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Batallions of Foot, and two Eegiments of Dragoons
in Scotland, and your E.H. can have 2,000 good
men ere you are eight and forty hours landed.

' If the enemy take the field they will make but a
feint resistance against such a resolute determined
set of men. Your E.H. has all advantages over the
regular Troops in Scotland, you can always attack
them and force them to Battle without ever beino"
forct but when its judg'd advantageous — this is
certain you can move your Army across the Country
in three or four days, which will take the regular
Troops as many weeks. You can make them starve
and rot with cold and fluxes, and make them dwindle
away to nothing if they were triple your Number, and
without striking a stroak, if we take the advantage
the Countrey and Climate affords — the renown'd King
Eobert Bruce, Sir William Wallace, and the late
Marquis of Montrose, of which your E.H. is a perfect
model, made always use of this advantage with in-
fallible success against their Enemy s.


' It is a truth not disputed by any who knows
the nature of the affair, that if your EH. had oblig'd
the regular forces in Scotland in 1746 to make one
other Winter Campain without giving them battle
(than which nothing was more easy) two thirds of
them at least had been destn^ed, whilst ten such
Campains would have only more and more invigorated
your E.H.'s Army. If this project be not long
delayed, and that your E.H. persists in putting it
into Execution, you will in all human probability
drive your Enemy s before you like a parcel of Sheep.'

There follows :

' A List of the Clans given by Loch Gairy to the
Pretender in consequence of their agreement with him.

' Your E.H. arriving with mone) T , Arms, and a
few choice Officers, will find the following Clans
ready to join, this Computation of them being very
moderate, and most of them have been always ready
to join the E. Strd under the most palpable dis-

' The Mackdonells, as matters stand at present, by Young G

[Glengarry's] concurrence only 2,600

By G Interest the Bearer [Lochgarry] can answer for the

Mackleans at least ........ 700

There is little doubt but the Mackkenzies would all join G

as related to the most considerable Gentlemen of this Clan,

and the Bearer can answer for at least .... 900

The Bearer having sounded several Gentlemen of the name

of MacLeod over whom G as being nearly connected has

great influence, the Bearer can answer for at least . . 4f)0

The Bearer answers for the Macklnnans, MackLeods of Basa —

at least 300



The Bearer answers for the Chisolrns
The Bearer answers for the Robertsons
Camerons .
Stuart of Alpin .
McXeals of Barra
MackPhersons •
Athol men, at least
Out of Brodulbin
Duke of Gordon's Interest Glenlivat and
M'Dugalls, McNobbs and McLouchlins
The Bearer has tamper'd with the Grants,
aged, at least ....

Good men

Strathdon, at least
and if properly man




'Besides the great Dependance on the Low
Countreys and of other Clans that in all probability
will join your E.H. the above mentioned Clans have
not lost a thousand men during the transactions of
4-5 and 46, and by consequence are most certainly
as numerous as thev were then, and for the reasons
already given they are readier and more capable for
action at present than they were in 45. One reason
in particular is worth your E.H.'s Observation, that
since the end of the late War there has been by an
exact Computation, between six and seven thousand
men reform'd out of the British and Dutch Service,
most of whom were of the Loyal Clans, and are now
at home.'

We have provisionally dated this communication
of Pickle's in August or September, when Charles
wished to see ' G.' A date is given by the reference
to Miss Walkinshaw's condition. Her child, born in


Paris, was baptized at Liege in October 175o. So far,
according to Pickle, Charles seemed ' very fond of
her.' This did not last.

It may be observed that Lochgarry's Memorial
shows how great was the influence of Young Glen-
garry. Nearly 5,000 men await his word. And
Young Glengarry, as Pickle, was sending the Mem-
orial to Henry Pelham !

On his return to London, Pickle gave the following
information, in part a repetition of what he had
already stated :

' . . . Pickle, since he has been in England, gene-
rallv heard of the Young Pretender by Lochgary
who requested him by directions from the Young
Pretender, to make the last trip that he went upon
to France, the intent of which was to communi-
cate to Pickle the scheme that he [Lochgarry]
and Dr. Cameron had concerted in the Highlands,

CD 7

and to offer him some arms to be landed at different
times upon any part of his estate that he should
appoint, but which Pickle absolutely refus'd to
consent to, as he might be ruind by a discovery, and
which could hardly be avoided, as the country was
so full of Troops, and nobody as yet knowing in what
manner the forfeited estates would be settled; — Pickle
believes that some friends of P. Charles of Lorraine
in Hainault, often harbour the Young Pretender, and
favor him in his rambles; — that at the Court of
France, Monsr. D'Argenson 1 is his chief friend in

' CD

1 Brother of d'Anjenson of the Memoires.


the Ministry, that Monsr. Puysieux was his enemy,
as was also Monsr. St. Contest, who is a creature of
Pnysieux. Pickle looks upon the Duke of Eichlieu,
and all that are related to the family of Lorraine, to
be friends of the Pretender's — that Monsr. Paris
Montmartell is the Pretender's great friend, and told
Pickle he would contrive to raise 200,000/. for his
Service, upon a proper occasion, — Pickle was told by
the Pretender himself, that Madame Pompadour was
not his friend, for that she had been gaind over by
considerable sums of money from England, and had
taken offence at him, for his slighting two Billetts
that had been sent by her to him, which he had done
for fear of giving umbrage to the Queen of France
and her relations ; as to the French King, Pickle has
had no opportunity of knowing much of his disposi-
tion, but does not look upon him as a well wisher
to the Pretender's Cause, unless it be at any time to
serve his own purpose.

' As to the King of Prussia, Pickle can say but
little about him, having never been employd in that
Quarter, and knows no more than what he has been
told by the Young Pretender, which was, that he
had sent Collonel Goring to Berlin to ask the K. of
Prussia's Sister in marriage ; that Goring had been
received very coolv, and had had no favourable
answer ; that he afterwards had sent Sir John Graeme,
whose reception was better, and that he soon went
himself to Berlin, where he was well received, but
the affair of the marriage was declin'd. That the


K. of Prussia advised him to withdraw himself
privately from Berlin, and retire to Silesia, and to
keep himself conceal'd for some time, in some Convent
there. That the K. of Prussia told the Pretender he
would assist him in procuring him six thousand
Swedes from Gottenburgh, with the Collusion of the
Court of Prance, but Pickle understood that this was
to take place in the Event only of a War breaking

4 Pickle since his return to England, has been but
once at a Club in the City, where they drink very hard,
but at which, upon account of the expence, he ran not
be as frequently as he would ivish to be, nor can he
afford to keep company with people of condition at
this end of the Town. The Jacobites in England
don't choose to communicate any of their schemes to
any of the Irish or Scots, from the latter of whom all
that they desire, is a rising upon a proper occasion ; —
That he does not personally know much of the heads
of the Party in England — only as he has seen lists of
their names in the Pretender's and Ld. Marishall's
hands ; — such as he knows of them would certainly
introduce him to others were he in a condition of
defraying the expence that this would be attended
with, which he is not, being already endebted to
several people in this Town and has hitherto had no
more than his bare expences of going backwards and
forwards for these three years past. . . .'

It is needless to say that this piece deepens the
evidence connecting Pickle with Glengarry. Poor


James Mohr had no estates and no seaboard whereon
to land arms. At the close of the letter, in autumn
1753, Pickle speaks of his three years' service. He
had, therefore, been a spy since 1750, when he was
in Borne. Now James Mohr, off and on, had been a
spy since 1745, at least.

We may now pursue the course of intrigues with
Prussia. Frederick, on June 6, 1753, the day before
Cameron's execution, wrote to the Earl Marischal.
He wished that Jemmy Dawkins's affair was better
organised. But, ' in my present situation with the
Kins' of England, and considering his action asrainst
me, it would be for the good of my service that you
should secretly aid by your good advice these people '
(the Dawkins conspirators). 1 So the Cham of Tartary
does interfere in the Bangorian Controversy, despite
Mr. Carlyle ! It is easy to imagine how this cautious
encouragement, sous main, would be exaggerated in
the inflamed hopes of exiles. The Earl Marischal
had in fact despatched Dawkins to Berlin on May 7,
not letting him know that Frederick had consented to
his coming. 2 Dawkins was to communicate his ideas
to Marshal Keith. The Earl did not believe in a
scheme proposed by Dawkins, and was convinced that
foreign assistance was necessary. This could only
come from Prussia, Sweden, France, or Spain. Prussia
has no ships, but few are needed, and merchant vessels

1 Pol Corr. No. 5,933.

2 As early as 1748 Dawkins was in Paris, drinking with Townley,
who calls him un bon garcon. Townley's letters to a friend in Rome
were regularly sent to Pelham.


could be obtained. The Earl would advise no Prus-
sian movement without the concurrence of France.
But France is unlikely to assent, and Sweden is
divided by party hatreds. He doubts if France was
ever well disposed to the House of Stuart. The
Spanish have got the ships and got the men, but
are hampered by engagements with Austria and

Frederick saw Dawkins at Berlin, but did not think
his plans well organised. He preferred, in fact, to
await events, and to keep up Jacobite hopes by vague
encouragement. On June 16, 1753, Frederick writes
to his agent, Michell, in London. He does not
believe that England will go to war with him for a
matter of 1-30,000 crowns, ' which they refuse to pay
to my subjects,' on account of captures made by
English privateers. But, ' though the English King-
Can do me much harm, / can fay him hack by means
which perhaps he knows nothing of and does not yet
believe in. ... I command you to button yourself up
on this head ' (de vous tenir tout boutonne), ' because
these people must not see my cards, nor know what,
in certain events, I am determined to do.' 1 He was
determined to use the Jacobites if he broke with
England. On August 25, 1753, Frederick wrote to
Klinggraeffen, at Vienna, that the English Ministry
was now of milder mood, but in September relations
were perilous again. On July 4, 1753, the Earl
told Marshal Keith that a warrant was out against

1 Pol. Con: ix. 447. No. T),923.


Dawkins. 1 In fact, to anticipate dates a little, the
English Government knew a good deal about Jemmy
Dawkins, the explorer of Palmyra, and envoy to His
Prussian Majesty. Albemarle writes from Paris to
Lord Holdernesse (December 12, 1753) : 2

' As yet my suspicions of an underhand favourer
of their cause being come from England, and address-
ing himself to the late Lord Marshall, can only fall on
one person, and that is Mr. Dawkins, who has a con-
siderable property in one of our settlements in the
West Indies. This is the gentleman who travelled in
Syria with Mr. Bouverie (since dead) and Mr. Wood,
who is now with the Duke of Bridgewater, and who
are publishing an account of their view of the Anti-
quities of Palmeyra. Mr. Dawkins came from Eng-
land to Paris early the last spring (1753), and was
almost constantly with the late Lord Marshall. He
used sometimes to come to my house too. In May
he obtained a pass from this Court to go to Berlin,
by the late Lord Marshall's means, as I have the
greatest reason to believe, for he never applied to me
to ask for any such, nor ever mentioned to me his
intention of taking that journey, and by a mistake,
Monsr. de St. Contest put that pass into my hands,
as it was for an Englishman, which I have kept, and
send it enclosed to your Lordship. But whether Mr.
Dawkins never knew that it had been delivered to
me, or was ashamed to ask it of me, as it had not
been obtained through my Channell, or was afraid of

1 Droysen, iv. 357. Note 1. - S. P. France. 462.


my questioning him about it, or about his journey, I
cannot say ; however he went away without it, not
long after its date, which is the 2d. of May. And
he returned from thence to Compiegne, the latter
end of July, which was a few days before the Court
left that place.

' Since that he went to England, where, I believe, he
now is, having had the Superintendency of the Publi-
cation of the work above mentioned [on Palmyra].
Mr. Dawkins, as well as his Uncle, who lives in Ox-
fordshire [near Chipping Norton], is warmly attached
to the Pretender's interest, which with the circum-
stances I have related of him, which agree with most
of those hinted at in Your Lordship's letter, particu-
larly as to times, are very plausible grounds of my
mistrusts of him. I shall make the strictest inquiries
concerning him, as he is the only person of note,
either British or Irish, who to my knowledge came
here from England about the time your Lordship
mentions — who frequented assiduously the late Lord
Marshall [attainted, but alive !] who passed from
thence to Berlin — and in short whose declared
principles in the Jacobite Cause, and whose abilities,
made him capable of the commission he may be
supposed to be engaged in.

' I shall not be less attentive to get all the
intelligence I can, of any other person under this
description, who may at any time, frequent the late
Lord Marshall, and to give Your Lordship an exact
account of what shall come to my knowledge. If, on



Your Lordship's part, you could come at any further
discovery concerning Mr. Dawkins, I hope you will
inform me of so much of it as may be of any service
to me in my inquiries. The extreme caution and
prudence with which, Your Lordship informs me,
the late Lord Marshall conducts himself, for fear of
risking the secret, will, I apprehend, make it im-
possible for me to penetrate into the instruction he
may be charged with, in this respect, from his
master, or how far he is intrusted with His Prussian
Majesty's intentions. I have not the least doubt of
the late Lord Marshall's being in correspondence
with the Pretender's elder Son, who was lately (as I
was informed some time after he left it) at the
Abbaye of S. Amand, not far from Lisle, which is
most convenient for him, his brother, the Cardinal,
being, as I am assured, Abbot of that Monastery.
As for the lady described under the character of la
bonne amie de Monsieur de Cambrai, that is Mrs.
Obrian, whose husband is, by the Pretender's favour,
the mock Earl of Lismore, a follower of his fortunes,
and supposed to have a considerable share in his

From the Same.

1 Paris : Tuesday, December 18, 1753.

"... I must take this opportunity to rectify a
.small mistake in my last letter, relating to the
Abbaye of St. Amand, of which I had been informed
that the Pretender's younger Son, the Cardinal, Avas
Abbot. It is the Abbaye of Aucline of which he is


Commendatory, and which is at much about the
same distance from Lille as the other. It is the
more probable that the Pretender's Elder Son was
there last autumn, as he might take that opportunity
of seeing the Princess of Eohan [a relation of the
Prince ol Soubise], an ancient flame of his who went
to Lille at the time of the encampment in Flanders,
under that Prince's command.'

Apparently the warrant against Jemmy Dawkins
was not executed. We shall meet him again. Mean-
while there were comings and goings between
Goring and the Earl Marischal in July 1753. In
September, Goring was ill, and one Beson was the
Prince's messenger (July 2, September 5, 1753).
On September 5, Charles made a memorandum for
Beson's message to the Earl Marischal. 'I will
neither leave this place, nor quit ye L. [the lady,
Miss Walkinshaw]. I will not trust myself to any
K. or P. I will never go to Paris, nor anv of the
French dominions.' The rest is confused, ill-spelled
jottings about money, which Beson had failed to
procure in London. 1 On September 12, Charles
scrawls a despairing kind of note to Goring. He
writes another, underscored, dismissing his Avignon
household, that is, ' my Papist servants ! ' ' My
mistress has behaved so unworthily that she has put
me out of patience, and as she is a Papist too, I
discard her also ! . . . Daniel is charged to conduct
her to Paris.'

1 Browne, iv. p. 111.

a 2


This was on November 12. On October 29, Miss
Walkinshaw's child, Charlotte, had been baptized at
Liege. Charles's condition was evil. He knew he
was being tracked, he knew not by whom. Hope
deferred, as to Prussia, made his heart sick. More-
over, on August 19, 1752, Goring had written from
Paris that he was paralysed on one side (Pickle says
that his malady was a fistula). Goring expressed
anxietv as to Charles's treatment of an invalided
servant. ' You should know by what I have often
expressed to you [Charles answered on November 3]
that iff I had but one Lofe of Bred, I would share it
with you. The little money that I have deposed on
my good friend's hands you know was at your orders,
and you would have been much in ye rong to have
let yourself ever want in ye least.'

Again, on November 12, he writes to Goring :

To Mr. Stouf.

' November 12.

'I am extremely concerned for yr health, and
you cannot do me a greater Cervice than in taking
care of yrself for I am not able to spare any of my
true friends.'

Dr. King, as we have said, accuses Charles of
avarice. Charles II., in exile, would not, he says,
have left a friend in want. Though distressed for
money, the Prince does not display a niggardly
temper in these letters to Goring. He had to defray
the expenses of many retainers ; he intended to


dismiss his Popish servants, his household at Avignon,
and to part with Dumont. We shall read Goring's
remonstrances. But the affair of Daniel's ' close '
proves how hardly Charles was pressed. On De-
cember 16,1752, he indulged in a few books, including
Wood and Dawkins's ' Euins of Palmyra,' a stately
folio. One extraordinary note he made at this time :
' A marque to be put on ye Child, iff i part with it.'
The future ' Bonny Lass of Albanie ' was to be
marked, like a kelt returned to the river in spring.
' I am pushed to ye last point, and so won't be
cagioled any more.' He collected his treasures left
with Mittie, the surgeon of Stanislas at Luneville.
Among these was a couteau de, with a double-
barrelled pistol in a handle of jade. D'Argenson
reports that the Prince was seen selling his pistols to
an armourer in Paris. Who can wonder if he lost
temper, and sought easy oblivion in wine!




Another spy — Rob Roy's son, James Mohr Macgregor — A spy in
1745 — At Prestonpans and Culloden — Escape from Edinburgh
Castle — Billy Marshall — Visit to Ireland — Balhaldie reports James's
discovery of Irish Macgregors— Their loyalty — James Mohr and
Lord Albemarle — James Mohr offers to sell himself — And to betray
Alan Breck — His sense of honour — His long-winded report on
Irish conspiracy — Balhaldie — Mrs. Macfarlane who shot the Cap-
tain — Her romance — Pitfirrane Papers — Balhaldie's snuff-boxes-
James Mohr's confessions — Balhaldie and Charles — Irish inva-
sion—Arms in Moidart — Arms at the house of Tough — Pickle to
play the spy in Ireland— Accompanied by a ' Court Trusty ' —
Letter from Pickle— Alan Breck spoils James Mohr — Takes his
snuff-boxes — Death of James Mohr — Yet another spy — His wild
information — Confirmation of Charles's visit to Ireland.

From the deliberate and rejoicing devilry of Glengarry,
and from Charles's increasing' distress and desjra-
dation, it is almost a relief to pass for a moment to
the harmless mendacity of a contemporary spy, Rob
Roy's son, James Mohr Macgregor, or Drummond.
This Highland gentleman, with his courage, his senti-
ment, and his ingrained falseness, is known to the
readers of Mr. Stevenson's ' Catriona.' Though un-
acquainted with the documents which we shall cite,
Mr. Stevenson divined James Mohr with the assured
certainty of genius. From first to last James was a
valiant, plausible, conscienceless, heartless liar, with


a keen feeling for the point of honour, and a truly
Celtic passion of affection for his native land.

As early at least as the spring of 1745, James
Mohr, while posing as a Jacobite, was in relations with
the law officers of the Crown in Scotland. 1 James's
desire then was to obtain a commission in a High-
land regiment, and as much ready money as possible.
Either he was dissatisfied with his pay as a spy, or
he expected better things from the Jacobites, for,
after arranging his evidence to suit his schemes, lie
took up arms for the Prince. He captured with a
handful of men the fortress of Inversnaid ; he fell,
severely wounded, at Prestonpans, and called out, as
he lav on the ground, ' My lads, I am not dead ! By
God ! I shall see if any of you does not do his duty.'
Though he fought at Culloden, James appears to have
patched up a peace with the Government, and pro-
bably eked out a livelihood by cattle-stealing and
spying, till, on December 8, 1750, he helped his
brother Robin to abduct a voung widow of some
property. 2 Soon after he was arrested, tried, and
lodged, first in the Tolbooth, next, for more security,
in Edinburgh Castle.

On November 16, 17-52, James, by aid of his
daughter (Mr. Stevenson's Catriona), escaped from

1 In his article on James Mohr (Scotsman, March 15, 1895), Mr.
Murray Rose cites some papers concerning James's early treachcri.^.
For unfathomable reasons, Mr. Murray Hose does not mention the
source of these papers. This is of the less importance, as Mr. George
Omond, in Macmillan's Magazine, .May 1890, had exposed James's
early foibles, from documents in the Record Office.

-' Triah of Bob Roy's Sons (Edinburgh, 1818), p. 8.


the Castle disguised as a cobbler. 1 It has often
been said that the Government connived at James's
escape. If so, they acted rather meanly in sentencing
' two lieutenants ' of his guard ' to be broke, the
sergeant reduced to a private man, and the porter
to be whipped.' -

The adventures of James after his escape are
narrated by a writer in ' Blackwood's Magazine ' for
December 1817. This w T riter was probably a Mac-
gregor, and possessed some of James's familiar epistles.
Overcoming a fond desire to see once more his native
hills and his dear ones (fourteen in all), James, on
leaving Edinburgh Castle, bent his course towards
the Border. In a dark night, on a Cumberland moor,
he met the famed Billy Marshall, the gipsy. Mr.
Marshall, apologising for the poverty of his temporary
abode, remarked that he would be better housed
' when some ill-will which he had got in Galloway for
setting fire to a stackyard would blow over.' Three
days later Billy despatched James in a fishing boat
from Whitehaven, whence he reached the Isle of
Man. He then made for Ireland, and my next infor-
mation about James occurs in a letter of Balhaldie,
dated August 10, 1753, to the King over the Water. 3

1 The reader may remember that Pickle's earliest dated letter is
from Boulogne, November 2, 1752. As on that day James Mohr was
a prisoner in Edinburgh Castle, the absurdity of identifying Pickle
with James Mohr becomes peculiarly glaring.

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