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PICKLE THE SPY



WORKS BY ANDREW LANG.



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PICKLE THE SPY



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BY



ANDEEW LANG



' I knew the Master: on many secret steps of his career
I have an authentic memoir in my hand '

Thk Master of Ballantraf.



THIRD EDITION



LONGMANS, GREEN, AND CO.

39 PATERNOSTER ROW, LONDON
NEW YORK AND BOMBAY

1897

AH rights reserved



^ f) LIBRARY

UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA
) 4 • S SANTA BARBARA

7



DEDICATION

TO THE

LOED NAPIER AND ETTBICK, K.T.

THIS STUDY OF OLD DIPLOMACY

AND STATE SECEETS

IS DEDICATED

WITH AFFECTION AND RESPECT



PREFACE



TO



THE SECOND EDITION




As was to be expected, some Highlanders have
declined to believe that Pickle was Young Glengarry,
jably these gentlemen do believe in the authen-
of Macpherson's Ossian. I ought perhaps to
re said before that I did what I could, before
publication, to obtain rebutting evidence, from the
best source known to me, but without success.

I may here sum up the evidence against Glen-
garry.

1. Pickle and Glengarry have both been officers
in the French service.

2. Both, and no other Highland chief, are to take
an active part in the Elibank plot in London (1752).
Both are intimate with the Earl Marischal, in Paris.

3. Both declare that no rising in the Highlands
can take place without them.

4. Both are sons and heirs of the chief of the
greatest Jacobite clan. Pickle says that whatever
the Macdonnells do must be known, first, to him.



Vlll TICKLE THE SPY

5. Both lose their fathers when Old Glengarry
dies (September 1, 1754).

6. Both then go to their Highland estates.

7. Both are then specially observed by the
Governor of Fort Augustus, near Glengarry's house
(pp. 283-285).

8. Both are very ill in February-March, 1753.

9. Both use the unusual misspelling, 'how' for
' who.'

10. Pickle foolishly signs ' Alexander Jeanson '
and ' Alexander Jackson,' Young Glengarry being
Alexander, son of John.

11. Glengarry's character, according to Holker,
Blair, young Edgar, Mrs. Cameron (on Lochnell's
information), Archy Cameron, .ZEneas Macdonald,
and Colonel Trapaud, is that - of a thief, forger,
traitor, swindler, swaggerer, and oppressor.

12. Prince Charles demands an interview with
4 G.' — and Pickle travels from England to meet him
(September, 1752).

13. Pickle, in his last extant letter, asks the
answer to be sent To Alexander MackdoneU of Glen-
garry, Foraugustus.

14. Glengarry dies, and the Pickle letters cease.
I la}' no stress on identity of handwriting, for

that can always be contested.

The only conceivable evasion is to suppose that
Glengarry was always personated, to Henry Pelham,
the Duke of Newcastle, Gwynne Yaughan, and others,
by somebody else. I gave my attention to this



PKEFACE TO THE SECOND EDITION IX

theory and found it impossible. On no otlier hypo-
thesis could even a jury of Macdonalds acquit Mr.
Pickle. I may add that I have found the tradition
of Glengarry's treachery surviving orally in the West
Highlands.

I observe that, according to Macallester, the
Prince spoke of Glengarry as ' not fit even to be a
sergeant.' This was probably false, but may have
been reported.

The writer on James Mohr in Blackwood (Decem-
ber, 1817) was Dr. Macleay : see his Rob Roy and his
limes, second edition, 1810, or that of 1881 (Brown,
Edinburgh).

Horace Walpole mentions Charles's abjuration of
the Catholic faith in St. Martin's Church in London
(Letters, iv. 390).

By 1800-1820 Glengarry had acquired, as Mr.
F. H. Groome points out to me, a character quite un-
like that given by Colonel Trapaud, and the contem-
porary Jacobite witnesses. In ' A Family Memoir of
the Macdonalds of Kepj>och, by Angus Macdonald,
M.D., of Taunton, written from 1800 to 1820, for his
Niece, Mrs. Stanley, edited by Clements E. Markham,
C.B., with some notes bv the late Charles Edward
Stuart, Conite d'Albanie, 1885 ' [150 copies], we read,
p. 138 : ' You know that your cousin Duncan, the
late Glengarry, succeeded his uncle Alexander, one
of the best men in the Highlands in his day, possess-
ing eminently all the virtues of a Cean Cuine, whose
hospitable mansion was ever open, as his assistance



X PICKLE THE SPY

to distress was ever ready. But, alas ! like too many
of our clan, he was cut off in the prime of life, to the
great grief of his family, and while he was busy in
promoting the happiness of his people, as his worthy
ancestor, Lord Macdonald of Aros, had done before
him.'

Mr. P. Eeid points out that Pickle, among his
Jacobite friends, ascribes his supplies of money to
' Baron Kenady ' (p. 172). I have suggested 'New-
castle ' as the real, and Major Kennedy as the feigned
source of supplies. But in Lord Advocate Craigie's
Letters, in Jesse's Pretenders, Sir Patrick Murray
says : ' In most things Young Glengarry is advised and
directed by Baron Kennedy. .' Pickle, too, tells his
Jacobite friends that his money comes from ' Baron
Kenady.' The inference is obvious.

A. L.

St. Andrews : January 24, 1897.



PEEFACE



This woful History began in my study of the Pelham
Papers in the Additional Manuscripts of the British
Museum. These include the letters of Pickle the
Spy and of James Mohr Macgregoe. Transcripts of
them were sent by me to Mr. PlObert Louis Stevenson,
for use in a novel, which he did not live to finish.
The character of Pickle, indeed, like that of the
Master of Ballantrae, is alluring to writers of
historical romance. Eesisting the temptation to use
Pickle as the villain of fiction, I have tried to tell
his story with fidelity. The secret, so long kept, of
Prince Charles's incognito, is divulged no less by his
own correspondence in the Stuart MSS. than by the
letters of Pickle.

For Her Majesty's gracious permission to read
the Stuart Papers in the library of Windsor Castle,
and to engrave a miniature of Prince Charles in the
Royal collection, I have respectfully to express my
sincerest gratitude.

To Mr. Holmes, Her Majesty's librarian, I owe
much kind and valuable aid.

The Pickle Papers, and many despatches in the



Xli PICKLE THE SPY

State Papers, were examined and copied for me by
Miss E. A. Ibbs.

In studying the Stuart Papers, I owe much to
the aid of Miss Violet Simpson, who has also assisted
me by verifying references from many sources.

It would not be easy to mention the numerous
correspondents who have helped me, but it were
ungrateful to omit acknowledgment of the kindness
of Mr. Horatio F. Brown and of Mr. George T.
Omond.

I have to thank Mr. Alexander Peliiam Trotter
for pet-mission to cite the MS. Letter Book of the
exiled Chevalier's secretary, Andrew Lumisden, in Mr.
Trotter's possession.

Miss Macpherson of Cluny kindly gave me a copy
of a privately printed Memorial of her celebrated
ancestor, and, by Cluny's kind permission, I have
been allowed to see some letters from his charter
chest. Apparently, the more important secret papers
have perished in the years of turmoil and exile.

This opportunity may be taken for disclaiming
any belief in the imputations against Cluny conjectu-
rallv hazarded by 'Newton,' or Kennedy, in the
following pages. The Chief's destitution in France,
after a long period of suffering in Scotland, refutes
these suspicions, bred in an atmosphere of jealousy
and distrust. Among the relics of the family are
none of the objects which Charles, in 1766-1767,
found it difficult to obtain from Cluny's representa-
tives for lack of a proper messenger.



PREFACE XI 11

To Sir Arthur Halkktt, Bart., of Pitfirrane, I am
obliged for a view of Balhaldie's correspondence
with his agent in Scotland.

The Directors of the French Foreign Office
Archives courteously permitted Monsieur Leon Pajot
to examine, and copy for me, some of the documents
in their charge. These, it will be seen, add but little
to our information during the years 1749-1766.

I have remarked, in the proper place, that Mr.
Murray Eose has already printed some of Pickle's
letters in a newspaper. As Mr. Murray Eose assigned
them to James Moiir Macgregor, I await with interest
his arguments in favour of this opinion in his pro-
mised volume of Essays.

The ornament on the cover of this work is a copy
of that with which the volumes of Prince Charles's
own library were impressed. I owe the stamp to the
kindness of Miss Warrender of Bruntsfield.

Among printed books, the most serviceable have
been Mr. Ewald's work on Prince Charles, Lord
Stanhope's History, and Dr. Browne's ' History of
the Highlands and Clans.' Had Mr. Ewald explored
the Stuart Papers and the Memoirs of d'Argenson,
Grimm, de Luynes, Barbier, and the Letters of
Madame du Defiand (edited by M. de Lescure), with
the ' Political Correspondence of Frederick the
Great,' little would have been left for gleaners in his
track.

I must not foniet to thank Mr. and Mrs. I Cartels
for researches in old magazines and journals. Mr.



XIV PICKLE THE SPY

Baktels also examined for me the printed corre-
spondence of Frederick the Great. To the kindness
of J. A. Ekskine Cunningham, Esq., of Balgownie I
owe permission to photograph the portrait of Young
Glengarry in his possession.

If I might make a suggestion to historical students
of leisure, it is this. The Life of the Old Chevalier
(James III.) has never been written, and is well
worth writing. My own studies, alas ! prove that
Prince Charles's character was incapable of enduring
misfortune. His father, less brilliant and less popular,
was a very different man, and, I think, has every-
thing to gain from an unprejudiced examination of
his career. He has certainly nothing to lose.

Since this work was in type the whole of Bishop
Forbes's MS., The Lyon in Mourning, has been
printed for an Historical Society in Scotland. I was
unable to consult the MS. for this book, but it con-
tains, I now find, no addition to the facts here set
forth.

November 5, 189G.



CONTENTS



CHAPTER I

INTRODUCTORY TO TICKLE

Subject of this book — The last rally of Jacobitism hitherto ob-
scure — Nature of the new materials — Information from spies,
unpublished Stuart Papers, &c. — The chief spy — Probably
known to Sir Walter Scott — ' Redgauntlet ' cited — ' Pickle the
Spy '■ — His position and services — The hidden gold of Loch
Arkaig — -Consequent treacheries — Character of Pickle —
Pickle's nephew — Pickle's portrait — Pickle detected and de-
nounced—To no purpose — -Historical summary — Incognito of
Prince Charles — Plan of this work. .....

CHAPTER II
CHARLES EDWARD STUART

Prince Charles — Contradictions in his character — Extremes of
bad and good — Evolution of character — The Prince's personal
advantages — Common mistake as to the colour of his eyes —
His portraits from youth to age — Descriptions of Charles by
the Due de Liria ; the President de Drosses ; Gray ; Charles's
courage — The siege of Gaeta — Story of Lord Elcho — The real
facts — The Prince's horse shot at Culloden — Foolish fables of
David Hume confuted — Charles's literary tastes — His cle-
mency — His honourable conduct — Contrast with Cumberland
— His graciousness — His faults — Charge of avarice — Love of
wine — Religious levity — James on Charles's faults — An un-
pleasant discovery — Influence of Murray of Broughton — Rapid
decline of character after 1746 — Temper, wine, and women-
Deep distrust of James's Court — Rupture with James —
Divisions among Jacobites — King's men and Prince's men—
Marischal, Kelly, Lismore, Clancarty — Anecdote of Clancarty
and Draddock — Clancarty and d'Argenson — Balhaldie — Lally
Tollendal — The Duke of York — His secret flight from Paris —
' Insigne Fourberie ' — Anxiety of Charles — The fatal cardinal's



[•AGE



xvi PICKLE THE SPY



hat — Madame de Pompadour — Charles rejects her advances —
His love affairs— Madame de Talmond— Voltaire's verses on
her — Her scepticism in Religion— Her husband — Correspon-
dence with Montesquieu — The Duchesse d'Aiguillon — Peace
of Aix-la-Chapelle — Charles refuses to retire to Fribourg —
The gold plate — Scenes with Madame de Talmond — Bulkeley's
interference — Arrest of Charles — The compasses — Charles goes
to Avignon — His desperate condition — His policy — Based on
a scheme of D'Argenson — He leaves Avignon — He is lost to
sight and hearing . . . . . . . . .11

CHAPTER III

THE PRINCE IN FAIRYLAND

FEBRUARY 1749 SEPTEMBER 1750. I. WHAT THE

WORLD SAID

Europe after Peace of Aix-la-Chapelle — A vast gambling establish-
ment — Charles excluded — Possible chance in Poland — Sup-
posed to have gone thither — ' Henry Goring's Letter ' —
Romantic adventures attributed to Charles — Obvious blunders
— Talk of a marriage — Count Briml's opinion — Proposal to
kidnap Charles — To rob a priest — The King of Poland's ideas
— Lord Hyndford on Frederick the Great — Lord Hyndford's
mare's nest — Charles at Berlin — ' Send him to Siberia ' — The
theory contradicted — Mischievous glee of Frederick — Charles
discountenances plots to kill Cumberland — Father Myles Mac-
donnell to James — London conspiracy — Reported from Rome
—The Bloody Butcher Club — Guesses of Sir Horace Mann —
Charles and a strike — Charles reported to be very ill — Really
on the point of visiting England — September 1750 . . .44

CHAPTER IV

THE PRINCE IN FAIRYLAND. II. — WHAT ACTUALLY

OCCURRED

Charles mystifies Europe — Montesquieu knows his secret —
Sources of information — The Stuart manuscripts — Charles's
letters from Avignon — A proposal of marriage — Kennedy and
the hidden treasure — Where to look for Charles — Chcrclicz
lafemme! — Hidden in Lorraine — Plans for entering Paris —
Letter to Mrs. Drummond — To the Earl Marischal — Starts
for Venice — At Strasbourg — Unhappy Harrington — Letter to
James — Leaves Venice — ' A bird without a nest ' — Goes to Paris
—The Prince's secret revealed — The convent of St. Joseph —



CONTEXTS XV11

I'AGB

Curious letter as Cartouche — Madame cle Routh — Cartouche
again — Goring sent toEngland — A cypher — Portrait of Madame
de Talmond — Portrait of Madame d'Aiguillon — Intellectual
society — Mademoiselle Luci — ' Dener Bash ' — The secret hoard
— Results of Goring's English mission — Timidity of English
Jacobites — Supply of money — Charles a bibliophile — ' My
big muff '■ — A patron of art — Quarrels with Madame de Tal-
mond — Arms for a rising — Newton on Cluny — Kindness to
Monsieur Le Coq — Madame de Talmond weary of Charles —
Letters to her — Charles reads Fielding's novels — Determines
to go to England — Large order of arms — -Reproached by
James — Intagli of James — En route for London — September
1750 67

CHAPTER V

THE PRINCE IN LONDON ; AND AFTER. — MADEMOISELLE
LUCI (SEPTEMBER 1750 — JULY 175l)

The Prince goes to London — Futility of this tour — English Jaco-
bites described by iEneas Macdonald — No chance but in Tear-
lach — Credentials to Madame de Talmond — Notes of visit to
London — Doings in London — Gratifying conversion — Gems
and medals — Pieport by Hanbury Williams — Hume's legend —
Report by a spy — Billets to Madame de Talmond — Quarrel —
Disappearance — ' The old aunt ' — Letters to Mademoiselle
Luci — Charles in Germany — Happy thought of Hanbury
Williams — Marshal Keith's mistress — Failure of this plan —
The English ' have a clue ' — Books for the Prince — Made-
moiselle Luci as a critic — Jealousy of Madame de Talmond —
Her letter to Mademoiselle Luci — The young lady replies —
Her bad health — Charles's reflections — Frederick ' a clever
man ' — A new adventure 102

CHAPTER VI

INTRIGUES, POLITICAL AND AMATORY. — DEATH OF
MADEMOISELLE LUCI, 175:2

Hopes from Prussia — The Murrays of Elibank — Imprisonment of
Alexander Murray — Recommended to Charles — The Elibank
plot — Prussia and the Earl Marischal — His early history —
Ambassador of Frederick at Versailles — His odd household-
Voltaire — The Duke of Newcastle's resentment — Charles's
view of Frederick's policy — His alleged avarice — Lad}' Mon-
tagu — His money-box — Goring and the Earl Marischal —

a



Xviii PICKLE THE SPY



; .-^



CHAPTER VIII

PICKLE AND THE ELIBANK PLOT

The Elibank plot— George II. to be kidnapped — Murray and
Young Glengarry — As Pickle, Glengarry betrays the plot —
His revelations — Pickle and Lord Elibank — Pickle meets
Charles — Charles has been in Berlin — Glengarry writes to
James's secretary — Regrets failure of plot — Speaks of his
illness — Laments for Archy Cameron — Hanbury "Williams
seeks Charles in Silesia — Pickle's 'fit of sickness ' — His
dealings with the Earl Marischal — Meets the Prince at the
masked ball — ' A little piqued ' — Marischal criticises the plot
to kidnap George II. — ' A night attack ' — Other schemes — ■
Charles's poverty — 'The prophet's clothes' — Mr. Carlyle
on Frederick the Great — Alleges his innocence of Jacobite
intrigues — Ccntradicts statesmen — Mr. Carlyle in error —



I'AGK



Secret meetings — The lace shop — Albemarle's information — ■
Charles at Ghent— Hanbury Williams's mares' nests —
Charles and 'La Grandemain ' — She and Goring refuse to
take his orders — Appearance of Miss Walkinshaw — Her
history — Remonstrances of Goring — 'Commissions for the
worst of men ' — ■' The little man ' — Lady Primrose — Death
of Mademoiselle Luci — November 10, date of postponed
Elibank plot — Danger of dismissing an agent . . . . 124

CHAPTER VII

YOUNG GLENGARRY

Tickle the spy — Not James Mohr Macgregor or Drummond —
Pickle was the young chief of Glengarry — Proofs of this —
His family history — His part in the Forty-five — Misfortunes
of his family — In the Tower of London — Letters to James III.
No cheque ! — Barren honours — In London in 1749 — His
poverty — Mrs. Murray of Broughton's watch — Steals from
the Loch Arkaig hoard — Charges by him against Archy
Cameron — Is accused of forgery — Cameron of Torcastle —
Glengarry sees James III. in Rome — Was he sold to
Cumberland ? — Anonymous charges against Glengarry — A
friend of Murray of Broughton — His spelling in evidence
against him — Mrs. Cameron's accusation against Young Glen-
garry — Henry Pelham and Campbell of Loclmell — Pickle
gives his real name and address — Note on Glengarry family
—Highlanders among the Turks . . . . . . 145



CONTEXTS XIX

PAGE

Correspondence of Frederick with Earl Marischal — The
Earl's account of English plotters — Frederick's advice-
Encouragement underhand — Arrest of Archy Cameron — His
early history — Plea for clemency — Cameron is hanged — His
testimony to Charles's virtues— His forgiveness of his ene-
mies—Samuel Cameron the spy— His fate— Young Edgar
on the hidden treasure— The last of the treasure— A salmo
ferox ......-•••• F39

CHAPTEE IX

DE PKOFUNDIS

Charles fears for his own safety— Earl MarischaTs advice-
Letter from Goring — Charles's danger — Charles at Coblentz—
His changes of abode — Information from Fickle — Charles as
a friar — Fickle sends to England Lochgarry's memorial-
Scottish advice to Charles — List of loyal clans — Fickle on
Frederick — On English adherents — ' They drink very hard '
— Fickle declines to admit arms — Frederick receives Jemmy
Dawkins — His threats against England — Albemarle on
Dawkins — Dawkins an archaeologist — Explores Palmyra
— Charles at feud with Miss Walkinshaw — Goring's illness—
A mark to be put on Charles's daughter — Charles's objets <Va rt
—Sells his pistols "207

CHAPTEE X

JAMES MOHR MACGREGOK

Another spy — Eob Roy's son, James Mohr Macgregor— A spy in
1745 — At Prestonpans and Ctdloden— Escape from Edinburgh
Castle — Billy Marshall — Visit to Ireland — Balhaldie reports
James's discovery of Irish Macgregors — Their loyalty — James
Mohr and Lord Albemarle — James Mohr offers to sell him-
self — And to betray Alan Breck — His sense of honour — His
long-winded report on Irish conspiracy— Balhaldie — Mrs.
Macfarlane who shot the Captain — Her romance — Pitfirrane
Papers — Balhaldie's snuff-boxes — James Mohr's confessions —
Balhaldie and Charles — Irish invasion — Arms in Moidart —
Arms at the house of Tough — Pickle to play the spy in
Ireland- Accompanied by a 'Court Trusty' — Letter from
Pickle — Alan Breck spoils James Mohr — Takes his snuff-
boxes — Death of James Mohr — Yet another spy — His wild
information— Confirmation of Charles's visit to Ireland . . 230



XX PICKLE THE SPY

CHAPTER XI

'A MAN UNDONE.'— 1754



TAGE



Jacobite hopes — Blighted by the conduct of Charles — His seclu-
sion — His health is affected— His fierce impatience — Miss
Walkinshaw — Letter from young Edgar — The Prince easily
tracked — Fears of his English correspondents — Remon-
strances of Goring — The English demand Miss Walkinshaw's
dismissal — Danger of discarding Dmnont — Goring fears the
Bastille — Cruelty of dismissing Catholic servants — Charles's
lack of generosity — Has relieved no poor adherents — Will
offend both Px-otestants and Catholics — Opinion of a Protestant
— Toleration desired — Goring asks leave to resign — Charles's
answer — Goring's advice — Charles's reply — Needs money —
Proceedings of Pickle — In London — Called to France — To see
the Earl Marischal — Charles detected at Liege — Verbally
dismisses Goring — Pickle's letter to England — ' Best metal
buttons ' — Goring to the Prince — The Prince's reply — Last
letter from Goring — His ill-treatment — His danger in Paris —
His death in Prussia — The Earl Marischal abandons the
Prince — His distress — ' The poison ' 252

CHAPTER XII

PICKLE AS A HIGHLAND CHIEF. — 1754-1757

Progress of Pickle — Charles's last resource — Cluny called to Paris
— The Loch Arkaig hoard — History of Cluny — Breaks his
oath to King George — Jacobite theory of such oaths — Anecdote
of Cluny in hiding — Charles gives Pickle a gold snuff-box — ■
' A northern ' — Asks for a pension — Death of Old Glen-
garry — Pickle becomes chief — The curse of Lochgarry — Pickle
writes from Edinburgh— His report — Wants money — Letter
from a 'Court Trusty' — Pickle's pride — Refused a fowling-
piece — English account of Pickle — His arrogance and extortion
— Charles's hopes from France — Macallester the spy — The
Prince's false nose — Pickle still unpaid — His candour-
Charles and the Due de Richelieu — A Scottish deputation —
James Dawkins publicly abandons the Prince— Dawkins s
character — The Earl Marischal denounces Charles — He will
not listen to Cluny — Dismisses his servants — Sir Horace
Mann's account of them — ' The boy that is lost ' — English
rumours — Charles declines to lead attack on Minorca — In-
formation from Macallester — Lord Clancarty's attacks on the
Prince — On Lochgarry — Macallester acts as a prison spy —
Jesuit conspiracy against Charles 276



CONTENTS XXI

CHAPTER XIII

THE LAST HOPE — 1759



->■



TAUH



Charles asks Louis for money — Idea of employing him in 1757 —


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