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2 Trial, &c. p. 119.

3 According to Mr. Murray Rose, James Mohr applied to the King
for money on May 22, 1753. This letter I have not observed among
the Stuart Papers, but, from information given by Pickle to his English



IRISH MACGREGORS 233

Balhaldie's letter to Eome, partly in cypher, runs thus,
and is creditable to James's invention :

'James Drummond Macgregor, Eob Eoy's son,
came here some days agoe, and informed me that,
having made his escape from Scotland by Ireland, he
was addressed to some namesakes of his there, who
acquainted him that the clan Macgregor were very
numerous in that country, under different names, the
greatest bodies of them living together in little towns
and villages opposite to the Scottish coast.' They had
left Scotland some one hundred and lift}- years before,
when their clan was proscribed. James ' never saw
men more zealously loyal and clanish, better looked,
or seemingly more intrepid and hardy. . . . No Mac-
gregors in the Scotch highlands are more willing or
ready to joyn their clan in your Majesty's service
than they were, and for that end to transport 3,000
of their name and followers to the coast of Argile-
shyre.' They will only require twenty-four hours ' to
transport themselves in whirries of their own, even
in face of the enemy's fleet, of which they are not
affrayed.'

The King, in answer (September 11, 1753), ex-
pressed a tempered pleasure in Mr. Macgregor's infor-
mation, which, he said, might interest the Prince. On
September 6, 1753, Lord Strathallan, writing to Edgar
from Boulogne, vouches only for James's courage.

employers, I believe James Mohr to have been in France as earh as
May 1753. Pickle, being consulted as to James's value, contemns him
as a spy distrusted by both sides.



234 TICKLE THE SPY

' As to anything else, I would be sorry to answer for
him, as he had but an indifferent character as to real
honesty.' On September 20, James Mohr, in Paris,
wrote to the Prince, anxious to know where he was,
and to communicate important news from Ireland.
Probably James got no reply, for on October 18,
1753, Lord Holdernesse wrote from Whitehall to Lord
Albemarle, English ambassador in Paris, a letter
marked ' Very secret,' acknowledging a note of Lord
Albemarle's. Mr. Macgregor had visited Lord Albe-
marie on October 8th and 10th, with offers of
information. Lord Holdernesse, therefore, sends a
safe-conduct for Macgregor's return. 1 We now give
Macgregor's letter of October 12, 1753, to Lord
Albemarle, setting forth his sad case and honourably
patriotic designs :

MS. Add. 32,733.

' Paris : October 12, 1753. Mr. James Dramniond.

' My Lord, — Tho' I have not the Honour to be much
acquainted with Your Lordship, I presume to give
you the trouble of this to acquaint your lordship that
by a false Information I was taken prisoner in Scot-
land in November 1751 and by the speat [spite] that
a certain Faction in Dundas, Scotland, had at me,
was trayd by the Justiciary Court at Edinburgh,
when I had brought plenty of exculpation which
might free any person whatever of what was alledged
against me, j^et such a Jurie as at Dundas was given
me, thought proper to give in a special verdict,

1 Add. MSB. 32,846.



ALLAN JBKECK STEWART 235

finding some parts of the Layable [libel] proven, and
in other parts found it not proven. It was thought
by my friends that I would undergo the Sentence of
Banishment, which made me make my escape from
Edinburgh Castle in Novr. 17-">2, and since was
forced to come to France for my safety. / always
had in my tew if passable to be concerned in Govern-
ments service, 1 and, for that purpose, thought it
necessar ever since I came to France to be as much
as possable in company with the Pretender's friends,
so far as now I think I can be one useful Subject to
my King and Country, upon giving me proper In-
couragement.

1 In the first place I think its in my power to
bring Allan Breack Stewart, the suposd murdrer of
Colin Campbell of Glenouir, late factor of the forfet
Estate of Ardsheal, to England and to deliver him in
safe custod} T so as he may be brought to justice, and
in that event, I think the delivering of the said
murderer merits the getting of a Remission from his
Majesty the King, especially as I was not guilty of
any acts of treason since the Year 1740, and pro-
viding your lordship procures my Eemission upon
delivering the said murderer, I hereby promise to
discover a very grand plot! on footing against the
Government, which is more effectually carried on
than any ever since the Family of Stewart was put
off the Throne of Britain, and besides to do all the
services that lays in my power to the Government.

1 He hail been, as ;i spy !



236 PICKLE THE SPY

4 Only with this provision, that I shall be received
into the Government's Service, and that I shall have
such reward as my Service shall meritt, I am willing, if
your lordship shall think it agreeable, to go to England
privily and carry the murderer [Allan Breck] alongest
with me, and deliver him at Dover to the Military,
and after waite on such of the King's friends as your
lordship shall appoint. If your lordship think this
agreeable, I should wish General Campbell would be
one of those present as he knows me and my family,
and besides that, I think to have some Credit with the
General, which I cannot expect with those whom I
never had the Honour to know. Either the General
or Lieutt. Colin. John Crawford of Poulteney's Eegi-
ment would be very agreeable to me, as I know both
of these would trust me much, and at the same time,
I could be more free to them than to any others
there. Your lordship may depend [on] the motive
that induces me to make this Offer at present to you,
in the Government's name, is both honourable and
just, 1 so that I hope no other constructions will be
put on it, and for your lordship's further satisfaction,
I say nothing in this letter, but what I am deter-
mined to perform, and as much more as in my power
layes with that, and that all I have said is Trueth,
and I shall answer to God.

' Jas. Deummond.'

James was sent over to England, and we now

1 How worthy of our friend !



JAMES EXAMINED 237

offer the results of his examination in London, on
November 6, 1753. The following document deals
with the earlier part of Mr. Macgregor's appalling
revelations, and describes his own conduct on
landing in France, after a tour in the Isle of Man
and Ireland, in December 1752. That he communi-
cated his Irish mare's nest to Charles, as he savs lie
did, is very improbable. Like Sir Francis Clavering,
as described by the Chevalier Strong, James Mohr
' would rather lie than not.' However, he certainlv
gave a version of his legend to the Old Chevalier in
Rome.

Extract of the Examination of Mr. James Drummond.

' That about the 8th. of May following (vizt. May
1753) He (Mr. D.) did set out for France, and
arrived at Boulogne on the 16th. where He met
with Lord Strathalane, and as He (Mr. D.) was ask-
ing after the Young Pretender, His Lordship told
Him that He had seen a letter from Him (the
Young Pretender) lately to Sir James Harrington,
at which time He (the Young Pretender), was
lodged at an Abbe's House, about a League and Half
from Lisle, whereupon He (Mr. D. , communicated
to his Lordship, in the presence of Capt. Wm. Drum-
mond, and Mr. Charles Boyde, the Commission, with
which He was charged. That thereupon His Lord-
ship undertook to wait upon the Young Pretender
with the Irish Proposal, and advised Him (Mr. D.)
to go and stay at.Bergue, till He (Lord Strathalane)



'238 PICKLE THE SPY

came to Him there. That on the 20th. June follow-
ing, His Lordship wrote Him (Mr. D.) a Letter (which
is hereunto annexed) to this effect — " That He
(Lord Strathalane) had laid Mr. Savage's Proposal
before the Young Pretender, who desired, that He,
(Mr. D.) would repair to Paris, and that He had sent
Him (Mr. D.) a Bill upon Mr. Waters (the Banker)
to pay His charges. 1 That He (Mr. D.) did ac-
cordingly go to Paris, and that upon His arrival
there, He first waited upon Mr. Gordon, Principal of
the Scot's College, but that nothing particular passed
there. (N.B. There is not one word, in any of Mr.
Drummond's papers, of His [the Prince's] intending
to go to Berlin.) (Official Note.)'

Nobody, of course, can believe a word that James
Mohr ever said, but his disclosures, in the following-
full report of his examination, could only have been
made by a person pretty deep in Jacobite plans.
For example, Balhaldie, chief of the Macgregors, did
really live at Bievre, as James Mohr says. There was
in Edinburgh at this time a certain John Macfarlane,
w.s., whose pretty wife, in 1716, shot dead an English
captain, nobody ever knew why. She fled to the
Swintons of Swinton, who concealed her in their
house. One day Sir Walter Scott's aunt Margaret,
then a child of eight, residing at Swinton, stayed at
home when the family went to church. Peeping into
a forbidden parlour she saw there a lovely lady, who

1 As James was not in France till May 1753, he cannot have
written Pickle's letters from France of March in that year.



PEETTY MRS. MACFARLANE 239

fondled her, bade her speak only to her mother, and
vanished while the little girl looked out of the win-
dow. This appearance was Mrs. Macfarlane, who
shot Captain Cayley, and was now lying perdue at
Swinton.

Now, in 1753 the pretty lady's husband, Mr.
Macfarlane, was agent in Scotland for Balhaldie. To
him Balhaldie wrote frequently on business, sent' him
also a ' most curious toy,' a tortoise-shell snuff-box,
containing, in a secret receptacle, a portrait of King
James VIII. Letters of his, in April 1753, show
that James Mohr was so far right ; Balhaldie was
living at Bievre, in a glen three leagues from Paris,
and was amusing himself by the peaceful art of
making loyal snuff-boxes in tortoise-shell. 1

As to Bievre, then, James Mohr was right.
He may or may not have lied in the following paper,
when he says that the Prince was coming over, with
Lord Marischal, to the Balhaldie faction of Jacobites,
who were more in touch with the French Court than
his own associates. Mr. Trant, of whom James Mohr
speaks, was really with the Prince, as Pickle also
asserts, and as the Stuart Papers prove. Probably
he was akin to Olive Trant, a pretty intriguer of
1715, mentioned by Bolingbroke in his famous letter

1 F.albaldie's papers, not treasonable, belong to Sir Arthur Ealketl
of Pitfirrane, who also possesses a charniin<,' portrait of pretty Mrs.
Macfarlane. Sir Arthur's ancestor, Sir Feter, fought on the 11
verian side in the Forty-five, was taken prisoner, and release,! on
parole, which he refused to break at the command of the Butcher
Cumberland.



240 PICKLE THE SPY

to Wyndham. As to Ireland, James Molir really did
take it on his way to France, though his promises in
the name of ' the People of Fingal ' are Irish moon-
shine. Were arms, as James Mohr says, lodged in
Clanranald's country, Moidart? Pickle refused to
let them be landed in Knoydart, his own country,
and thought nothing of the kind could be done
without his knowledge. James Mohr may really
have had news of arms landed at the House of Tou^li
on the Forth, near Stirling, where they would be
very convenient. Pickle, I conceive, was not trusted
by Clanranald, and Cameron he had traduced. If
James Mohr by accident speaks the truth in the
following Information, more was done by Lochgarry
and Cameron than Pickle wotted of during the
autumn of 1752 and the spring of 1753. The arms
may have been those ordered by Charles in 1750.

Here is James Mohr's Confession, made in London,
November 6, 1753 : 1

' That, in June 1753, the Pretender's Son wrote
to Mr. McGregor of Bolheldies, in a most sincere
manner, that He wanted He should undertake His
Service, as formerly : Bolheldies refused to undertake
anything for him, till such time, as He was recon-
ciled with His Father, and make acknowledgements
for His Misconduct to the King of France, and then,
that He was willing to enter upon His affairs only, in
concert with the Earl of Mareschal, and none other,
for that He could not trust any about Him : Upon

1 MSS. Add. 33,050, f. 369.



JAMES MOHR 241

which, the Pretender's Son wrote Him a second time,
assuring Bolheldies, that He would be entirely advised
by Him, and at the same time, that He expected to
see Him soon, when things would be concerted to
His Satisfaction. 1

' About the middle of September, the Pretender's
Son arrived in Paris, in company with one Mr. Trent
[Trant], and Fleetwood, two English Gentlemen,
who carried Him from South of Avignon [probably
a lie], and when they came thro' Avignon, He was
called Mr. Trent's Cousin, and thereafter, upon all
their Journey, till they landed at Paris. During his
stay at Paris, He stayed at Mr. John Water's House.
Immediately upon His arrival at Paris, Bolheldies
was sent for, who stay'd with Him only that night :
The next day, He went to Baivre [Bievre], where
He lives, Two Leagues South of Paris : How soon
Bolheldies went Home, He sent Express to Mr.
Butler, the King of France's Master of the Horse,
and also a great Favorite : Mr. Butler came upon
a Sunday Morning to Baivre, and about 3 o'clock in
the Afternoon, the Earl of Marischal sent an Express
to Bolheldies ; and after Eeceipt of this Express, Mr.
Butler went off to Versailles : That evening, Bolhel-
dies told me, that now He hoped, the Prince, as He
called Him, would be advised by His best friends,
for that He seems to have a full view of what Folly
He had committed, by being advised and misled, by
a Parcel of such Fools, as has been about Him, since

1 Nothing of all this in the Stuart Papers.

R



242 PICKLE THE SPY

the year 1745. But now, providing He would stand
firm to His promise, to stand by the Earl of Mare-
schal and His advice, that He hoped His Affairs
might soon be brought on a right Footing ; He added
further, That he was still afraid of His breaking
thro' concert ; That He was so headstrong, how soon
He saw the least appearance of success, That He
might come to ruin His whole Affairs, as He did,
when He stole away to Scotland, in the year 1745,
by the advice of John Murray, Callie [Kelly],
Sheridan, and such other Fools.

' I then told Bolheldies, that He had been at great
pains to get the Eestoration of the Family Stuart
brought about, and that tho' He succeeded, He might
be very ill rewarded, in the Event, and He and His
Clan, probably, on the first discontent, be ruined, as
that Family had done formerly, to gratify others, for
that it seems, He had forgot, that very Family in
Xing Charles's time, persecuted the whole of His
Clan, in a most violent manner ; l and I added farther,
that the whole of His Clan would be much better
pleased, if He did but procure Liberty from the
■Government to return Home, and live the remainder
of His Days among His Friends. Bolheldies assured
me, that He was willing to go Home, providing He
had the least consent from the Government ; Only,
He would not chuse to be put under any Eestrictions,
than to live as a peaceable Subject.

' He added further, that He was so much afraid of

1 Observe James's Celtic ruemory.



BALHALDIE 24o

the Pretender's Son being so ill to manage, and also
that the Irish would break thro' Secret, That He could
heartily wish not to be concerned, could He but fall on
a Method to get clear of it ; Bat at present, that He
had engaged to enter upon some Business with the
Earl of Mareschal ; and especially, about those Pro-
posals from Ireland, which He thought very probable,
if Matters were carried on by people of sense, that
knew how to manage, for that all this affair depended
on keeping the Government ignorant of what was
doing. Four days after this, there was a meeting
held, Two Leagues South from Baivre, by the Pre-
tender's Son, Earl of Mareschal, Bolheldies, Mr. Butler,
Mr. Gordon, Principal of the Scots College, Mr.
Trent, and Fleetwood, and some other English
Gentlemen, whom Bolheldies did not inform me of.

' When Bolheldies returned Home, He told me,
the Irish Proposals were accepted of, and for that
purpose, that there were some Persons to be sent
both to Scotland, and Ireland, and that I was ap-
pointed to be one of those for Ireland, to transact the
affairs with the People of Fingal, especially as Mr.
Savage had desired, that if any should be! sent, that
I would be the person intrusted in their affair. 1 That
Col. and Capt. Browne, Capt. Bagget, were to be
sent along with Mr. McDiarmid : Bolheldies also said,
that He was afraid, He would be obliged to take a trip
to England, some time in winter, for that some certain

1 Mr. Savage, according to James Mohr, was the chief of the
Macgregors in Ireland.

R 2



244 PICKLE THE SPY

Great Men there would trust none"""other to enter on
Business with them, as Lord Sempil was dead, but
that, if [He] could help it, He did not incline to go.
That those, that were to be appointed to go to Scot-
land, were entirely refer'd to Him, and Mr. Gordon
the Principal. The management of the Scots affairs
is entirely refer'd to Stirling of Kear, Mr. Murray of
Abercarney, Mr. Smith, and Sr. Hugh Paterson [uncle
of Miss Walkinshaw !]. That Mr. Chartres has pro-
mised to manage the Duke of Hamilton, and Friends.
. . . Bolheldies assured me, that any, that pleased to
join from France, would not be hindered : and that
there was a Method fallen upon to get Two Ships of
War, as also plenty of arms, and ammunition, which
would be sent by the Ships, to both Ireland and Scot-
land. That the Irish propose to raise 14,000 Men [!],
and in two days time, to have them embarked in
Wherries from Dublin, Push, Skeddish, andDrogheda,
and from thence transported, in six hours, to North
Wales, or, in Twenty-four hours, to Scotland, either
of which as the service required ; providing always,
that the 2 Ships of War were sent to escort them, as
also Arms and ammunition and Money. That it was
proposed by both the Earl of Mareschal, and Bol-
heldies, that 11,000 should land in North Wales, and
3,000 in CampbelltownofKentyre in Argyleshire ; for
that those in Argyleshire that were well affected to their
cause, would have a good opportunity to rise, by lead-
ing 3,000 Irish. That McDonald of Largye has pro-
posed that there will rise, from that end of Argyleshire



ARMS IN MOID ART 245

2,500 Men, including the Duke of Hamilton's Men
from Arran ; To wit, the McDonalds of Largye, the
McNeils, McAlisters, Lamonds, and McLawchlans,
with what Sr. James Campbell of Auchinbreck can
rise ; and those from Campbelltown to march to the
Head of Argyleshire, and to Perthshire, where they
were to be joind by the North Country Clans, which
with the Irish, and those from Argyleshire, was com-
puted to be near 14,000 Men, and to be commanded
by the Earl of Mareschal, and Lord George Murray. 1

' Bolheldies assured me . . . that the Pretender's
Son made a proposal to His Father to resign
the Crown in His Favor : It was refused ; and it
was desired of Him not to make any further Pro-
posals of that kind. Bolheldies was desired to go to
Eome, to expostulate with the Pretender, which He
begged to be excused, for that it was contrary to His
Opinion, and that He did not approve of the Pro-
posal, would never desire the Old Gentleman to
resign. He told me, that this Proposal proceeded
from the English, as the Young Pretender had owned
that He was Protestant. . . .

' It consists with my knowledge, that there were
lodged, in ClanronakTs Country, 9,000 Stands of
Arms under the care of Eonald McDonald, Brother
to the late Kinloch Moydart, Mr. McDonald of Glen-
aladale, and the Baillie of Egg, and kept still by
them, in as good order as possible. That one, John

1 These are transparent falsehoods. The Ya\t\ Marischal, if we
may believe Pickle, had no mind to resign his comfortable Embassy .



->



46 PICKLE THE SPY



McDonald, who is my own Cousin German, and is
also Cousin German to Glenaladale, met with me
in the Braes of Argyleshire, in March last [James
was not in Scotland at that date !] ; when He told
me, that if there was an Invasion that they had
plenty of Arms ; and told the way and manner they
had them preserved : But immediately before they
were lodged in their hands, that Dr. Cameron had
taken away, without orders, 250 Stands. That they
might be got in Order, in six days time, by very few
Hands : for that thev had sustained very little
damage. It's certain, some little pains might find
them out. . . . Bolheldies assured me, that Sr.
John Graham was sent by the Young Pretender's
Orders, to deliver Capt. Ogelvie 8,000 Swords,
which had lain at Berlin [?], since the last affair,
that He was to deliver them to Capt. Ogelvie, at or
near Dunkirk, concealed into wine Hogsheads ; and
that Capt. Ogelvie was to land them at Airth, in the
Frith of Forth ; and to get them conveyed to the
House of Tough, where they were to remain under
the charge of Mr. Charles Smith, whose Son is married
to the Heiress of Touo'h. The House of Touo-h is two
miles above Stirling. I also saw Mr. Binglie, Under
Master of the Horse, sent by Mr. Butler, and met at
Bolheldie's House, by young Sheridan, who is always
with the Young Pretender. . . . !

' That the Irish Proposal, sent by me was thus :
In wav to France, I came to the Isle of Man, where

1 He was really at Avignon.



IRISH MYTH 247

I had occasion to meet one Mr. Patrick Savage, to
whom I was recommended by a Friend in Scotland ;
This Mr. Savage is an Irishman, and was in Scotland
some time before I had seen Him : He was informed
by Sir Archibald Stewart of Castle- Milk near Greenock,
that Sir Archibald had seen Dr. Cameron in Stirling-
shire ; who told Him, that He hoped the Kestoration
wonld happen soon, for that preparations were a
making for it, and that He had been sent to Scot-
land to transact some affairs for that purpose. Mr.
Savage told me, in the year 1745, if the Pretender's
son had sent but the least notice to Ireland, that He
might have got 10,000 or 12,000 Men, for that they
at that time had formed a scheme, for that purpose,
expecting to have had a message. . . . Mr. Savage as-
sured me, that there were two Lords concerned, who
put it out of his power to let their Names be known,
till I came with a commission from the Young Pre-
tender, and then, that they would frankly see me,
and take me to their Houses to make up matters. . . .'
The pleased reader will observe that Mr.
Macgregor's Irish myth (though here sadly curtailed)
has swollen to huge proportions since he communi-
cated his tale of long lost Macgregors to the ( Mil
Chevalier in August. Whether the Prince was really
turning to Balhaldie and official Jacobitism or not, is
matter of doubt. Mr. Macgregor's Information having
been swallowed and digested by Lord Holdcrncsse,
Pickle was appealed to for confirmation. We have
seen his unfriendly report of Mr. Macgregor's cha-



248 PICKLE THE SPY

racter, as a spy mistrusted by both sides. But among
other precautions an English official suggested the
following :

' That, if it's thought proper, Mr. [Pickle

clearly] should be sent to Ireland forthwith, to know
the whole of those concerned in the Irish Plot of the
People of Fingal, that He could have a Trusty in
Company, sent from the Secretary, who would under-
go any borrowed name, and was to be Companion in

the affair to Mr. [Pickle]. That particularly those

Lords should be known, as also such of the People of

Connaght as could be discovered. That Mr.

[Pickle] is willing to undertake whatever in his power
lays, to shew the zeal, wherewith He is inclined to
serve the Government, but that He will not chuse to
go to Ireland, unless a Court Trusty is sent with Him,
who will be eye witness to His Transactions with the
Irish, as Mr. [Pickle] will tell that He [the Eng-
lish companion] is a Trusty sent by the Pretender's
Son.'

I detect Pickle under ' Mr. ,' because later

he was sent in a precisely similar manner into Scot-
land, accompanied by a ' Court Trusty,' or secret
service man, named Bruce, who, under the style of
* Cromwell,' sent in reports along with those des-
patched by Pickle himself. Whether Pickle really
went to Ireland to verify Mr. Macgregor's legends or
not, I am unable to say. The following note of his
(December 13, 1753) suggests that he went either on
that or a similar errand.



END OF JAMES MOHR 249

Add. 32,730.

' Grandpapa, — In consequence of what past at our
last meeting I have wrot to my Correspondent,


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