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under a Eegency.'

Such is the attitude of Frederick. He receives a
Jacobite envoy ; he listens to tales of conspiracies
against his uncle ; he offers suggestions ; he will
encourage treason sous main. In fact, Frederick
behaves with his usual cold, curious, unscrupulous
skill.

Frederick's letters have brought us to May 17-VJ,
when Archy Cameron, in the Tower of London, lay
expecting his doom. While kings, princes, ambassa-
dors, statesmen, and Highland chiefs were shuffling,
conspiring, peeping, lying and spying, the sole burden
of danger fell on Archibald Cameron, Lochgarry, and
Cluny. They were in the Elector's domains ; their
heads were in the lion's mouth. We have heard



200 PICKLE THE SPY

Young Glengarry accuse both Archy Cameron and
Cluny of embezzling the Prince's money in the Loch
Arkaig hoard, but Glengarry's accusations can
scarcely have been credited by Charles, otherwise he
would not have entrusted the Doctor with an im-
portant mission. Cluny's own character, except by
Kennedy and Young Glengarry, is unimpeached, and
Lochgarry bore the stoutest testimony to his honour.
The early biography of Archibald Cameron is
interesting. As the youngest son of old Lochiel, he,
with his famous brother ' the gentle Lochiel,' set
about reforming the predatory habits of their clan,
with considerable success. Archibald went to
Glasgow University, and read Moral Philosophy
' under the ingenious Dr. Hutchinson.' He studied
Medicine in Edinburgh and in France ; then settled
in Lochaber, and married a lady of the clan of
Campbell. He was remarked for the sweetness of
his manners, and was so far from being a violent
Jacobite that he dissuaded his brother, Lochiel, from
going to see the Prince at his first landing in 1745.
This account of his conversion, from ' The Gentleman's
Magazine ' (June 1753), is naif. ' Dr. Cameron was
at last brought to engage by the regard due to a
benefactor and a brother, who was besides his Chief
as head of his Clan, and threatened to pistol him if he
did not comply.' Wounded at Falkirk (the ball was
never extracted), he served at Culloden, escaped
to France with Lochiel, was surgeon in his regi-
ment, and later in Lord Ogilivie's, was guardian of



ARCIIY CAPTURED 201

Lochiel's son, and, as we know, came and went
from Scotland with Lochgarrv and Young Glengarry.
His last trip to Scotland was undertaken in September
1752. Of his adventures there in concertino- arising
we know nothing. On March 20 he was detected near
Inversnaid (possibly through a scoundrel of his own
name), and was hunted by a detachment of the Inver-
snaid garrison. They were long baffled by children
set as sentinels, who uttered loud cries as the soldiers
approached. At last they caught a boy who had
hurt his foot, and from him discovered that Cameron
was in a house in a wood. Thence he escaped, but
was caught among the bushes and carried to Ediu-
burgh by Bland's dragoons. On April 17 he was
examined by the Council at the Cockpit in White-
hall. He was condemned on his attainder for being
out in 1745, 1 and his wife in vain besieged George II.
and the Royal Family with petitions for his life.
' The Scots Magazine ' of May 1753 contains a bold
and manly plea for clemency. ' In an age in which
commiseration and beneficence is so very conspicuous
among all ranks, and on every occasion, we have
reason to hope that pity resides in that place where
it has the highest opportunity of imitating the divine
goodness in saving the distressed.'

They ' sought for grace at a graceless face.' Mrs.
Cameron was shut up with her husband to prevent



1 Many historians, such as Lord Campbell in his Lives of the
Cliancellors, condemn as cruel the execution of Cameron. But the
Government was well informed.



202 PICKLE THE SPY

her troubling any of the Eoyal Family or nobility
with petitions in his favour. On June 8, Cameron
was hanged and disembowelled, but not while alive,
as was the custom. A London letter of June 9 says
' he suffered like a brave man, a Christian, and a
gentleman. . . . His merit is confessed by all parties,
and his death can hardly be called untimely, as his
behaviour rendered his last day worth an age of
common life.'

' One crowded hour of glorious life
Is worth an age without a name ! '

As Scott remarks, ' When he lost his hazardous game
Dr. Cameron only paid the forfeit which he must
have calculated upon.' The Government, knowing
that plots against George II. and his family were
hatching daily, desired to strike terror by severity.
But Prince Charles, when in England and Scotland,
more than once pardoned assassins who snapped
pistols in his face, till his clemency excited the mur-
murs of his followers and the censures of the
Cameronians. They wrote thus :

' We reckon it a great vice in Charles, his foolish
pity and lenity in sparing these profane blasphemous
Red Coats, that Providence put into his hand, when,
by putting them to Death, this poor Land might
have been eased of the heavy Burden of these Vermin
of Hell.' :

Cameron was deprived in prison of writing

The Active Testimony of the Presbyterians of Scotland, 1749.



ARCHY OX THE PRINCE 203

materials, but lie managed to secure a piece of pencil,
with which on scraps of paper he wrote his last words
to his friends. These were obtained by Mrs. Cameron,
and are printed in the ' State Trials.' * Never was
higher testimony borne to man than by Cameron to
Prince Charles.

' As I had the honour from the time of the Royal
youth's setting up his Father's standard, to be almost
constantly about his person, till November 1748 . . .
I became more and more captivated with his amiable
and princely virtues, which are, indeed, in every
instance so eminently great as I want words to
describe.

' I can further affirm (and my present situation,
and that of my dear Prince too, can leave no room to
suspect me of flattery) that as I have been his com-
panion in the lowest degree of adversity that ever
prince was reduced to, so I have beheld him too, as
it were, on the highest pinnacle of glory, amidst the
continual applauses, and I had almost said, adorations,
of the most brilliant Court in Europe ; yet he was
always the same, ever affable and courteous, giving
constant proofs of his great humanity, and of his love
for his friends and his country. . . . And as to his
courage, none that have ever heard of his glorious
attempt in 1745 can, I should think, call it in ques-
tion.'

Cameron adds that if lie himself icas engaged
in a new plot, 'neither the fear of the worst death

1 xix. 742.



204 PICKLE THE SP¥

their malice could invent, nor much less their flatter-
ing promises, could have extorted any discovery of
it from me.' He forgives all his enemies, murderers,
and false accusers, from ' the Elector of Hanover and
his bloody son, down to Samuel Cameron, the basest
of their spies.'

As to the Prince's religion, Cameron says (June
1753):

' I likewise declare, on the word of a dying man,
that the last time I had the honour to see H.K.H.
Charles, Prince of Wales, he told me from his own
mouth, and bid me assure his friends from him, that
he was a member of the Church of Eno-land.'

Who was this Samuel Cameron, who stained by
treachery the glorious name of Lochiel's own clan ?
On this point the following letter, written after Archy's
death, casts some light. We have already seen that
Samuel Cameron was accused of being in communi-
cation with Murray of Broughton, as also was Young
Glengarry. Young Edgar, in French service, writes
thus to his uncle, James's secretary, from Lille :

' Samuel Cameron, whom Archy mentions in the
end of his speech, is the same that Blair and Holker
wrote to me about when at Borne, the end of 1751.
He has been a constant correspondent of John
Murray's, and all along suspected of being a spy.
Cameron's remarks leave it without a doubt.' Samuel,
Edgar adds, is now a half-pay lieutenant in French
service, at Dunkirk. Lord Ogilvie and Lochiel mean
to secure him, but Lord Lewis Drummond does not



SAMUEL THE SPY 205

think the evidence sufficient . From ' The Scots Maga-
zine ' of September 1753, we learn that a court-martial
of Scottish officers was held on Samuel at Lille, and,
in April 1754, we are told that, after seven months'
detention, he was expelled from France, and was
condemned to be shot if he returned. His sentence
was read to him on board a ship at Calais, and we
meet him no more. Dr. Cameron was buried in a
vault of the Savoy Chapel, and, in 1846, her present
Majesty, with her well-known sympathy for the brave
men who died in the cause of her cousins, permitted
a descendant of the Doctor to erect a monument to
his memory. This was destroyed in a fire on July 7,
18G4, but now a window in stained glass commemo-
rates ' a brave man, a Christian, and a gentleman.'

The one stain on Cameron's memory, thrown, as
on Cluny's, by Young Glengarry, may be reckoned
as effaced. Whatever really occurred as to the Loch
Arkaig treasure, it did not destroy the Prince's con-
fidence in the last man who laid down his life for the
White Eose.

Before Archy Cameron's death, young Edgar
had written thus from Lille to old Edgar in Borne :

' May 2, 1753.

' We have no account of Cameron except by the
Gazete. It is thought that all the others who have
been apprehended either had of the Prince's money
in their hands, or that the Government expects they
can make some discoverys about it ; I wish with all



•JOG PICKLE THE SPY

my heart the Gov. had got it in the beginning, for it
has given the greatest stroke to the cause that can be
imagined, it has divided the different clans more than
ever, and even those of the same clan and family ; so
that they are ready to destroy and betray one another.

Altho I have not altered my opinion about Mr. M

[Murray] yet as he may on an occasion be of great
use to the cause with the Londoners — I thought it
not amiss to write him a line to let him know the
regard you had for him, for as I know him to be
vastly vain and full of himself I thought this might be
a spur to his zeale.'

So practically closes the fatal history of the Loch
Arkaig treasure. Cluny later bore back to France,
it seems, the slender remains of the 40,000 louis d'or.
But this accursed gold had set clan against clan,
kinsman against kinsman, had stained honourable
names, and, probably, had helped to convert Glen-
garry into Pickle.

The Highlanders yet remember the Prince's
treasure. A few years ago, a Highland clergyman
tells me, he was trolling with a long line in Loch
Arkaig. He hooked something heavy, which came
slowly to hand, with no resistance but that of weight.
'You have caught one of the Prince's money bags,'
said the boatman, when suddenly the reel shrieked,
and a large salmo ferox sped out into the loch. My
friend landed him ; he weighed fifteen pounds, and
that is the latest news of Prince Charles's gold !



20



OA-



CHAPTER IX

DE PROFUNDIS

Charles fears for his own safety — Earl Marischal's advice — Letter
from Goring — Charles's danger — Charles at Coblentz — His changes
of abode — Information from Pickle — Charles as a friar — Pickle
sends to England Lochgarry's memorial — Scottish advice to
Charles — List of loyal clans — Pickle on Frederick— On English
adherents — ' They drink very hard ' — Pickle declines to admit
arms — Frederick receives Jemmy Dawkins — His threats against
England — Albemarle on Dawkins — Dawkins an archaeologist—
Explores Palmyra — Charles at feud with Miss "Walkinshaw—
Goring's Illness — A mark to be put on Charles's daughter-
Charles's objets d'art — Sells his pistols.

The ill news of Archy Cameron's arrest (March 20,
1753) soon reached Charles. On April 15 he wrote
to 'Mr. Giffard' (the Earl Marischal) in Paris.
He obviously feared that the intelligence which led
to Cameron's capture might throw light on his own
place of residence. His friends, at least, believed
that if he were discovered his life would be in danger.
He says :

To Mr. Giffard (Earl Marischal), from P.

' April 13, 175:;.

' 1 am extremely unnesi by the accident that lias
hapened to a Certain person, you Now Tknowj how



208 PICKLE THE SPY

much I was against people in that Service. 1 My
antipathi, iff possible, increses every day, which
makes me absolutely determined whatever hapens
never to aproch their Country, or have to do witli
anibody that comes with them. I have been on ye
point of leaving this place, — but thought it better to
differ it untill I here from you. My entention was
to so to Francfor Sur Main and from thence to Bal in
Swise, but without ever trespassing in ye F Do-
minions, be pleased to send back by M. Dumon
yr opinion of what Town in ye Queen of H. D.
[Hungary's dominions] [Maria Theresa] would be ye
best for me to go to. — would not D's Cuntry House
be good : perhaps I may get it for six months. . . .

'John Douglas.'

On April 29, misled it seems by a misapprehension
of Lord Marischal's meaning, Charles had moved to
Cologne, and notified the fact to Stouf (Goring).
Goring replied ;

From Stouf.

' Paris : May 8, 1753.

' The message delivered to you by Mr. Cambell
has been falsely represented to you, or not rightly
understood ; the noble person Mr. Cambell mentions
to have sent you a positive message to leave Gaud
and retire to Cologne, denies to have sent you any
positive message at all on that account. He was

1 French service. He seems to think that Archy was betrayed by
French means. He perhaps suspected Dumont, who had been in the
French army.



RISK OF KIDNAPPING 209

indeed very anxious for your safety, and of opinion
that since the taking of Mr. Cameron your person
ran an inevitable danger, if you staid where you then
were, and gave as his opinion only, that the
dominions of the Elector of Cologne and the Palati-
nate appeared to be the safest, by reason of those
princes being in interests opposite to the Court ot
Hanover, but was very far from saying you would be
safe there, or indeed anywhere. How is it possible a
man of his sense could think, much less a prince like
you, who have so many powerfull enemies, that any
place could guard you from them ? No sir, he is of
opinion that nothing can save your life but by yr
taking just measures and prudent precautions to hyde
yourself from them.

' These are the sentiments of the noble person you
mention in yours of the 29th. whose name I do not put
on paper, he having desired me never to do it till he
gave me leave. He told me further that it would be
more for your interest he should not know as yet where
you were ; and bid me advise you to have a care how
you walked out of town near the Ehine, for in your
taking such walks it would be easy for five or six men
to seise your person and put you in a boat, and Carry
you to Holland who have territories but one quarter
of an hour distant from } r e town. . . .'

The Elibank game can be played by two or more,
and princes have been kidnapped in our own day.
The Earl Marischal thought Charles's life in danger
from the English.



210 PICKLE THE SPY

On Mav ; 5, young Edgar noted the safe return
of Lochgarry from Scotland. Charles went to
Coblentz, but was anxious to return to Ghent. In
June he tried Frankfort-on-the-Maine : his letters
to ' La Grandemain ' show him in correspon-
dence with M. St. Germain, whether the General
or the famous ' deathless charlatan ' does not
appear. In July he took a house in Liege. He
asks Dormer for newspapers : ' I am a sedentary
man : ye gazetes is en amusement to me.' On
August 12 he desires an interview ' with G ' (Glen-
garry), and here is Pickle's account of the inter-
view :

' Before Pickle set out for France he writt to
Loch Gairy, now Lieut. Col. of Lord Ogleby's Regi-
ment in Garrison at Air, to meet him at Calais. Upon
Pickle's arrivall at Calais, he met Loch Gairy there,
and it was agreed between them that Loch Gairy
should next morning set out to notify Pickle's arrivall
to the Young Pretender, and that Pickle should move
forward to see Sir James Harrington at Simer [?] near
Bulloighn, and from thence to come to Ternan in about
a week to meet Loch Gairy. Soon after Pickle
arrived at Ternan, Loch Gairy came to him, and told
him the youth [Prince Charles] would be there next
morning, and he came accordingly without any ser-
vant, having with him only a French Gentleman, who
has serv'd in the Army, but has of late travell'd about
with the Young Pretender ; Loch Gairy left them at
Ternan and set out for Air. Soon after, the Young



HUNTED BY A JEW 211

Pretender, the French Gentleman, and Pickle set out
for Paris, the Young Pretender being disguis'd with
a Capouch. The Young Pretender shew'd Pickle
Loch Gairy's report of his late Expedition with Dr.
Cameron to Scotland, and also the List hereunto
annex'd of the numbers of the disaffected Clans that
Doctor Cameron and he had engaged in the High-
lands, and also an Extract of a memorial or Scheme
sent over to the Pretender from some of his friends in
England. The Pretender seem'd fond of Loch Gairy's
paper; [he said] that he had been of late hunted
from place to place all over Flanders by a Jew sent
out of England to watch him. The Pretender talked
very freely with Pickle of affairs, but did not seem
to like the Scheme sent him out of England about
the Parliament, that it would be very expensive,
and that he expected no good from the Parliament ;
that Loch Gairy was trusted by him with most of his
motions, and how to send to him ; that he has been
a Eambling from one place to another about Flanders,
generally from near Brussells towards Sens, and on
the Borders of France down towards Air, except some
small excursions he made ; once he went to Ham-
burgh. He told Pickle that another rising in Scot-
land would not do untill a war broke out in the
North, in that case he expected great things from
Sweden would be done for him, by giving him Men,
Arms and Ammunition : when Pickle talk'd to him
of the King of Prussia, he said he expected nothing
thence, as the King of Prussia is govern'd by his

p 2



212 PICKLE THE SPY

interest or resentment only — That lie had sent Mr.
Goring to Sweden, where he had found he had many
friends — That Goring had also been at Berlin to pro-
pose a Match for the Young Pretender, with the King
of Prussia's Sister, and that he had since sent for Sir
John Graham to Berlin to make the same proposals,
that they were both answer'd very civilly, that it was
not a proper time, but they had no encouragement to
speak further upon the Subject — The Pretender said
that he beleiv'd he had many friends in England, but
that he had no fighting friends ; the best service his
friends in England could do him at present was to
supply him with money — The night they arriv'd at
Paris, the Pretender went to a Bagnio — Pickle thinks
it is call'd Gaius' Bagno, and from thence to Sir
John Graeme's House, as Pickle believes, but where
he went, or how long he staid at Paris, he does not
know. The Pretender said he should now get quit
of the Jew, as he intended going to Lorain ; he ask'd
Pickle if he would go with him. Pickle says that
Sir John Graeme, Sir James Harrington, and Goring,
and Loch Gairy are the Pretender's chief Confidents
and Agents, and know of his motions from place to
place ; that Goring is now ill, having been lately cut
for a Fistula. Pickle kept himself as private as he
could at Paris, went no where but to Lord Marshall's,
and once to wait upon Madame Pier Cour, Monsr.
D'Argenson's Mistress, who offer'd to recommend
him to Monsr. D'Aroenson if he inclin'd to return



MISS WALKINSIIAW 21o

to the French Service. 1 Pickle believes Monsr.
D'Arg-enson and Monsr. Paris Mont Martell are the
Pretender's chiefest friends at the Court of France ;
he says that Mrs. Walkings] taw is now at Paris big with
child, that the Pretender keeps her well, and seems to
be very fond of her — He told Pickle that he had seen
the Paper that was in Lord Marshall's hands, No. 2 ;
which Lord Marshall return'd to Sir John Graeme,
declaring that he would not meddle whatever his
Brother [Marshal Keith] might do, that Lord Mar-
shall would receive no papers from little people.
Pickle believes that the paper was given to Lord
Marshall by Mr. Swimmer, or a Knight that has lately
been abroad, who is now in Parliament — Pickle has
been told that the Pension lately given to the Cardinal
out of the Abbev of St. Aman, 'twas for the Youn»
Pretender's behoof, and that Mr. O'brien, commonly
call'd Lord Lismore, and Mr. Edgar, are the chief
people about the Old Pretender at Rome — Pickle says
that all the disaffected people that come over from
France call upon Sir James Harrington near Bulloign,
but the Young Pretender has a Correspondence with
England, by means of one Dormer, a Merchant at
Antwerp, who Pickle believes is Brother to a Ijord
Dormer.'

Pickle, of course, forwarded to the English
Government ' a copy of Ijochgarry's report and list
of clans. These follow.

1 Glengarry hat! been a captain in the French service.



214 PICKLE THE SPY

' Partly extracted from Loch Gairy's Memorial
to the Pretender after his return from Scotland, 1749
or 1750.

4 It is the greatest consequence to your E.H. not
to delay much longer making at attempt in Scotland.
Otherwise it will be hardly possible to bring the
Clans to any head, it would be no difficult matter at
this instant to engage them once more to draw their
swords.

1 Because, besides their natural attachment to
Your E.H. there is, most undoubtedly such a spirit
of revenge still subsisting- amongst the Clans who
suffer'cl, and such a general discontent amongst the
others who have been scandalously slighted by the
Government, that if made a right use of, before it
extinguishes, must unavoidably produce great and
good effects.

' In the present situation of your E.H. it is
evident that the most simple scheme, and that in
which the whole plan is seen at once is most proper
for vour E.H. to take in hand. It is without doubt
that London would be the most proper place for
the first scene of action, because it is the Fountain
and Source of power, riches and influence. But the
eye of the Government is so watchfull at the Fountain
head that one can't easily comprehend, what they
[the Jacobites] can be able to shew against six
thousand of the best Troops in Britain which can be
brought together against them upon the first alarm.
That England will do nothing, or rather can do



SCOTTISH PROPOSALS 215

nothing without a foreign Force, or an appearance
in Scotland, such as was in 45. In either of these
cases there is all the reason to believe that England
would do wonders. But am afraid its impossible for
your E.H. to procure any Foreign assistance in the
present situation of Europe, therefore the following
Proposals are most humbly submitted to your E.H.

' That your E.H. emply such persons as will be
judg'd most proper to negotiate a sum of money at
Paris, London and Madrid, which is very practicable
to be accomplish'd by known and skilfull persons,
the sum may be suppos'd to be 200,000/., to be
directly remitted to one centrical place (suppose
Paris), this money to be lodg'd in the hands of
Mons. De Montmartell, who can easily remitt any
sum as demanded to any trading town in Europe.
Sufficient quantity of Arms, Ammunition, etc. to be
purchas'd, which can be done in some of the Hans
Towns in the North, which can be done without
giving any umbrage, supposing them bought for
some Plantation, which is, now a common Trans-
action, especially in these Towns.

' Two stout ships to be purchas'd which is so com-
mon a transaction in Trade, more so now than ever,
so much that I am told it might even be done at
London, the Ships is absolutely necessary to batter
down the small Forts on the Western Coast of the
Highlands, which your E.H. knows greatly annoy'd
us in 45, and prevented several Clans joining with
their whole strength. When everv thing is readv.



'216 PICKLE THE SPY

your E.H. to pitch upon a competent number of
choice Officers, of whom there are plenty, both in
France, Holland, Germany and Spain, all Scots, or of
Scots extraction, eminent for their loyalty and mili-
tary capacity. Your E.H. to land where you landed
before, or rather in Lochanuie. Your E.H. will have
an army by the management and influence of your-
self, and by their Concertion already agreed upon
with me before you are twenty days landed, of at
least six thousand Men, and there is actually but six


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