, and the
very worst of all. We had no rain at all for over seventy days, and the
heat was terrible. Everything suffered from drought. Even forest trees
on the island below us died from lack of moisture. You can imagine what
happened to the nut trees on the steep hillsides. All were more or less
scorched, and many of them actually died. These are the old trees that
father planted years ago. The young trees, which were planted after he
was gone, on fairly level ground, are heavy with burrs, and I know will
produce a fair crop of nuts as usual. For the first time in several
years we will have no hazels. They bloomed very early this year and were
caught by late frost. There are a few walnuts on some of the trees, but
I doubt if they will be well filled.

For forty years father tried to grow English walnuts, but never
succeeded in getting any of them to bear nuts. Finally gave it up in
disgust. After he was gone we started out all over again, planting
several varieties that were thought to be hardy. Now for the first time
one of them has set eight nuts. It is the Alpine variety, scions of
which were given me by Mr. J. F. Jones. Of course, it is yet to be seen
whether or not there is anything in these nuts. But it is encouraging
anyway.

We all send greetings to our many friends at the convention. Will be
with you in thought and wish you all a happy time.




Some Notes on the Hardiness of the English Walnut in Michigan and
Ontario

_By_ J. A. NEILSON, _Michigan_


In a study of the desirable characters of nut trees for planting in the
northern part of the United States and in southern Canada, one is forced
to place hardiness first. Rapid growth, high yield and excellent quality
of nuts are of little value if hardiness is lacking. Hardiness, of
course, is a relative term and may be applied to disease and insect
resistance, adaptability to diverse soils and capacity to withstand
extremes of winter and summer temperatures. In the present paper
emphasis will be placed on resistance to winter cold and to unusual
weather conditions, such as occurred during the autumn of 1933 and the
winter of 1933 and 1934.

In order to properly understand the effect of the past winter on the
English walnut, it will be necessary to devote some attention to the
weather conditions that prevailed in the southern half of Michigan in
the autumn of 1933. A perusal of the meteorological records shows that
the average maximum and minimum temperatures in September and October
were unusually high and that there was a heavy rainfall in these two
months. The following table shows the precipitation and temperatures
recorded at the Kellogg Farm where most of our nut cultural experiments
are conducted.

September - The average maximum temperature, 79.1; average minimum
temperature, 55.7; precipitation, 4.55 inches. October - The average
maximum temperature, 60.1; average minimum temperature, 38.4;
precipitation, 6.81 inches.

The unusually high temperatures and heavy rainfall caused growth to
continue much later than normally and thus prevented the wood from
ripening properly before winter set in.

English walnuts are found at several places throughout the lower
peninsula and more particularly in the southern half of the state. In no
place, however, are the trees numerous with the exception of a small
area around Lexington, where there are approximately 100 trees. Inasmuch
as this paper deals with the effect of low temperatures on the English
walnut, the minimum temperatures of the weather station nearest to the
places mentioned in the following text are given hereunder.

Lowest
Place Mo. - Date Temp.
Allegan Feb. 9 -19
Bay City Feb. 9 -20
Caro Feb. 9 -30
Croswell Feb. 9 -26
Fennville Feb. 9 -20
Flint Feb. 9 -15
Grand Rapids Feb. 9 -16
Gull Lake - Kellogg Farm Feb. 9 -18
Hart Feb. 9 -22
Lansing Feb. 9 -18
Mount Pleasant Feb. 9 -21
Muskegon Feb. 9 -16
Owosso Feb. 9 -20
Saranac Feb. 20 -25
Sparta Feb. 9 -22[A]
Leamington, Ont. Feb. 9 -18
Guelph Feb. 9 -30
Simcoe Feb. 9 -30

[Footnote A: Unofficial.]

The extreme cold of the past winter following a warm, wet autumn caused
a great deal of injury to English walnut trees in this state and
elsewhere. The data presented herein were obtained by a careful
examination of several plantations or individual trees scattered over
the southern half of the lower peninsula in Michigan and in southwestern
Ontario. To properly present this information it seems desirable to
group the varieties or strains according to their place of origin.


Group 1. _Cultivated Varieties from the Pacific Coast._

In this group we have Mayette, Franquette and Seeando. The Mayette has
been considered one of the hardiest of the cultivated varieties and was
therefore included in the plantings at the Kellogg Farm. More than
twenty trees were planted and every one died last winter or in the
preceding winter. Seeando, a new and supposedly hardy variety from
Washington state, was planted in limited numbers in the spring of 1933,
but every tree perished last winter. Franquette was not planted as a
nursery tree, but was top-grafted on several large black walnuts at the
Kellogg Farm and at East Lansing, Michigan. The grafts made a vigorous
growth but only two out of eleven lived through the winter. In Simcoe,
Ontario, where the minimum temperature was -30F, a six-year-old tree was
so badly injured that it will likely die this winter, but should it not
perish, the degree of injury is so severe that it will be of very little
value. In the Niagara district the Franquette top-grafted in 1926 on
black walnut came through in moderately good condition, but in this part
of Ontario the minimum temperature was only 10 below zero F.


Group 2. _New Varieties of Canadian Origin._

This group contains Broadview and McDermid. Broadview scions were
secured from Mr. J. J. Gellatly of Westbank, B. C., who discovered the
variety near Broadview, B. C. These scions were grafted on a
medium-sized black walnut in 1931 and have since made a remarkable
growth, but notwithstanding the vigorous growth there was no killing
back during the past winter or in preceding winters. This variety was
also grown as a top-graft by Mr. Carl Walker of Cleveland Heights, Ohio,
where the minimum temperature last winter was -26 degrees F. Some killing
back was reported on this tree, but the injury was not severe enough to
be serious. The Broadview is reported to have endured without injury -25
degrees F. in British Columbia and in Russia, where the parent tree
originated, equally low temperatures are said to prevail. The McDermid
was obtained from Mr. Peter McDermid of St. Catherines, Ontario. This
tree is a third generation tree in Ontario and is descended from a tree
brought out from Germany more than 100 years ago. The nuts are large
with a moderately thick shell and contain a kernel of excellent quality.
McDermid has been grown as a top graft at Simcoe, Ontario, East Lansing,
the Kellogg Farm and Estate near Augusta and at South Haven, Michigan.
All of the trees of this Variety grown in Michigan came through without
injury, but the tree at Simcoe, Ontario, suffered somewhat by killing
back of the past season's growth. The larger branches and trunk,
however, were uninjured and have since made a rank growth. The McDermid
top-grafted on a black walnut on Mr. G. Tolles' farm at South Haven
proved hardy and was one of the few English walnut trees in Michigan to
bear nuts this year.

At the Michigan State College where the temperature went to -18 degrees
F. vigorous McDermid grafts on a thrifty black walnut were uninjured
whereas all the Franquette grafts on the same tree were killed outright.
Similar results were noted on several trees at the Kellogg Farm near
Augusta, Michigan.


Group 3. _Carpathian Walnuts._

This strain of Juglans regia was introduced into Canada by Rev. P. C.
Crath of 48 Peterboro Avenue, Toronto, Ontario, from the Carpathian
mountains in southeastern Poland. In this part of Europe the winter
temperatures are reported to go to -20 degrees F., and occasionally
lower. In the winter of 1928-29 a vast amount of injury was done to
fruit trees and the less hardy English walnut trees in Poland, but a
number of English walnuts came through without serious injury. Scion
wood of some hardy selections was sent in 1932 to the writer by Mr.
Crath, who was then in Poland. This material was grafted on vigorous
growing black walnuts in the spring of 1932 and good results were
secured with two varieties. These varieties made a vigorous growth, but
notwithstanding this they showed not the slightest injury in the spring
of 1934. The growth made during the summer of 1934 has been remarkable
and if this unusually vigorous growth survives the coming winter it
would seem as though we have an exceptionally hardy strain. The nut
characters and productiveness of these varieties have not yet been
determined in Michigan, but if they are equal to some of the trees of
the same origin, then we will have very valuable trees. These strains
have been named Crath and are distinguished by Nos. 2 and 5.

About 100 small seedlings of Polish origin were purchased from Mr.
Landega of Toronto, Ontario, an associate of Mr. Crath, and planted at
the Kellogg Farm in 1932. These trees have been subjected to trying
conditions through drouth, competition with alfalfa, late growth and
severe winter temperatures. As a result some have died, but a number are
growing nicely, and it is expected that some of these will eventually
become established. Seedlings of this lot suffered only slight injury
near Sparta, Michigan, but grafts from these same seedling trees set on
a vigorous young black walnut were very severely injured. Another tree
from this group endured the severe cold at Madison, Wisconsin, during
the past winter and made a rapid growth this season.

Scions from another fine tree of Polish origin growing at Mr. Crath's
place in Toronto were set on several trees in this state in the spring
of 1933 and in every case endured the lowest temperature without much
injury to the new growth. A very unusual condition was noted, though on
three young black walnut trees top-grafted to scions of this tree. On
these trees the vigorous grafts appeared to be uninjured in the wood,
but the bark at the point of union on both stock and scion was so
severely injured that the grafts died. An examination showed evidences
of bark splitting and this was undoubtedly caused by a severe and sudden
cold spell following a very late and extremely vigorous growth. Scions
of this strain were grafted on a medium sized black walnut at Caro,
Michigan, and these endured -30 degrees F. without serious injury. A
small black walnut tree at the Kellogg Farm top-grafted to scions of
another Crath seedling showed bark injury on the lower half of the
stock, but fortunately the extent of the injury was not great and the
graft was saved. It also made a vigorous growth this season
notwithstanding the hot dry weather and injury to the bark on the stock.
Scions of this strain were grafted on a vigorous black walnut on the
farm of F. Wilde at Wayland in 1933. These scions made an extraordinary
growth that season and were subjected to a temperature of -20 degrees F.
last winter. Some killing back occurred but no permanent injury was done
as the grafts have made a good growth this season.


_Pomeroy Seedlings_

This strain of walnuts originated on the farm of Mr. Norman Pomeroy of
Lockport, New York. Trees from this plantation, or seedlings of these
trees, are grown at various places throughout Michigan with the heaviest
concentration near Lexington. There are also a number of Pomeroy
seedlings on the farm of Mr. Grant Fox at Leamington, Ontario. All of
the trees in the Lexington district were more or less severely injured
by killing back of the branches and occasionally by bark splitting or
bark killing. At St. Louis one very fine tree was nearly girdled by bark
injury and will undoubtedly die. Near Ithaca another tree showed
moderate killing back and in the city two trees were killed to the
ground and one other so severely injured as to be useless. The trees at
Leamington, Ontario, were also severely injured, especially those that
bore thin-shelled nuts. Some of the larger trees in this plantation
which bore nuts with moderate thick shells were not as severely injured,
and this would seem to indicate that there may be a relationship between
thickness of shell and resistance to winter cold.

In this plantation it was also found on another occasion that the trees
which bore thin-shelled nuts produced long vigorous succulent shoots
with a large pith and loose, spongy buds. On the other trees that bore
thick-shelled nuts the shoot growth was shorter and firmer than on the
trees with thin-shelled nuts. In contrast to these trees the buds on the
Crath trees Nos. 2 and 5 were short, rather broad and very solid. The
wood also was very hard and well matured with a small pith even on
vigorous shoots. This seems to indicate that there may be a relationship
between density and maturity of wood and buds and winter hardiness.


_Other Seedlings_

At various places in Michigan there are English walnut trees that
originated in England or which are seedlings of trees that came from
England. An exceptionally good tree of English origin grows near Ionia
and is called Larson after the owner of the farm on which it grew. The
Larson tree is at least 50 years old and bears nuts of large size and
excellent quality in favorable seasons. This variety was propagated for
the college by the Michigan Nut Nursery and some of these trees were
planted at the Kellogg Farm in 1933. Unfortunately the past winter
killed all the young trees and so severely injured the parent tree that
its recovery is doubtful. Beck is another good variety of English origin
that grows near Allegan on the Monterey road. The original tree of this
variety was very severely injured and much greater injury was noted on
seven-year-old grafts of this variety which had been set on a black
walnut. At Vassar there is a tree of English origin that yields very
fine nuts, but this one was also severely injured. Near Conklin there is
an old tree of German origin and this was likewise severely injured, but
not so much as the trees from England.


_Chinese Walnuts_

The Chinese walnut is a geographic form of the so-called English walnut.
It occurs over a large area of central and northern China, and it is
believed that trees from the northernmost range of this species in China
are somewhat hardier than the average English walnut from western
Europe. The number of trees of this species under observation is very
limited, but those that have been seen appear to be promising. The
largest and best tree observed grows on the property of Mr. Geo. Corsan
at Islington, Ontario. This tree was subjected to -26 degrees F. last
winter and was somewhat injured. The growth this spring was delayed
longer than normally and some killing back was noted. Eventually the
tree started to grow and made a normal amount of growth. Scions from
this tree were grafted on two black walnut trees at the Kellogg Farm in
1933 and a vigorous growth was made in that season. These grafts were
carefully examined in the spring of 1934 and were found uninjured.
Subsequently a very large graft on one medium sized black walnut tree
died, but this was due to injury at the point of union rather than to
the graft above. The remaining scions made a good growth this season.
Seedling trees of another strain of Chinese walnut showed some variation
in their hardiness. Some came through in good condition and made a
vigorous growth but others were more or less injured. The limited number
of trees under observation scarcely justifies definite conclusion, but
it would seem as though this form of Juglans regia is worthy of a wider
trial in southern Michigan.


_Types of Winter Injury_

The following forms of winter injury which have been referred to in the
preceding notes are given special attention hereunder.

(1) Killing back of branches.

This type was found on every tree except the hardy varieties of Polish
and Russian origin. In some cases the large branches were killed
outright, but usually the injury was confined to small branches, and the
degree of injury varied from slight to very severe killing. Branches so
injured were attacked by fungus diseases and some were beginning to
decay and fall off when examined in October. Killing back of the
branches was also noted on one excellent heartnut at Scotland, Ontario.
This tree was subjected to -30 degrees F. but was less severely injured
than many of the English walnuts noted above, and when examined in
September showed a vigorous new growth throughout most of the top. There
were also several vigorous seedlings from this tree growing near by
which were only slightly injured in the bark or which were uninjured. It
was interesting to observe that the seedlings of the old heartnut tree
that were apparently of hybrid origin were not injured in the least and
bore good crops of nuts this year, but the seedlings that were pure
heartnuts were injured slightly. This point suggests the desirability of
crossing the finest heartnuts with the best butternuts to get a
combination of the hardiness of the butternut with the good qualities of
the heartnut.


_Bark Killing_

Bark injury is often found on fruit trees following a severe winter and
is occasionally found on nut trees. It may be due to bark splitting or
to desiccation or both. In severe cases of bark splitting the bark
splits vertically and laterally from the ground up for several feet, but
in milder cases the bark is only split away for a short distance. Where
the bark is loosened for some distance around the tree or vertically it
dies shortly thereafter, but where only a small amount of splitting
occurs, the tree may recover if given attention. In such cases the bark
should be cut back to the living tissue and all particles of dead or
injured bark scraped off. The exposed area should then be coated with a
good tree paint or asphaltic emulsion.

The severest case of bark splitting observed was on a vigorous young
heartnut seedling at Guelph, Ontario. On this tree the bark was
completely split away entirely around the trunk from the ground up for
several feet and the injury was so great that the tree died early in the
summer. Within a short distance of this tree was another tree of the
same origin that was quite uninjured, but this tree, however, was a
hybrid between the butternut and the heartnut. On this hardy tree there
was a heavy crop of nuts that were intermediate in form between the
heartnut and the butternut, this indicating its hybrid origin.
Practically all of these hybrids escaped injury even though the


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Online LibraryAndrew LangNorthern Nut Growers Association Report of the Proceedings at the Twenty-Fifth Annual Meeting → online text (page 7 of 15)