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fixing the time and place of meeting, and at leatest
I ought seet off the 20th. pray then, when and where
are we to meet ? If not soon, I must undow what I
have begun. Excuse my anxiety, and believe me
most sincerely with great estime and affection
' Your most oblidged humble Servt.

' Pickle.

' 13th December, 1753

' To the Honble. Quirt Vaughan, at his
house in Golden Square.'

Here James Mohr Macgregor slips out of our
narrative. He was suspected by Balhaldie of having
the misfortune to be a double-dyed scoundrel. This
impression Mr. Macgregor's letters to ' his dear Chief '
were not quite able to destroy. The letters (Dunkirk,
April 6, and May 1, 1754) are published in 'Black-
wood's Magazine ' for December 1817. James tells
Balhaldie that he had visited England, and had en-
deavoured to deliver Alan Breck, ' the murderer of
Glenure,' to the Government, and to make interest
for his own brother, Robin Oig. But Robin was
hanged for abducting the heiress of Edenbelly,
and Alan Breck escaped from James Mohr with
the spolia opima, including ' four snuff-boxes,' made,
perhaps, by Balhaldie himself. In England, James
Mohr informs Balhaldie, he was offered ' handsome
bread in the Government service ' as a spy. But he



250 PICKLE THE SPY

replied, ' I was born in the character of a gentleman,'
and he could only serve ' as a gentleman of honour.'

James, in fact, had sold himself too cheap, and
had done the Devil's work without the Devil's wages.
Probably the falsehood of his Irish myth was dis-
covered by Pickle, and he was dismissed. James's
last letter to Balhaldie is of September 25, 1754
(Paris), and he prays for a loan of the pipes, that he
may ' play some melancholy tunes.' And then poor
James Mohr Macgregor died, a heart-broken exile.
His innocent friend, in { Blackwood's Magazine,' asks
our approbation for James's noble Highland inde-
pendence and sense of honour !

There was another spy, name unknown, whose
information about the Prince, in 1753, was full and
minute, whether accurate or not. It is written in
French. 1 About the end of June 1753, Charles,
according to this informer, passed three months at
Luneville ; he came from Prussia, and left in Sep-
tember for Paris. Thence Charles went to Poland
and Prussia, then to Strasbourg, back to Paris,
thence to Liege, and thence to Scotland. Prussia
and Denmark were next visited, and Paris again in
January 1754. As a rule, Charles was in Scotland,
or Liege, collecting an army of deserters. This
valuable news reached the Duke of Newcastle on
October 30, 1754.

As to the Irish plot reported by James Mohr, I
found, among the papers of the late Comte d'Albanie,

1 Add. MSS. 33,050, f. 409.



CHARLES IN IRELAND 251

a letter from an Irish gentleman, containing record
of a family tradition. Charles, it was said, had
passed some time near the Giant's Causeway : the
date was uncertain, the authority was vague, and
there is no other confirmation of James Mohr's pre-
posterous inventions. 1

1 In ' Mernoire Historique et Genealogique sur la Famille de
Wogan,' par le Comte Alph. O'Kelly de Galway (Paris. 1896) we read
(p. 33) that, in 1776, Charles was ' entertained at Cross Green House,
in Cork.' The authority given is a vague reference to the Hibernian
Magazine.



252 PICKLE THE SPY



CHAPTER XI

' A MAN UNDONE.' 1754

Jacobite hopes — Blighted by the conduct of Charles — His seclusion —
His health is affected — His fierce impatience — Miss Walkinshaw —
Letter from young Edgar — The Prince easily tracked — Fears of
his English correspondents — Remonstrances of Goring — The
English demand Miss "Walkinshaw's dismissal — Danger of discard-
ing Dumont— Goring fears the Bastille — Cruelty of dismissing
Catholic servants— Charles's lack of generosity — Has relieved no
poor adherents — "Will offend both Protestants and Catholics —
Opinion of a Protestant — Toleration desired — Goring asks leave
to resign — Charles's answer — Goring's advice — Charles's reply —
Needs money — Proceedings of Pickle — In London — Called to
France — To see the Earl Marischal — Charles detected at Liege —
Verbally dismisses Goring — Pickle's letter to England — 'Best
metal buttons ' — Goring to the Prince — The Prince's reply — Last
letter from Goring — His ill-treatment — His danger in Paris — His
death in Prussia — The Earl Marischal abandons the Prince — His
distress — ' The poison.'

The year 1754 saw the practical ruin of Charles, and
the destruction of the Jacobite party in England.
The death of Henry Pelham, in March, the General
Election which followed, the various discontents of
the time, and a recrudescence of Jacobite sentiment,
gave them hopes, only to be blighted. Charles no
longer, as before, reports, ' My health is perfect.' The
Prince's habits had become intolerable to his friends.
The' spleen,' as he calls it, had marked him for its own.
His vigorous body needed air and exercise ; unable



DECLINE OF CHARLES 253

to obtain these, it is probable that he sought the refuge
of despair. Years earlier he had told Mademoiselle
Luci that the Princesse de T almond ' would not let
him leave the house.' Now he scarcely ventured to
take a walk. His mistress was obviously on ill terms
with his most faithful adherents ; the loyal Goring
abandoned his ungrateful service ; the Earl Mari-
schal bade him farewell ; his English partisans
withdrew their support and their supplies. The end
had come.

The following chapter is written with regret.
Eeaders of Dickens remember the prolonged degra-
dation of the young hero of ' Bleak House,' through
hope deferred and the delays of a Chancery suit.
Similar causes contributed to the final wreck of
Charles. The thought of a Eestoration was his
Chancery suit. A letter of November 1753, written
by the Prince in French, is a mere hysterical outcry
of impatience. ' I suffocate ! ' he exclaims, as if in a
fever of unrest. He had indulged in hopes from
France, from Spain, from Prussia, from a Highland
rising, from a London conspiracy. Every hope had
deceived him, every Prince had betrayed him, and
now he proved false to himself, to his original nature,
and to his friends. The venerable Lord Pitsligo,
writing during the Scotch campaign of 1745, said :
' I had occasion to discover the Prince's humanity, I
ought to say tenderness : this is giving myself no
great airs, for he shows the same disposition to every
body.' Now all is changed, and a character naturally



254 PICKLE THE SPY

tender and pitiful has become careless of others, and
even cruel.

The connection with Miss Walkinshaw was the
chief occasion of many troubles. On January 14,
1754, young Edgar wrote from Aisse to his uncle in
Kome, saving that Clementina Walkinshaw ' has got
in with the Prince, borne two children to him [pro-
bably only one], and got an extreme ascendant over
him. The King's friends in England are firmly
persuaded of this being true, and are vastly uneasy
at it, especially as his sister is about Frederick's
widow (the Dowager Princess of Wales), and has but
an indifferent character. This story gives me very
great concern, and, if true, must be attended with
bad consequences, whether she truly be honest or
not.' !

The fact was that, being now accompanied by a
mistress and a child, Charles was easily traced. His
personal freedom, if not his life, was endangered, and
if he were taken and his papers searched, his corre-
spondents would be in peril. On January 4, 1754,
Dormer wrote, warning the Prince that ' a young-
gentleman in hiding with a mistress and child ' was
being sought for at Liege, and expressing alarm for
himself and his comrades. Dormer also reproached
Charles for impatiently urging his adherents to instant
action. Goring, as ' Stouf,' wrote the following ex-
plicit letter from Paris on January 13, 1754. As
we shall see, he had been forbidden by the French

1 Stuart Papers.



GORING REMONSTRATES 255

Government to come within fifty leagues of the
capital, and the Bastille gaped for him if he was
discovered.

Goring, it will be remarked, warns Charles that
his party are weary of his demands for money. What
did he do with it ? His wardrobe, as an inventory
shows, was scanty ; no longer was he a dandy :
seventeen shirts, six collars, three suits of clothes,
three pocket-handkerchiefs were the chief of his
effects. He did not give much in charity to poor
adherents, as Goring bitterly observes. We learn
that the English insist on the dismissal of Miss
Walkinshaw. To discard Dumont, as Charles pro-
posed, was to provide England with an informer.
The heads of English gentlemen would be at the
mercy of the executioners of Archy Cameron. To
turn adrift Charles's Catholic servants was impolitic,
oruel, and deeply ungrateful. This is the burden of
Goring's necessary but very uncourtly epistle, prob-
ably written from ' La Grandemain's ' house :

' You say you are determined to know from your
professed friends what you are to depend on. 1 wish
it may answer your desires, you are master, Sir, to
take what steps you please, I shall not take upon me
to contradict you, I shall only lay before you what I
hear and see, if it can be of any service to you, I
shall have done my duty in letting you know your
true interest, if you think it such. In the first place,
I find they [the English adherents] were surprized
and mortifyed to see the little man [Beson] arrive



256 PICKLE THE SPY

with a message from you, only to desire money, so
soon after the summ you received from the gentlemen
I conducted to you, and some things have been said
on the head not much to the advancement of any
scheme for your service. Secondly they sent me a
paper by Sir James Harrington of which what
follows is a copy word for word :

' "Sir, your friend's Mistress is loudly and publickly
talked off and all friends look on it as a very dan-
gerous and imprudent step, and conclude reasonably
that no Corespondance is to be had in that quarter,
without risk of discovery, for we have no opinion in
England of female politicians, or of such women's
secrecy in general. You are yourself much blamed
for not informing our friends at first, that they might
take the alarum, and stop any present, or future
transactions, with such a person. What we now
expect from you, is to let us know if our persuasion
can prevail to get rid of her."

' For God's sake, Sir, what shall I say, or do, I
am at my wits end, the greif I have for it augments
my illness, and I can only wish a speedy end to my
life. To make it still worse you discard Dumont;
he is a man I have little regard for, his conduct has
been bad, but he has kept your secret, now, Sir, to
be discarded in such a manner he will certainly com-
plain to Murray and others ; it will come to your
friends' ears, if he does not go to England and tell
them himself. He knows Mac. 1 Mead and D. [Daw-

1 Probably Glengarry.



THE BASTILLE 257

kins] what will our friends think of you, Sir, for
taking so little care of their lives and fortunes by
putting a man in dispair who has it in his power to
ruin them, and who is not so ignorant as not to know
the Government will well reward him. Nay, he can
do more : he can find you out yourself, or put your
enemies in a way to do it, which will be a very unfor-
tunate adventure.

6 As for me it is in his power to have me put into
the Bastille when he pleases. Perhaps he may not
do this, but sure it is too dangerous to try whether
he will or no ; they must be men of very tryed
Virtue who will suffer poverty and misery when they
have a way to prevent it, so easy too, and when
they think they only revenge themselves of ingrati-
tude ; for you will always find that men generally
think their services are too little rewarded, and,
when discarded, as he will be if you dont recall ye
sentence, what rage will make him do I shall not
answer for. If, Sir, you continue in mind to have
him sent off I must first advise those gentlemen [the
English adherents] that they may take propper
measures to put themselves in Safety by leaving the
Country, or other methods as they shall like best.
Now, Sir, whether such a step as this will not tend
more to diminish than augment your Credit in
England I leave you to determine ; I only beg of
you, Sir, to give me timely notice that I may get out
of the way of that horrid Bastille, and put our friends
on their guard, I cannot but lament my poor friend

s



2-38 PICKLE THE SPY

Colonel H. who must be undone by it. Ld M.
[Marischal] thinks it too dangerous a tryall of that
man's honour : for my part I shall not presume to
give my own opinion, only beg of you once again that
we may have time to shift for ourselves. I am
obliged to you, Sir, for your most gracious Concern
for my health ; the doctors have advised me to
take the air as much as my weakness will permit,
are much against confinement, and would certainly
advise me against the Bastille as very contrary to my
distemper !

' I have one thing more to lay before you of
greatest Consequence : you order all your Catholick
Servants to be discarded, consider, Sir, the thing well
on both sides ; first the good that it will produce on
the one side, and the ill it may produce on the
other ; it may indeed please some few biggotted
protestants, for all religions have their biggots, but
may it not disgust the great number of ye people, to
see you discard faithfull men, for some of them went
through all dangers with you in Scotland, upon ac-
count of their religion — without the least provision
made for them. Your saying, Sir, that necessity
obliges you to do it, will look a little strange to those
people who send you money, and know how far you
can do good with it. I assure you, Sir, if you did
necessary acts of Generosity now and then, that people
may see plainly that you have a real tenderness for
those that suffer for you, you would be the richer for
it, more people would send money than now do, and



PAPISTS AND PROTESTANTS 259

they that have sent would send more, when they saw
so good use made of it.

' I have been hard put to it when I have been
praising your good qualities to some of our friends,
they have desired me to produce one single instance
of any one man you have had the Compassion to
relieve with the tenderness a Kino- owes to a faithfull
subject who has served him with the risk of his life
and fortune. 1

' Now Sir, another greater misfortune may happen
from sending off these servants in so distinguishing a
manner ; you will plese to remember that in the Course
of your affairs the Protestants employ the Papists ;
the Papists join with the Protestants in sending you
money and in everything that can hasten your restora-
tion, they are a great body of men and if they should
once have reason to believe they should be harder
used under your government than they are under the
Usurper, self-preservation would oblige them to main-
tain the Usurper on the throne, and be assured if they
take this once in their heads, they have it in their power
to undoe you.

'A man of sense and great riches as well as
birth, a great friend of yours, talking with me some
time past of your royal qualities (note this man
is a most bigotted Protestant), was observing the
happyness all ranks of men would have under your
reism : he considered vou, Sir, as father to the whole
nation, that no one set of men would be oppressed,

1 This too well confirms Dr. King's charges.

a 2



260 PICKLE THE SPY

papists, presbyterians, quakers, anabaptists, anti-
trinitarians, Zwinglians, and forty more that he
named, though they differ, in their Creed, under so
great and good a prince as you, would all join to love
and respect you ; that he was sure you would make
no distinction between any of them, but let your Eoyal
bounty diffuse itself equalfy on all. He said further
that for you to disgust any of them, as they all together
compose the body, so disgusting any one set of men
was as if a man in full vigour of health should cut off
one of his leggs or arms. He concluded with saying
he was sure you was too prudent to do anything of that
kind, to summ up all, he said that he looked on you
as a prince divested of passions ; that the misfortunes
and hardships you had undergone had undoubtedly
softened } 7 our great Mind so far as to be sensible of
the misfortunes of others, for which reason he would
do all that Islj in his power to serve you ; these
reflections, Sir, really are what creates you the love
of your people in general, and gains you more friends
than yr Eoyal Birth.

' Observe, Sir, what will be the event of your
discarding these poor men, all of them diserving
better treatment from you : they will come to Paris
begging all their way, and show the whole town,
English, French, and strangers, an example of your
Cruelty, their Eeligion being all their offence ; do
you think, Sir, your Protestants will believe you
the better protestant for it ? If you do, I am affraid
you will find yourself mistaken ; it will be a handle



CHARLES'S INTOLERANCE 261

for your enemies to represent you a hippocrite in your
religion and Cruel in your nature, and show the world
what those who serve you are to expect.

' Now, Sir, do as you think fitt, but let me beg of
you to give such Comitions to somebody else ; as I
never could be the author of any such advice, so I am
incapable of acting in an affair that will do you, Sir,
infinite prejudice, and cover me with dishonour, and
am, besides these Considerations, grown so inlirm that
I beg your E.H. will be graciously pleased to give me
leave to retire. ... I may have been mistaken in
some things, which I hope you will pardon, I do not
write this as my own opinion, but really to get your
affairs in a true light. ... I sware to the great God
that what I write is truth, for God's sake Sir have
compassion on yourself . . . you say you " will take
your party,' 1 alas, Sir, they will coldly let you take it,
don't let your spleen get the better of your prudence
and judgement. . . .

' One reflection more on what you mention about
ye papist servants, may not the keeping publickly in
employment ye two papist gentlemen [Sheridan and
Stafford] do more harm than turning away three or
four papist footmen, who can, by their low situation,
have no manner of influence over your affairs . . .
one of the papist footmen is besides a relation 1 of
the poor man who was lately hanged . . . when all
this comes to be publick it will much injure your
carackter. To suiiini up all, these commissions you

1 Goring must mean a clansman — a Cameron.



262 PICKLE THE SPY

give me, give me such affliction as will certainly
end my life, they are surely calculated by you for
that very reason. ... I once more beg you will
graciously please to permit me to retire, I will let
my family know that my bad health only is the
reason, and I don't doubt they will maintain me.'

Charles might have been expected to answer this
very frank letter in a fun^ of anger. He kept his
temper, and replied thus :

The Prince to Stouf.

' January 18, 1754.

' Sir, — I received yours of ye 13th. Current, and
am resolved not to discard any of my Cervants, that
is to say, for ye present. . . .

' It is necessary also you should send as soon
as possible 300/. to be remitted to Stafford and
Sheridan . . . you may give out of that sum
Morison's wages for half a year. My compliments
to Sir J. Harrington, assuring him of my friendship
and when you are able remit to him fifty Louis d'ors.
... It is true I sent to E. [England] six Months
ago for Money, but it was not for ye Money alone,
that served only for a pretext, however I was ex-
tremely scandalized not to have received any since
I thought fit to Call for it, it is strenge such pro-
ceeding. People should, I think, well know that If
it was only Money that I had at hart I would not
act as I have done, and will do untill I Compass ye
prosperity of My Country, which allways shall be



CHARLES'S ANSWER 263

My only Studdy : But you know that without Money
one can do nothing, and in my situation the more
can be had ye better. I have received nothing
since ye profet [Daniel] but Mistress P.'s hundred
Pounds given to Woulfe. I forgot to mention fifty
pounds sterling to be given to Kely. ... I am glad
you have taken my Pelise, for nothing can do you
more good than to keep yourself warm.' 1

Gorino- answered on Februarv 26. The English,
he said, would not send a farthing if Charles persisted
in his sentiments about their ' duty.' His repeated
despatch of messengers only caused annoyance and
alarm. ' They expect a Prince who will take advice,
and rule according to law, and not one that thinks
his will is sufficient.' Charles replied as follows :

Prince to Stouf.

' March 6, 1754.

' I received yours tother day and am sory to
find by it yr Bad State of Health. You are telling
me about Laws, I am shure no one is more willing
to submit to ye Laws of my Country than myself,
and I have ye Vanity to say I know a little of them.
. . . All what I want is a definitive answer, and
it is much fearer [fairer] to say " yes " or "no," than
to keep one in suspence, which hinders that distressed
person of taking other measures, that might make
him perhaps gain his Lawsute. However, I shall

' Goring was probably at the Convent of St. Joseph, with Madamo
•de Vasse.



264 PICKLE THE SrY

neither medle or make in it untill I here from you
again, which I hope will be soon, for my friend has
lost all patience, and so have I to see him Linger so
Long.

' I wish with all my heart it may mend.'
At this time Pickle was not idle. He wrote to
G wynne Vaughan from London on February 25,1754.
He was going over to Paris, to extract information from
the Earl Marischal. He signs 'Eoderick Eandom,'
and incidentally throws light on his private tastes
and morals. His correspondent was, apparently, an
old man, 'Worthy old Yaughan,' Pickle calls him
later. He often addresses him as ' Grandpapa.' In,
this letter he ministers to Mr. Vaughan's senile
vices.

Add. 32,734. ' Monday. London : February 25, 1754.

' Dr. Sir, — I have apointed a meeting with Mr.
Alexander [Lochgarry] from whom I recevd a verbal
message, by a friend now in town, that came over
by Caron [Mariston] that I am desir'd by Monsr.
St. Sebastian [Young Pretender] to go streight to
Yenice [Ld. Marshal], to settle for this summer
every thing relative to his amours with Mrs. Strenge
[the Highlands], and that, when we have settled that
point, that he is to meet me upon my return from
Yenice [Ld. Marshal] in Imperial Flanders, where he
is soon expected. . . . Every thing lays now upon
the carpet, and if I go privately to Yenice [Ld.
Marshal] I will be at the bottom of the most minute



PICKLE'S 'PATES' 2G5

transactions. Without going to Venice [Ld. Marshal]
I can dow little or nothing, and / give yon my word
of honour, that I reserv'd out of the last mony not
10^. st., but at anv rate I cross the watter to save
my own credit with our Merchants [the Jacobites],
and if I am suplayd here, without which I can dow
nothing, I am certain to learn what can't be obtained
through any other Chanel.

' I recev'd by old Caron [Mariston] two extra-
ordinary patez, which surprisingly answer Pompa-
dour's intentions. 1 I have tray'd the experiment, and
as I found it so effective, I have sent one of them by
a Carrier that left this Saturday last in the morning,
and how [who] arrives at Bath to-morrow, Tuesday,
26th. Instant ; It's simply adrest to you at Bath, It
operates in the same lively manner upon the faire
sex as it does on ours. (The Lord have mercy upon
the Lassies at Bath !) The Patez was sent by the
Wiltshire Carrier how [who] seets up at the Inn on the
Market place at Bath, derected to the Honble, Quine
Vaughan. I have had [several] Bucks this day
dining upon the relicks of your sister pattez, which
is all the apologie I make for this hurried scrawle.
I wait your answer with Impatience, but allwaies
believe me, with great sincerity and estime — My
Dr. Sir,

' Your most affte, oblidged, humble Servt.

' RODERICK RANDO M.'

1 See Memoires of Madame Hausset, and the De Goncourts on
Madame de Pompadour.



2G6 PICKLE THE SPY

From France, when lie arrived there, Pickle
wrote to Gwynne Vaughan as follows :

Add. 32,735. ' Aprile : Monday 8. 1754. 4 o'clock.

* Dear Sir, — I am still in such agitation after
fourteen hours passage, and sitting up with our
friends Alexr. [Lochgarry] and Agent [McDonald],


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