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charged to inform Lord Denbigh, who thought the
change ' the best and happiest thing.' Lady Den-
bigh, ' a most zealous smart woman,' saw Mr. Hay
at Sens, and received from him some of the Prince's
hair, wherewith ' she would regale three or four of
her acquaintances, and each of them set in heart-form,
encircled with diamonds.' 1 Cardinal Tencin also
heard of the conversion. In January 1753, Charles
was in Paris. His creditors were clamorous, and he
deplores his ' sad situation.' 2 On January 24 he was
more in funds, thanks to a remittance from Pome.
Hanbury Williams, meanwhile, was diligently hunt-
ing for him in Silesia ! On January 17 and Feb-
ruary 11, 1753, Williams wrote long letters from
Dresden. He had sent an honest fellow of a spy into
Silesia, where the spy got on the tracks of a tall,
thin, fair gentleman, a little deaf, travelling with a
single servant, who took coffee with him. The master
spoke no German, the servant had a little German,
and the pair were well provided with gold. As

1 Hay to Edgar, October 1752. In Browne, iv. 10G.

2 ' Mildmay ' to ' Green,' January 24, 1753.



3 84 PICKLE THE SPY

Charles was a little deaf, this enigmatic pair must be
the Prince and Goring. Hanburv Williams was ener-
getic, but not well informed. 1 By Februar} 7 18,
1753, the excellent Williams learned from Count
Brlihl that Charles was dead, ' in one of the sea-
ports of France.' Meanwhile the English Govern-
ment knew, though they did not tell Williams, all
that they needed to know, through their friend
Pickle. Williams they kept in the dark.

In March 17-33, Charles was trafficking with
Hussey, lieutenant-colonel of a regiment stationed
in Luxembourg. He conceived a plan for sending
Goring to Spain, and he put some boxes of his, long
kept by ' La Grandemain,' into the hands of Waters.
He wrote a mutilated letter to Alexander Murray in
Flanders, and there our information, as far as the
Stuart Papers go, fails us. But Pickle steps in with
the following letter. He describes the illness about
which, as we saw, he wrote to Edgar in April of this
year. Here follows his letter :

Add. 32,843.

' 17th March, 1753.

Dr. Sir, — I receved some time ago your kind
favour, and no doubt you'll be greatly surprised at
my long silence which nothing could have occasiond
but a violent fitt of sickness, which began with a stich
that seasd me as I was coining from the Town of
Sence, in fine it threw me into a violent fever that
confin'd me to my bed twenty days. I was let blood
ten times, which has so reduc'd me, that I am but in

] S. P. Poland, No. 81.



PICKLE .NEEDS MONEY 185

a very weake situation still. This with my long stay
here, has quite exausted my finances, and oblidg'd
me to contract 300 Livres, tow of which I am bound
to pay in the month of Aprile, and if I am not
suplay'd, I am for ever undon. I beg you'l represent
this to Grandpapa, upon whose friendship, I allways
relay. The inclosed is for him, and I hope to. see
him soon in person, tho. I am to make a little tour
which will still augment my Debts and think myself
very lucky to find credit. Let me heare from you
after you see Grandpapa, for there is no time to be
lost, but pray don't sign that fellow's name you made

use of to my Correspondent. It occasions 's [the

Prince's ?] speculations, you know he is sharp. I don't
comprehend what you would be at in your last. What
regards my cusins I don't comprehend. I will soon
remouvemy dr. mistres jelousies, if she has any. . . .
The old woman you mention is a great tatteler, but
knows nothing solid but what regards Court amours
and little intrigues. I hope to overtake her in your
City, as I believe she will not incline to come so soon
over as she leatly recev'd the news of her son's being
kill'd in a dowell by one of the petit masters of this
Capital!. The Deer hunting will be dangerous without
a good set of hounds which will prove expencive and
very trubelsome. If I don't hear upon recet I will con-
clude I am entirely neglected and dropt. I beg you'l
offer my dutiful respects to Grandpapa, and all friends,
and still believe me, Dear Sir,

' Your sincere and afire, friend

'Alexr. Pickle.



1SG PICKLE THE SPY

' To Mr. William Blair, at Mr. Brodie's in Lille
Street, near Leister fields — London.'

This illness of Pickle's was troublesome : it is to
be feared the poor gentleman never quite recovered
his health. As usual, he is in straits for money.
England was already ungrateful. Here follows an-
other despatch :

Add. 32,843.

' Paris : March 15, 1753.

Dr. Sir, — I had a long letter leatly from Mr.
Cromwell [Bruce] contining in chief tow Artickles
by way of charge ; the first complaining of my long
silence — t'other for not keeping a due and regular
correspondence. . . .What I beg you assure my
mistress of, is, that had there been any new mode
worth her notice invented since I gave her one exact
patron of the last [the Elibank plot], I would not
have neglected to have sent her due patrons. Please
aquent my mistress that of leate they have comenced
some new fashions in the head dresses, very little
varying from the former one, yet they estime it is a
masterpiece in its kind, for my part, I have but a
slight idea of it, though they bost the people of the
first ranck of our country will use it. I would have
wrot of this sooner, but my illness occasiond my not
knowing anything of the matter till very leatly, and
I was so very ill, that it was impossible for me to
write, as you may see by Mr. Cromwell's letter. You
may remember, dr. Papa, that I was always very
desirous that my love intrigues should be secret from



THE PRINCE AT A BALL 187

all mortalls but those agreed upon, and that my letters
might be perus'd by non, but by my mistress and
you, now if you have people how [who] were, and a
few that still are, at the helme, that don't act honour-
ably, I can't be possitive, neither will I mention them
at this distance, beeing myself a little credulous, as I
have but one under architect's word for it. Were I
to credit some of the managers, some of the fundation
stones are pleacd upon a very sandy ground, but our
little thin friend, the Embassador [Earl Marischal?],
gives it little or no credit, it may be but a puff in
hopes to create suspicion, and make one of each other
mistrustfull. In consequence of all this the managers
have derected our Northern friends [Lochgarry and
the clans] to keep their posts. I can answer for
such as regards me, and I beg least the Company
[Jacobites] make banckrout that you proteck my
parte of them. I am now pretty well recover'd of
my leate illness, tho' I have been very much afraid
of a relapse, having catch'd a violent cold at the
Masquerad ball of Lundi Gras, beeing over per-
swaded to accompany our worthy friend Mr. Murray
to that diversion, where I was greatly astonish'd to
find Mr. Strange [Prince Charles] whom I imagin'd
to be all this time in Germanie, for I took it for granted
that he went for Berlin when I meet him at Furnes.
I know not how long his stay was at Paris, for I was
a little pickt that he did not inquire after me during my
illness. He left this earlv Tuesdav morning, and our
friend Mr. Murray gave him the convoie for some



188 PICKLE THE SPY

days, and yesterday lie returnd to town. I am to
dine with him this day, and yon may be sure, we will
not forget to drink a bumper to our British friends
and your health and prosperity in particular.

' I leave this in a cuple of days, and I must, tho,
with reluctance, aquent you, my dear Papa, that my
long stay here, together with my illness, has runn me
quite aground, which forct me to borow very near
150/. St. and Mr. Woulf, Banquier, has my note
payable the 5th of Aprile to his correspondent at
Boulogne. As for the remaining 50, its not so pressing,
as I had it from my Collegian friends [Scots College],
now if I'm not enabled to pay this triffle, my credit,
which was alwa}<s good in this country, will be blown.
... I beg you ly me at my charming Mistress' feet
[Pelham], and assure her how ardent my desires are
to preserve her love and affections, which I hope very
soon to assure her personally.

' I ever remain, my dear Papa

' Your most obedient, and most oblidged
humble servt

' Alexr. Jackson.'

' P.S. Tho' I am still very weake, I will endeavour
to leave this upon the 18th. Instant, and I stear my
course for Imperiall Flanders."

The following communication is undated, but,
from the reference to Pickle's illness, it must be of
March or April 1753. In April, Glengarry informed



PICKLE AND EARL MARISCHAL 181)

Edgar, as we saw, that he was going to England from
Arras. He apparently went over, and handed in this
intelligence. If he speaks truth, the Earl Marischal
criticised the Elibank plot as a candid friend. There
exists evidence of a sp} r on a spy, who tracked Glen-
garry to the Earl Marischal's house. * Swem-rs M. P.'
is a Mr. Swymmer.

Add. 33,050.

' Pickle remaind about ten days at Boulogne,
where he was frequently in company with Sir J.
Harrington who at that instant knew as little as
Pickle of the P. Destination. Sir J. H-a-r-t-n was
much cast down at the grand affair's [Elibank plot]
being retarded. He wrote to Ld. S-t-ln [Strathallan]
aquenting him therewith, for Ld. S-t-ln and Young
Gask [Glengarry ?] had been sent some time before to
sound Ld. George Murray, not knowing how he stood
affected, as he [Prince Charles] had once greatly
disoblidgd him. S. J. H-a-r-t-n aquenting them of
the disappointment in England, stopt further pro-
ceeding's, so they return'd back to Boulogne. Pickle
went streight from Boulogne to Paris, where he was
very intimate with Ld. Marischal ; few days past but
Pickle was at his lodgings or M-r-1- at Pickle's. Ld.
M-r-1- was first aquented with the intended insurrec-
tion in England by Goring who waited of him by
his master's [Charles's] particular order, a person of
distinction spoke very seriously to M-r-1- upon this
head. Pickle does not know how [who] this was,
M-r-1- declining to mention names, yetheestem'd this



190 PICKLE THE SPY

person as a man of weight, and good judgement,
this person was publick at Paris, but waited of M-r-1
at night — Carte has been several times over, he is
trusted, and it is by his means chiefly, that the P.
turn'd off Kelly, as Mr. Carte inform'd the P. that
persons of note would enter upon no scheme with
him whilst that fellow shar'd his confidence. Sir Jo :
A-s-ly [?] was over, and Pickle believes he met the P.
at Paris. The pretence of Mr. Swem-rs, Memr. of
Pt. traveling abroad with his lady, was to settle the
English. Scheme. Ld. M-r-1 has not seen the P. but
twice, before Pickle went over. He never saw him
at Berlin, ili6 > he believed that he had taken several trips
to that Court. He saw Goring twice at Berlin.
M-r-1 knew nothing of a foreign Invation, and did
not believe there could be an} r in time of peace.
Pickle one day asking his opinion of their affairs, he
answer'd that he could say nothing upon the head
with certainty, he kept his mind to himself, that
when they ask'd his Opinion, he told them he could
not judge so well as they, since he was quite a stranger
to London, and to the different posts, and manner of
placing their Guards, but that if they executed according
to their plan laid before him, he doubted not but they
might succeed, but Pickle making some objections as
to the veracity of this plan, told him that he could
not positively contradick them, and tell the P. that
they impost upon him, for, says he, " what Opinion,
Mr. Pickle, can I entertain of people that propos'd
that I should abandon my Embassy, and embark



AID FROM BERLIN 191

headlong with them ? what can I answer, when they
assure me that B-d-rl, S-dh G-me-ele [?] with others of
that party have agreed when once matters break out,
to declare themselves ? But you need not, Mr. Pickle,
be apprehensive, you may safely waite the event, as
you are not desir'd to make any appearance [in
Scotland] untill London and other parts of England
pulls off the mask, or untill there is a foreign land-
ing." This, and matters much of the same nature
were the ordinary topicks of Mrl and Pickle's con-
versation.

' Pickle was not above six weeks in France, when

he was determin'd to return, but was prevented by

M-r-y [Count Murray, Elibank's brother] aquenting

him that he would soon see the P. personally. Of this

he at once aquented Mr. Cromwell [Bruce, English

official] and that it was the only thing that detain'd

him, but as Pickle in the interim went to Sens, in his

return to Paris, he was seased with a fluxion de

Poitrine which had very near tript up his hiells.

Pickle, when he recover'd, went to the Opera Ball,

here to his great surprise he met the P. who received

him very kindly, and he still insisted upon foreign

assistance, and the great assurances he had from

England, and that he expected matters would go well

in a very little time. He often mentioned foreign

assistance by the Court of Berlin's influence, from

Swedland. His conversation with Pickle was in

o-eneral terms. Pickle told him that he intended

returning to Britain. " Well then," says he, " I hope



102 PICKLE THE SPY

soon to send you an agreeable message, as you'l be
amongest the very first aquented when matters corns
to a Crisis : for my parte I hope to have one bold
puish for all ; " then after assurances of his friendship,
he went off, and Pickle has not seen him since ; this
was upon Lundie Gras. He left Paris that very
morning, and Capt. Murray gave him the Convoy,
and was absent four days. A few days after this,
Pickle met, by meare accident. Goring going to Ld.
Mrl. Gor was then upon his way to England
where he did not tarry above six days. D.K-ns
[Dawkins] went leatly over, and brought mony for
the P. Pickle believes upwards of 4,000/. St. There
is few weeks but Sir J. H-a-r-t-n leeves messages by
means of the Smugglers. Eldermen Blastus Heth
[Heathcote] B-n J-r-n-d Black, with many others, are
mannagers in the City. If anything is to be attempted,
its to be executed by a set of resolute daring young
fellows, laid on by a sett of young Gentlemen, conducted
by a few regular Officers. If ever any attempt is made,
it's to be a Night onset, and if tliev succeed in
'scaping the Guards then all will declare. The P.
has been tampering with the Scots Dutch, he saw
some of them. Pickle cant condescent who they
were, his Agents spoke to many of them. No Officers
are fitter for such attempts, as they are both brave
and experienced. The P. depends upon having
many friends in the Army, there being not a few
added to their number by the [Duke of Cumberland's]
conduct towards many gallant gentlemen and men of



HIGHLAND PLANS 193

property, but whatever steps they have been taking,
to sound or gaine over either Officers of the Land ( >r
Sea Service, they still keep a dead secret. As for
B-r [Beaufort?], Ld. W-r-d [Westmoreland] Sir
Jo-s-ps with other of the Cohelric [choleric ?] and
[Bould ?] Pickle is very ready, as he is not accus-
tom'd to such Surnames and titles, to forget them,
but assemblys of that nature are pretty publick,
members of such meetings can't escape the vigilancy
of the Ministry: Murray, when he came over in
Novr. last, brought over several manefestos to
England, with a very ample comission for [Glen-
garry ?] to raise the Clans and command in Chief
untill an Expressd Generall Officer landed, and even
then the Clans were to have a particular Commander
(a Highlander) this they insisted upon, knowing what
tools they have been in times past to Low Country
Commanders, no more experienced than the most

ordinary amongest themselves. [?] was pitched

upon, as the P. believed he would readily comploy
with any reasonable plan that would be concerted by
the Commander in Chief, what Pickle asserts as to
this, will probably be known by others. Neith. Brum.
Heb, were pitched upon to try the pulse of D. H.
[Hamilton ?] and other nobelmen and gentlemen of
the South. Aber-ny with some of the excepted
Skulkers were to manadge and concert matters witli
the North Country Lowlanders, and Menzy of
Cul-d-re was to be ao-ent betwixt the Lowlands and
bordering Highlands. Several were sent to Scotland

o



194 PICKLE THE SPY

by the P. and mony given them in order to prepaire
the people.

' [Glengarry] can fully answer for the High-
lands, for nothing can be transacted there without
his knowledge, as his Clan must begin the play, or
they can come to no head there. What Pickle knows
of English schemes he can't be so positive, as he was
not designed to be an actor upon that Stage, yet in
time he may perhaps be more initiated in those
misterys, as they now believe that Pickle could have
a number of Highlanders even in London to follow
him, but whatever may happen, you may always rely
upon Pickle's attachment.'

To be ' pick't ' (piqued) by the Prince's neglect
to inquire about Pickle's precious health is very
characteristic of Glengarry. His vanity and pride
are alluded to by men of all parties.

Pickle's remarks on Charles's receipt of 4,000/.
must be erroneous. His Eoyal Highness was in the
very lowest water, and could not afford a new suit of
clothes for his servant Daniel, ' the profet,' as he
once calls him. This we learn from the following
letter to Avignon :



&



To Sheridan and Stafford. From the Prince.

' April 10, 1753.

' This is to let you know that as I am extremely
necessitous for money, it engages me out of economi
to send for Daniell's Close which you are to Pack up
in his own trunc, and to send it adresed to Mr.



MR. CARLYLE'S THEORY 195

Woulfe to Paris, but let there be in ye trunc none
of Daniel's Papers or anything else except his Close.'

Meanwhile, on March 20, 1753, Archy Cameron
had been arrested. His adventure and his death,
with the rumours which flew about in society, brino-
us into collision with a great authority, that of Mr.
Carlyle.

' If you, who have never been in rich Cyrene,
know it better than I, who have, I much admire your
cleverness,' said the Delphian Oracle to an inquiring
colonist. Mr. Carlyle had never lived in the Courts
of Europe about 1753 ; none the less, he fancied he
knew more of them, and of their secrets, than did
their actual inhabitants, kings, courtiers, and diplo-
matists. We saw that, in September 1752, according
to Pickle, Prince Charles sent Archibald Cameron and
Lochgarry to Scotland, with a mission to his repre-
sentative, Cluny Macpherson, and the clans. The
English Government, knowing this and a great deal
more through Pickle, hanged Cameron, in June 1753,
on no new charge, but on the old crime of being out
in the Forty-five. Sir Walter Scott was well aware
of the circumstances. We have already quoted his
remark. ' The ministers thought it prudent to leave
Dr. Cameron's new schemes in concealment, lest by
divulging them they had indicated the channel of
communication which, it is well known, they possessed
to all the plots of Charles Edward.'

Mr. Carlyle, however, knew better. After giving
a lucid account of the differences which, in 1752-1753,



19G PICKLE THE SPY

menaced the peaceful relations between England and
Prussia ; after charging heavily in favour of his hero
Frederick, Mr. Carlyle refers to Archibald Cameron.
Cameron, he says, was ' a very mild species of Jaco-
bite rebel. ... I believe he had some vague Jaco-
bite errands withal, never would have harmed any-
body in the rebel way, and might with all safety have
been let live. . . .' But ' His Grace the Duke of
Newcastle and the English had got the strangest
notion into their head ; . . . what is certain, though
now well nigh inconceivable, it was then, in the upper
classes and political circles, universally believed that
this Dr. Cameron was properly an emissary of the
King of Prussia, that Cameron's errand here was to
rally the Jacobite embers into a flame, . . .' and
that Frederick would send 15,000 men to aid the
clans. These ideas of the political circles Mr.
Carlyle thinks ' about as likely as that the Cham
of Tartary had interfered in the Bangorian Contro-
versy.' 1 Now, Horace Walpole says 2 ' intelligence
had been received some time before [through Pickle]
of Cameron's intended journey to Britain, with
a commission from Prussia to offer arms to the
disaffected Highlanders. . . . That Prussia, who
opened her inhospitable doors to every British rebel,
should have tampered in such a business, was by no
means improbable. . . . Two sloops were stationed

1 Carlyle's Frederick, iv. 467. Compare, for the views of political
circles, Horace Walpole's Reign of George II. i. 333, 353, and his
Letters to Horace Mann for 1753.

2 Reign of George II. i. 290.



FREDERICK CONSPIRING 197

to watch, yet Cameron landed.' Writing to Mann
(April 27, 1753), Horace Walpole remarks: 'What
you say you have heard of strange conspiracies
fomented by our nephew [Frederick] is not entirely
groundless.' He adds that Cameron has been taken
while ' feeling the Ground.'

Information as to Frederick's ' tampering ' with
Jacobitism came to the English Government not only
through Pickle, but through Count Kaunitz, the
Austrian minister. On December 30, 1753, Mr.
Keith wrote to the Duke of Xewcastle from the
Imperial Court. He had thanked Count Kaunitz for
his intelligence, and had expressed the wish of
George II. for news as to ' the place of the Young-
Pretender's abode.' He commented on Frederick's
' ill faith and ambition,' which ' could not fail to set
the English nation against his interest, by showing the
dangerous effects of any increase of force, or power,
in a Prince capable of such horrid designs.' *

As between Mr. Carlyle in 1853, and the diplo-
matists of Europe in 1753, the game is unequal.
The upper classes and political circles knew more
of their own business than the sage of Ecclefechan.
Frederick, as Walpole said, was ' tampering ' with
the Jacobites. He as good as announced his inten-
tion of doing so when he sent the Earl Marischal to
Paris, where, however, the Earl could not wear James's
Green Eibbon of the Thistle ! But, to Frederick, the

1 Add MSS. British Museum, 33,847, f. 271. 'Private and most
secret.'



198 PICKLE THE SPY

Jacobites were mere cards in his game. If England
would not meet his views on a vexed question of
Prussian merchant ships seized by British privateers,
then he saw that a hand full of Jacobite trumps might
be useful. The Earl Marischal had suggested this
plan. 1 The Earl wrote from Paris, February 10, 1 753 :
' The King of England shows his ill-will in his pre-
tensions on East Frisia, in the affairs of the Empire,
and in revoking the guarantee of Silesia. Your
Majesty, therefore, may be pleased to know the
strength of the party hostile to him at home, in
which, and in the person of Prince Edouard [Charles]
you may find him plenty to do, if he pushes you too
far.' The Earl then suggests sending a rich English
gentleman to Frederick ; this was Mr. James Dawkins,
of the Over Norton family, the explorer of Palmyra.
Pickle mentions him as ' D-k-ns.'

Frederick did not expect a rupture with England,
but condescended to see the Earl's friend, Mr.
Dawkins. On May 7 the Earl announces his friend's
readiness to go to Berlin, and says that there is a
project maturing in England. The leaders are Daw-
kins, Dr. King of Oxford, ' liomme $ esprit, vif, agissantj
and the Earl of Westmoreland, ' liomme sage, prudent,
a" line bonne tete, bon citoyen, respectable, et respected 2
They will communicate with Frederick through the
Earl Marischal, if at all. ' The Prince knows less of

1 PolitiscJie Corresjwndevz Friederichs des Grossen. Duncker.
Berlin, 1879, ix. 356.

2 Can the Earl and the Doctor have approved of renewing the
imamous Elibank plot ?



ARCHY IX DANGER 199

the affair than Dawkins does. The Frince's position,
coupled with an intrepidity which never lets him
doubt where he desires, causes others to form pro-
jects for him, which he is always ready to execute.
I have no direct communication with him, not wish-
ing to know his place of concealment : we correspond
through others.'

Frederick (May 29, 1753) thinks the plot still
crude, and advises the Jacobites to tamper with the
British army and navy. ' It will be for my interest
to encourage them in their design underhand,
and without being observed. You will agree with
me that the state of European affairs does not permit
me to declare myself openly. If the English throne
were vacant, a well conceived scheme might succeed


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