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French service. In March 1744, he and the Earl
Marischal were at Gravelines, meaning to sail with
the futile French expedition from Dunkirk. In June
1745, Glengarry went to France with a letter from
the Scotch Jacobites, bidding Charles not to come
without adequate French support. Old Glengarry,
in January 174-3, had ' disponed ' his lands to Alastair
his son, for weighty reasons to him known.' 2 Such
deeds were common in the Highlands, especially
before a rising.

1 The portrait, now at Balgownie, was long in the possession of the
Threiplands of Fingask. I have only seen a photograph, in the
Scottish Museum of Antiquities.

-' MS. in Laing Collection, Edinburgh University Library.



I.jO pickle the spy

From this point the movements of Young Glen-
garry become rather difficult to trace. If we could
believe the information received from Eob Eoy's son,
James Mohr Macgregor, by Craigie, the Lord Advo-
cate, Young Glengarry came over to Scotland in La
Doutelle, when Charles landed in Moidart in July
1745. 1 This was not true. Old Glengarry, with
Lord George Murray, waited on Cope at Crieff in
August, when Cope marched north. Cope writes, ' I
saw Glengarry the father at Crieff with the Duke of
Athol ; 'tis said that none of his followers are yet out,
tho' there is some doubt of his youngest son ; the
eldest, as Glengarry told me, is in France.' 2 On
September 14, Forbes of Culloden congratulated Old
Glengarry on his return home, and regretted that so
many of his clan were out under Lochgarry, a kins-
man. 3 Old Glengarry had written to Forbes ' lament-
ing the folly of his friends.' He, like Lovat, was
really ' sitting on the fence.' His clan was out ; his
second son iEneas led it at Falkirk. Alastair was in
France. At the close of 1745, Alastair, conveying a
detachment of the Eoyal Scots, in French service,
and a piquet of the Irish brigade to Scotland, was
captured on the seas and imprisoned in the Tower of
London. 4 In January 1746 we find him writing
from the Tower to Waters, the banker in Paris, asking

1 A note of Craigie's communicated by Mr. Omond.

- Cope to Forbes of Culloden, August 24, 1745. Culloden Papers,
p. 384. ■ a Culloden Papers, p. 405.

4 Young Glengarry to Edgar. Pome, September 16, 1750. In the
Stuart Papers.



AFTER CULLODEN 151

for money. Almost at this very time Young
Glengarry's younger brother, iEneas, who led the
clan, was accidentally shot in the streets of Falkirk
by a Macdonald of Clanranald's regiment. The
poor Macdonald was executed, and the Glengarry
leader, by Charles's desire, was buried in the grave
of Wallace's companion, Sir John the Graeme, as the
only worthy resting-place. Many Macdonalds de-
serted. 1

After Culloden (April 1746), an extraordinary
event took place in the Glengarry family. Colonel
Warren, who, in October 1746, carried off Charles
safely to France, arrested, in Scotland, Macdonell of
Barrisdale, on charges of treason to King James. 2
Barrisdale had been taken by the English, but was
almost instantly released after Culloden. One charge
against him, on the Jacobite side, was that he had made
several gentlemen of Glengarry's clan believe that
their chief meant to deliver them up to the English.
Thereon ' information was laid ' (by the gentle-
men?) against Old Glengarry. Old Glengarry's
letters in favour of the Prince were discovered ; he
was seized, and was only released from Edinburgh
Castle in October 1749.

Here then, in 1746, were Old Glengarry in prison,
Young Glengarry in the Tower, and iEneas lying in
the grave of Sir John the Graeme. Though only
nineteen, iEneas was married, and left issue. The

1 Chambers's The Rebellion, v. 24. Edinburgh, 1829.

2 Letter of Warren to James, October 10, 1746. Browne, iii. 463.



152 PICKLE THE SPY

family was now in desperate straits, and already a sough
of treason to the cause was abroad. Young Glen-
garry says that he lay in the Tower for twenty-two
months ; he was released in July 1747. The Rev.
James Leslie, writing to defend himself against a
charge of treachery (Paris, May 27, 1752), quotes
a letter, undated, from Glengarry. ' One needs not
be a wizard to see that mentioning you was only a
feint, and the whole was aimed at me.' l If this, like
Leslie's letter, was written in 1752, Glengarry was
then not unsuspected. We shall now see how he
turned his coat.

On January 22, 1748, he writes to James from
Paris, protesting loyalty. But ' since I arrived here,
after my tedious confinement in the Tower in London,
I have not mett with any suitable encouragement.'
Glengarr}', even as Pickle, constantly complains that
his services are not recognised. Both sides were
ungrateful ! In the list of gratuities to the Scotch
from France, Glengarry VAine gets 1,800 livres ;
Young Glengarry is not mentioned. 2 From Amiens,
September 20, 1748, Young Glengarry again wrote to
James. He means ' to wait any opportunity of going
safely to Britain ' on his private affairs. These
journeys were usually notified by the exiles ; their
mutual suspicions had to be guarded against. In
December, Young Glengarry hoped to succeed to
the Colonelcy in the Scoto-French regiment of
Albany, vacated by the death of the Gentle Lochiel.

1 Stuart Papers. Browne, iv. 100. - Ibid. iv. 22, 23.



NO CHEQUE 153

Archibald Cameron had also applied for it, as locum
tenens of his nephew, Lochiel's son, a boy of sixteen.
James replied, through Edgar, that he was unable
to interfere and assist Glengarry, as he had recom-
mended young Lochiel. What follows explains, per-
haps, the circumstance that changed Young Glen-
garry into Pickle.

' His Majesty is sorry to find you so low in your
circumstances, and reduced to such straits at present
as you mention, and he is the more sorry that his
own situation, as to money matters, never being so
bad as it now is, he is not in a condition to relieve
you, as he would incline. But His Majesty being at
the same time desirous to do what depends on him
for your satisfaction, he, upon your request, sends
you here enclosed a duplicate of your grandfather's
warrant to be a Peer. You will see that it is signed
by H. M. and I can assure you it is an exact dupli-
cate copie out of the book of entr} T s of such like
papers.' l

It is easy to conceive the feelings and to imagine
the florid eloquence of Young Glengarry, when he
expected a cheque and got a duplicate copy of a
warrant (though he had asked for it) to be a Peer —
over the water ! As he was not without a sense of
humour, the absurdity of the Stuart cause must now
have become vividly present to his fancy. He must
starve or ' conform,' that is, take tests and swallow
oaths. But it was not necessary that he should sell

1 Browne, iv. 51.



154 PICKLE THE SPY

himself. Many loyal gentlemen were in his position
of poverty, but perhaps only James Mohr Macgregor
and Samuel Cameron vended themselves as Glengarry
presently did.

Glengarry loitered in Paris. On June 9, 1749, he
wrote to the Cardinal Duke of York. He explained
that, while he was in the Tower, the Court of France
had sent him ' unlimited credit ' as a Highland chief.
He understood that he was intended to supply the
wants of the poor prisoners, ' Several of whom, had
it not been our timely assistance [Sir Hector
Maclean was with him] had starved.' Sir Hector
tells the same tale. From Sir James Graeme, Glen-
garry learned that the Duke of York had procured
for him this assistance. But now the French War
Office demanded repayment of the advance, and
detained four years of his pay in the French service,
lie ' can't receive his ordinary supply from home, his
father being in prison, and his lands entirely de-
stroyed.' To James's agent, Lismore, he tells the
same story, and adds, ' I shall be obliged to leave
this country, if not relieved.' 1 Later, in 1749, we
learn from Leslie that he accompanied Glengarry to
London, where Glengarry ' did not intend to appear
publicly,' but ' to have the advice of some counsellors
about an act of the Privy Council against his return-
ing to Great Britain.' At this time Leslie pledged a
gold repeater, the property of Mrs. Murray, wife of
that other traitor, Murray of Broughton. ' Glengarry,

1 Browne, iv. 61, 62.



SELLS HIS SWORD 155

after selling his sword and shoe-buckles to my certain
knowledge was reduced to such straits, that I
pledged the repeater for a small sum to relieve him,
and wrote to Mr. Murray that I had done so.' He
pledged it to Clanranald. Mrs. Murray was angry,
for (contrary to the usual story that she fled after
the Prince to France) she was living with her husband
at this time. 1

Here then, in July or August 1749, is Young
Glengarry in extreme distress at London. But
./Eneas Macdonald, writing to Edgar from Boulogne
on October 12, 1751, says, 'I lent Young Glengarry
50/. when he was home in 1744, and 1 saw him in
London just at the time I got out of gaol in 1749, and
though in all appearance he had plenty of cash, yet '
he never dreamed of paying iEneas his 50/. ! ' No-
thing could have lost him but falling too soon into
the hands of bad counsellors.'

I regret to say that the pious iEneas Macdonald
was nearly as bad a traitor as any of these few evil
Highland gentlemen. His examination in London
was held on September 16, 1746. 2 Herein he re-
galed his examiners with anecdotes of a tavern
keeper at Gravelines 'who threatened to beat the
Pretender's son ' ; and of how he himself made Lord
Sempil drunk, to worm his schemes out of him. It
is only fair to add that, beyond tattle of this kind,

1 I presume the first beautiful Mrs. Murray is in question. The
second is ' another story.' See the original letter in Browne, iv. 90-101.

2 State Papers, Domestic, No. 87.



156 TICKLE THE SPY

next to nothing was got out of iEneas, who, in 1751,
demands a Jacobite peerage for his family, that of
Kinloch Moidart.

So much, at present, for iEneas. If we listen to
Leslie, Young Glengarry was starving in July or
August 1749 ; if we believe iEneas, he had ' plenty
of cash ' in December of the same year. Whence
came this change from poverty to affluence ? We
need not assume it to be certain that Glengarry's
gold came out of English secret service money. His
father had been released from prison in October 1749,
and may have had resources. We have already seen,
too, that Young Glengarry was accused of getting,
in the winter of 17 49, his share of the buried hoard
of Loch Arkaig. Lord Elcho, in Paris, puts the
money taken by Young Glengarry and Lochgarry
(an honest man) at 1,200 louis d'or. We have heard
the laments of ' Thomas Newton ' (Kennedy), who
himself is accused of peculation by iEneas Mac-
donald, and of losing 800/. of the Prince's money at
Newmarket, 1 We do not know for certain, then,
that Young Glengarry vended his honour when in
London in autumn 1749. That he made overtures
to England, whether they were accepted or not, will
soon be made to seem highly probable. We return
to his own letters. In June 1749 he had written, as
we saw, from Paris, also to Lismore, and to the
Cardinal Duke of York. On September 23, 1749, he
again wrote to Lismore from Boulogne. He says he

1 Stuart Papers.



ACCUSES CAMERON 157

has been in London (as we know from Leslie), where
his friends wished him to ' conform ' to the Hanoverian
interest. This he disdains. He has sent a vassal to
the North, and finds that the clans are ready to rise.
If not relieved from his debt to the French War Office
he must return to England.

He did return in the winter of 1749, and he
accompanied his cousin, Lochgarry (a truly loyal
man), to Scotland, where he helped himself to some of
the hoard of gold. On January 16. 1750, he writes
to Edgar from Boulogne, reports his Scotch journey,
and adds that he is now sent by the clans to lay their
sentiments before James, in Rome. He then declares
that Archibald Cameron has been damping all hearts
in the Highlands. 'I have prevented the bad con-
sequences that might ensue from such notions ; but
one thing I could not prevent was his taking (5,000
louis d'ors of the money left in the country by his
Royal Highness, which he did without any opposition,
as he was privy to where the money was laid, only
Cluny Macpherson obliged him to give a receipt for
it. ... I am credibly informed he designs to lay this
monev in the hands of a merchant in Dunkirk, and
enter partners with him. . . .' He hopes that James
will detain Archibald Cameron in Rome, till his own
arrival. He protests that it is ' very disagreeable to
him ' to trive this information. 1

As we have already seen, 'Newton,' since 1748,
had been in England, trying to procure the money

1 Browne, iv. CO.



158 PICKLE THE SPY

from Clunv : we have seen that Archibald Cameron,
Young Glengarry, and others, had obtained a large
share of the gold in the winter of 1749. Charges
of dishonesty were made on all sides, and we have
already narrated how Archibald Cameron, Sir Hector
Maclean, Lochgarry, and Young Glengarry carried
themselves and their disputes to Eome (in the spring
of 1750), and how James declined to interfere. The
matter, he said, was personal to the Prince. But the
following letter of James to Charles deserves atten-
tion.

The King to the Prince.

« March 17, 1750.

' You will remark that at the end of Archy's paper,
it is mentioned as if a certain person should have
made use of my name in S d, and have even pro-
duced a letter supposed to be mine to prove that he was
acting by commission from me : what there may be
in the bottom of all this I know not, but I think it
necessary you should know that since your return

from S d I never either employed or authorized

the person, or anybody else, to carry any commissions
on politick affairs to any of the three kingdoms.'

Now this certain person, accused by 'Archy'
(Archibald Cameron) of forging a letter from James,
with a commission to take part of the hidden hoard,
is Young Glengarry. In his letter of October 12,
1751, iEneas Macdonald mentions a report 'too
audacious to be believed ; that Glengarry had counter-



CAMERON'S CHARACTER 159

feited his Majesty's signature to gett the money that
he gott in Scotland.' Glengarry ' was very capable
of having it happen to him,' but he accused Archibald
Cameron, and the charge still clings to his name.
Even now Cameron is not wholly cleared. On
November 21, 1753, his uncle, Ludovic Cameron of
Torcastle, wrote to the Prince from Paris :

' My nephew, Dr. Cameron, had the misfortune
to take away a round sum of your Highness's money,
and I was told latelv that it was thought I should
have shared with him in that base and mean under-
taking. I declare, on my honour and conscience, that
I knew nothing of the taking of the money, until he
told it himself in Eome, where I happened to be at
the time, and that I never touched one farthing of it,
or ever will.' '

Cluny, as well as Cameron, was this gentleman's
nephew. The character of Archibald Cameron is so
deservedly high, the praises given to him by Horace
Walpole are so disinterested, that any imputation on
him lacks credibility. One is inclined to believe
that there is a misunderstanding, and that what
money Cameron took was for the Prince's service.
Yet we find no proof of this, and Torcastle's letter is
difficult to explain on the hypothesis of Cameron's
innocence. Glengarry tried to secure himself by a
mvsterious interview with the Kino-. On Mav 23,
at Eome, he wrote to Edgar. ' As His Majesty
comes into town next week, and that I can't, in

1 Browne, iv. 117.



lfiO PICKLE THE SPY

your absence, have an audience with such safety,
not choising to confide myself on that particular
to any but you; I beg you'l be so good as con-
trive, if His Majesty judges it proper, that I have
the honour of meeting him, in the duskish, for a few
moments.'

No doubt Glengarry was brought to the secret
cellar, whence a dark stair led to James's furtive
audience chamber.

We must repeat the question, Was Young Glen-
garry, while with James in Eome, actually sold to the
English Government at this time ? We have seen that
he was in London in the summer of 1749. On
August 2 of that year, the Duke of Cumberland
wrote to the Duke of Bedford, who, of all men in
England, is said by Jacobite tradition to have most
frequently climbed James's cellar stair ! Cumberland
speaks of ' the goodness of the intelligence ' now
offered to the Government. ' On my part, I bear it
witness, for I never knew it fail me in the least trifle,
and have had very material and early notices from it.
How far the price may agree with our present saving
schemes I don't know, but good intelligence ought
not to be lightly thrown away.' '

Was Glengarry (starving in August 1749) the
source of the intelligence which, in that month, Cum-
berland had already found useful ? The first breath
of suspicion against Glengarry, not as a forger or thief
(these minor charges were in the air), but as a traitor,

1 Correspondence of the Duke of Bedford, ii. 39.



CHARGES AGAINST GLENGARRY 161

is met in an anonymous letter forwarded by John
Holker to young Waters. 1 A copy had also been
sent to Edgar at Eome. Already, on November 30,
1751, some one, sealing with a stag's head gorged,
and a stai> - under a tree in the shield, had written to
Waters, denouncing Glengarry's suspected friend,
Leslie the priest, as ' to my private knowledge an
arrant rosnie.' Leslie has been in London, and is now
off to Lorraine. ' He is going to discover if he can
have any news of the Prince in a country which, it
is strongly suspected, His Eoyal Highness has crossed
or bordered on more than once.' In the later anony-
mous letter we are told of ' a regular correspond-
ence between John Murray [of Broughton, the traitor]
and Samuel Cameron ' — a spy of whom we shall hear
again. ' What surprises people still more is that Mr.
Macdonald of Glengarrie, who says that he is charged
with the affaires of his Majesty, is known to be in
great intimacy with Murray, and to put Confidence
in one Leslie, a priest, well known for a very infamous
character, and who, I'm authorised to say, imposed
upon one of the first personages in England by for-
ging the Prince's name.'

The anonvmous accusers were Blair and Holker,
men known to Edgar and Waters, but not listened
to by Charles. Glengarry, according to his anony-
mous accuser of February 1752, was in London
nominally ' on the King's aflaires.' On July (or, as he
spells it, ' Jully ') 15, 1751, Young Glengarry wrote

1 Paris, February 14, 17;32. Stuart Papers.

M



162 PICKLE THE SPY

from London to James and to Edgar. He says, to
James, that the English want a Restoration, but have
lost all martial spirit. To Edgar he gave warning
that, if measures were not promptly taken, the Loch
Arkaig hoard would be embezzled to the last six-
pence. 'I must drop the politicall,' he says ; he will
no longer negotiate for James, but ' my sword will be
always drawn amongst the first.'

The letter to James is printed by Browne ; 1
that to Edgar is not printed. And now appears the
value of original documents. In the manuscript
Glengarry spells ' who ' as ' how ' : in the printed
version the spelling is tacitly corrected. Now Pickle,
writing to his English employers, always spells ' who '
as ' how,' an eccentricity not marked by me in any
other writer of the period. This is a valuable trifle
•of evidence, connecting Pickle with Young Glengarry.
In an undated letter to Charles, certainlv of 1751,
Glengarry announces his approaching marriage with
a lady of 'a very Honourable and loyall familie in
England,' after which he will pay his share of the
Loch Arkaig gold. He ends with pious expressions.
When at Piome he had been ' an ardent suitor ' to
the Cardinal Duke ' for a relick of the precious wood
•of the Holy Cross, in obtaining which I shall think
"myself most happy.' 2

In 1754, two years after the anonymous denun-
ciation, we find a repetition of the charge of treachery
.against Glengarry. On January 25, 1754, Mrs.

1 iv. 84. 2 Rome, September 4, 1750. In Browne.



MRS. CAMERON'S STORY 163

Cameron, by that time widow of Archibald, sends to
Edgar, in Rome, what she has just told Balhaldie
about Young Glengarry. Her letter is most amazing.
* I was telling him [Balhaldie] what character I
heard of Young Glengarry in England,' where she
had vainly thrown herself at the feet of George II.,
praying for her husband's life. ' Particularly Sir
Duncan Campbell of Lochnell [Mrs. Cameron was a
Campbell] told me, and others whom he could trust,
that in the year 1748, or 1749, I don't remember
which, as he, Sir Duncan, was going out of the
House of Commons, Mr. Henry Pelham, brother to
the Duke of Newcastle, and Secretary of State, called
on him, and asked if he knew Glengarry? Sir
Duncan answered he knew the old man, but not the
young. Pelham replied, it was Young Glengarry he
spoke of; for that he came to him offering his most
faithful and loyal services to the Government in any
shape they thought proper, as he came from feeling
the folly of any further concern with the ungrateful
family of Stuart, to whom he and his family had been
too long attached, to the absolute ruin of themselves
and country.'

It is difficult to marvel enough at the folly of
Pelham in thus giving away a secret of the most
mortal moment. Mrs. Cameron did not hear Loch-
nell's report till after the mischief was wrought, the
great scheme baffled, and her husband traduced,
betrayed, and executed. By January 1754, Pickle
had done the most of his business, as will appear



164 PICKLE THE SPY

when we come to study his letters. In these Henry
Pelham is always ' my great friend,' with him Pickle
communicates till Pelham's death (March 1754), and
his letters are marked by the Duke of Newcastle,
' My Brother's Papers.'

All this may be called mere circumstantial
evidence. The anonymous denouncer may have been
prejudiced. Mrs. Cameron's evidence is not at first-
hand. Perhaps other Highland gentlemen spelled
'who' as 'how.' Leslie was not condemned by his
ecclesiastical superiors, but sent back to his mission
in Scotland. 1 But Pickle, writing as Pickle, describes
himself, we shall see, in terms which apply to Young
Glengarry, and to Young Glengarry alone. And, in
his last letter (1760), Pickle begs that his letters may
be addressed ' To Alexander Macdonnell of Glengarry
by Fort Augustus.' It has been absurdly alleged
that Pickle was James Mohr Macgregor. In 1760,
James Mohr had long been dead, and at no time was
he addressed as Alexander Macdonnell of Glengarry.
Additional evidence of Pickle's identity will occur in
his communications with his English employers. He
was not likely to adopt the name of Pickle before
the publication of Smollett's ' Peregrine Pickle ' in
1751, though he may have earlier played his infamous,
part as spy, traitor, and informer.

*****

1 Browne, iv. 102.



HOUSE OF GLENGAKRY 165

NOTE.

The Family of Glengarry.

Alastaie Buadh Macdonell, alias Pickle, Jeanson,
Eoderick Eandom, and so forth, died, as we saw, in
1761. He was succeeded by his nephew Duncan,
son of iEneas, accidentally shot at Falkirk in 174(5.
Duncan was followed by Alastair, Scott's friend ; it
was he who gave Maida to Sir Walter. Alastair, the
last Glengarry who held the lands of the House, died
in January 1828. Scott devotes a few lines of his
journal to the chief (January 21, 1828), who shot a
grandson of Flora Macdonald in a duel, and disputed
with Clanranald the supremacy of the Macdonalds.
Scott says ' he seems to have lived a century too late,
and to exist, in a state of complete law and order, like
a Glengarry of old, whose will was law to his Sept.
Warm-hearted, generous, friendly, he is beloved by
those who knew him. ... To me he is a treasure . . . .' 1
He married a daughter of Sir William Forbes, a strong
claim on Scott's affection. He left sons who died
without offspring ; his daughter Helen married Cun-
ninghame of Balgownie, and is represented by
her son, J. Alastair Erskine-Cunninghame, Esq., of
Balgownie. If Charles, half brother of Alastair
Euadh (Pickle), who died in America, left no offspring,
the House of Glengarry is represented by iEneas
Eanald Westrop Macdonnell,Esq.,of the Scotus branch

1 Journal, February 14, 1826.



166 PICKLE THE SPY

of Glengarry. According to a letter written to the
Old Chevalier in 1751, by Will Henderson in Moidart,
vounsr Scotus had extraordinary adventures after
Culloden. The letter follows. I published it first in
the Illustrated London News.


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