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meant to keep up the spirits of the faithful, and it is
probable that the author really had some information,
though he is often either mistaken, or fables by way
of a 'blind.' About February 11, says the scribe
(nominally Henry Goring, Charles's equerry, an
ex-officer of the Queen of Hungary), a mysterious
stranger, the ' Chevalier de la Luze,' came to
Avignon, and was received by the Prince ' with ex-
traordinary marks of distinction.' ' He understood
not one word of English,' which destroys, if true, the
theory that the Earl Marischal, or Marshal Keith, is
intended. French and Italian he spoke well, but with a
foreign accent. Kelly ventured to question the Prince
about the stranger, but was rebuffed. One day, prob-
ably February 24, the stranger received despatches,
and vanished as he had come. The Prince gave a
supper (d'Argenson's ' ball '), and, when his guests
had retired, summoned Goring into his study. He
told Goring that ' there were spies about him ' (the
Earl Marischal, we know, distrusted Kelly) ; he rallied
him on a love-affair, and said that Goring only should



GOIUXG'S LETTER 49

be his confidant. Next morning, very early, they
two started for Lyons, disguised as French officers.
As far as Lyons, indeed, the French police actually
traced them. 1 But, according to the pamphlet,
they did not stop in Lyons ; they rested at a small
town two leagues further on, whence the Prince sent
despatches to Kelly at Avignon. Engaging a new
valet, Charles pushed to Strasbourg, where he again
met La Luze, now described as ' a person whose
extraordinary talents had gained him the confidence
of one of the wisest Princes in Europe,' obviously
pointing to Frederick of Prussia, the master of
MarsTial Keith, and the friend and host of his
brother, the Earl Marischal. At Strasbourg, Charles
rescued a pretty young lad}^ from a fire ; she lost her
heart at once to the ' Comte d'Espoir ' (his travelling
title), but the Prince behaved like Scipio, not to
mention a patriarch famous for his continence. ' I
am no stoic,' said His Eoval Highness to La Luze,
' but I have always been taught that pleasures, how
pardonable soever in themselves, become highly
criminal when indulged to the prejudice of another,'
adding many other noble and unimpeachable senti-
ments.

After a romantic adventure with English r
Scottish assassins, in which His Eoyal Highness shot
a few of them, the travellers arrived at Leipzig.
La Luze now assumed his real name, and carried

1 D'Argenson, v. 417. March 19, 1749. D'Argenson knew more
than the police.

E



50 PICKLE THE SPY

Charles, by cross roads, to ' a certain Court,' where
he spent ten days with much satisfaction. He stayed
at the house of La Luze (Berlin and the Earl
Marischal appear to be hinted at, but the Marischal
told Pickle that he had never seen Charles at Berlin),
secret business was done, and then, through terri-
tories friendly or hostile, ' a certain port ' was reached.
They sailed (from Dantzig?), were driven into a
hostile port (Eiga ?), escaped and made another port
(Stockholm ?) where they met Lochgarry, ' whom the
Prince thought had been one of those that fell at
Culloden.'

This is nonsense. Lochgarry had been with
Charles after Culloden, and had proposed to waylay
Cumberland, which the Prince forbade. Murray of
Broughton, in his examination, and Bishop Forbes
agree on this point, and James, we know, sent, by
Edgar, a message to Lochgarry on Christmas Eve,
1748. x Charles, therefore, knew excellently well
that Lochgarry did not die at Culloden. After
royal, but very secret entertainment ' in this
kingdom ' (Sweden ?), Charles went into Lithuania,
where old friends of his maternal ancestors, the
Sobieskis, welcomed him. He resumed a gaiety
which he had lost ever since his arrest at the opera
in Paris, and had ' an interview with a most illustrious
and firm friend to his person and interest.' Though
his marriage, says the pamphleteer, had been much
talked of, ' he has always declined making any appli-

1 Stuart Papers. Browne, iv. p. 51.



gorixg's letter a myth 51

cations of that nature himself. It was his fixed
determination to beo;et no royal besrorars.' D'Aro-enson

O 1/ DO O

reports Charles's remark that he will never marry
till the Eestoration, and, no doubt, he was occasionally
in this mood, among others. 1 The pamphleteer vows
that the Prince ' loves and is loved,' but will not
marry ' till his affairs take a more favourable turn."
The lady is ' of consummate beauty, yet is that beauty
the least of her perfections.'

The pamphlet concludes with vague enigmatic
hopes and promises, and certainly leaves its readers
little wiser than they were before. In the opinion
of the Messrs. ' Sobieski Stuart ' (who called them-
selves his grandsons), Charles really did visit Sweden,
and his jewel, as Grand Master of the Grand Masonic
Lodge of Stockholm, is still preserved there. 2 The
castle where he resided in Lithuania, it is said, is
that of Eadzivik 1 The affectionate and beautiful
lady is the Princess Eadzivil, to whom the newspapers
were busy marrying Charles at this time. The
authors of ' Tales of the Century,' relying on some
vngue Polish traditions, think that a party was being-
made to raise the Prince to the Polish crown. In
fact, there is not a word of truth in ' Henry Goring's
letter.'

We now study the perplexities of Courts and di-
plomatists. Pickle was not yet at hand with accurate

1 Memoires, v. 417.

2 Talcs of the Century, ii. 48, 'from information of Sir Ralph
Hamilton.'

3 'Information by Baron cle Rondeau and Sir Ralph Hamilton.'

E I 1



52 PICKLE THE SPY

intelligence, and, even after lie began to be employed,
the English Government left their agents abroad to
send in baffled surmises. From Paris, on March 8,
Colonel Joseph Yorke (whom d'Argenson calls by
many ill names) wrote, ' I am told for certain that he
[the Prince] is now returned to Avignon.' 1 Mann,
in Florence, hears (March 7) that the Prince has sent
a Mr. Lockhart to James to ask for money, but
that was really done on December 31, 1748. 2 On
March 11, Yorke learned from Puysieux that the
Prince had been recognised by postboys as he drove
through Lyons towards Metz ; probably, Puysieux
thought, on ' an affair of gallantry.' Others, says
Yorke, ' have sent him to Poland or Sweden,' which,
even in 1746, had been getting ready troops to assist
Charles in Scotland. 3 On March 26, Yorke hints that
Charles may be in or near Paris, as he probably was.
Berlin was suggested as his destination by Horace
Mann (April 4). Again, he has been seen in disguise,
walking into a gate of Paris (April ll). 4 On April 14,
Walton, from Florence, writes that James has had
news of his son, is much excited, and is sending
Fitzmorris to join him. The Pope knows and is sure
to blab. 5 On May 3, Yorke mentions a rumour,
often revived, that the Prince is dead. On May 9,
the Jacobites in Paris show a letter from Oxford
inviting Charles to the opening of the Eadcliffe,

1 S. P. France. No. 442.

2 S. P. Tuscany. No. 58. Stuart Papers. Browne, iv. 52.

3 S. P. France. No. 442. 4 This may have been true.
5 S. P. Tuscany. No. 55.



II ANBURY WILLIAMS Oo

''where they assure him of better reception than the
University has had at Court lately.' r Mann (May 2)
mentions the Eadzivil marriage, arranged, in a self-
denying way, by the Princesse de Talmond. On
May 17, Yorke hears from Puysieux that the French
ambassador in Saxony avers that Charles is in
Poland, and that Sir Charles Williams has remon-
strated with Count Briihl. On May 1, 1749, Sir
Charles Hanbury Williams wrote from Leipzig to
the Duke of ^Newcastle. He suspects that Charles
is one of several persons who have just passed
through Leipzig on the way to Poland ; Count
Briihl is 'almost certain' of it.' 2 On May o (when
Charles was really in or near Venice), Hanbury
Williams sends a copy of his remonstrance with
Briihl.

' I asked Count Briihl whether, in the present
divided and factious state of the nobility of Poland,
His Polish Majesty would like to have a young ad-
venturer (who can fish in no waters that are not
troubled, and who, bv his mother, is allied to a familv
that once sat upon the Polish throne) to go into that
country where it would be natural for him to en-
deavour to encourage factions, nourish divisions, and
foment confederations to the utmost of his power,
and might not the evil-minded and indisposed Poles
be glad to have such a tool in their hands, which at



1 Dr. King made a Latin speech on this occasion, rich in Jacohitfi
innuendoes, licdcat was often repeated.
8 S. P. Poland. No. 75.



54 PICKLE THE SP\ r

some time or other they might make use of to answer
their own ends ? To this Count "Briihl answered in
such terms as I could wish, and I must do him the
justice to say that he showed the best disposition to
serve His Majesty in the affair in question ; but I am
yet of opinion that, whatever is done effectually in
this case, must be done by the Court of Petersburg,
and I would humbly advise that, as soon as it is
known for certain that the Pretender's son is in
Poland, His Majesty should order his minister at the
Court of Petersburg to take such steps as His
Majesty's great wisdom shall judge most likely to
make the Czarina act with a proper vigour upon this
occasion.

' Your Grace knows that the republic of Poland
is at present divided into tAvo great factions, the one
which is in the interest of Eussia, to which the
friends of the House of Austria attach themselves ;
the other is in the interest of France and Prussia.
As I thought it most likelv, if the Pretender's son
went into Poland, he would seek protection from
the French party, I have desired and requested
the French ambassador that he would write to the
French resident at Warsaw, and to others of his
friends in Poland, that he might be informed of the
truth of the Pretender's arrival, and the place that
he was at in Poland, as soon as possible, and that
when he was acquainted with it he would let me
know what came to his knowledge, all which he has
sincerely promised me to do, and I do not doubt but



CHARLES IN VENICE 55

lie will keep his word. ... It is publicly said that the
Pretender's son's journey to Poland is with a design
to marry a princess of the House of Kadzivil.

' As soon as I hear anything certain about the
Pretender's son being in Poland, I will most humbly
offer to your Grace the method that I think will be
necessary for His Majesty to pursue with respect to
the King and republic of Poland, in case His Majesty
should think fit not to suffer the Pretender's son to
remain in that country.

' C. Hanbury Williams.'

On May 12, Williams believes that Charles is not
in Poland. On May 18, he guesses (wrongly) that
the Prince is in Paris. On May 25, he fancies —
' plainly perceives ' — that the French ambassador at
Dresden believes in the Polish theory. On June 9,
Bruhl tells Williams (correctly) that Charles is in
Venice. On June 11, Hanbury Williams proposes
to have a harmless priest seized and robbed, and
to kidnap Prince Charles ! I give this example of
British diplomatic energy and chivalrous behaviour.

From Sir Charles Hanbury Williams.

' Dresden: June 11, N.S. 17-49.

' . . . Count Bruhl has communicated to me the
letters which he received by the last post from the
Saxon resident at Venice, who says that the Pre-
tender's son had been at Venice for some days ; that
he has received two expresses from his father at



56 PICKLE THE SPY

Eome since his being there ; but that nobody knew
how long lie intended to stay there. . . . Mons. Briihl
farther informs me that he hears from Poland that
the Prince of Eadzivil, who is Great General of
Lithuania, has a strong desire to marry his daughter
to the Pretender's son. The young lady is between
eleven and twelve years old, very plain, and can be
no great fortune, for she has two brothers ; but yet
Mons. Briihl is of opinion that there is some negotia-
tion on foot for this marriage, which is managed by
an Italian priest who is a titular bishop, whose
name is Lascarisk (sic), and who lives in and governs
the Prince Eadzivil's family. This priest is soon to
set out for Italy, under pretence of going to Eome
for the Jubilee year, but Mons. Briihl verily thinks
that he is charged with a secret commission for
negotiating the above-mentioned marriage. If His
Majesty thinks it worth while to have this priest
watched, I will answer for having early intelligence
of the time he intends beginning his journey, and
then it would be no difficult matter to have him
stopped, and his papers taken from him, as he goes
through the Austrian territories into Italy. The
more I think of it the more I am persuaded that the
Pretender's son will not go into Poland for many
reasons, especially for one, which is, that for a small
sum of money I will undertake to find a Pole who
will engage to seize upon his person in any part of
Poland, and carry him to any port in the north that
His Majesty shall appoint. I have had offers of this



THE KING OF POLAND 57

sort already made me, to which your Grace may
be sure I gave no answer, except thanking the
persons for the zeal they showed for the King, my
master, but I am convinced that the thing is very
practicable.

' I had this day the honour to dine with the King
of Poland, and, as I sat next to him at table, he told
me that he was very glad to hear that the Pretender's
son was at length found to be at Venice, for that he
would much rather have him there than in Poland ; to
which I answered that I was very glad, upon His
Polish Majesty's account, that the Pretender's son had
not thought fit to come into any of His Majesty's
territories, since I believed the visit would be far from
bein«f agreeable. To which the Kins* of Poland re-
plied that it would be a very disagreeable visit to him,
and after that expressed himself in the handsomest
manner imaginable with respect to His Majesty, and
the regard he had for his Sacred person and Eoyal
House ; and I am convinced if the Pretender's son had
gone into Poland, His Polish Majesty and his minister
would have done everything in their power to have
drove him out of that kingdom as soon as possible.

' C. Hanbuky Williams.

6 P.S. — Since my writing this letter, Count Briihl
tells me that the news of the Pretender's son's being
at Venice is confirmed by letters from his best corre-
spondent at Pome, but both accounts agree in the
Pretender's son's being at Venice incognito, and that



58 PICKLE THE SPY

he appears in no public place, so that very few people
know of his being there. . . . C. H. W.'

In 1751, Hanbury Williams renewed his proposal
about waylaying Lascaris.

Charles, as we shall see, was for a short time at
Venice in May 1749. Meanwhile the game of hide
and seek through Europe went on as merrily as ever.
Lord Hvndford, so well known to readers of Mr.
Carlyle's ' Frederick,' now opens in full cry from
Moscow, but really on a hopelessly wrong scent. As
illustrating Hyndford's opinion of Frederick, who
had invested him with the Order of the Thistle, we
quote this worthy diplomatist :

Lord Ilyndford to the Duke of Newcastle. 1

' Moscow : June 19, 1749.

' . . . I must acquaint your Grace of what I have
learnt, through a private canal, from the last relation
of Mr. Gross, the Eussian minister at Berlin, although
I dare say it is no news to your Grace. Mr. Gross
writes that, some days before the date of his letter,
the Pretender's eldest son arrived at Potsdam, and
had been very well received by the King of Prussia,
General Keith, and his brother, the late Earl Marshal ;
and all the other English, Scotch, and Irish Jacobites
in the Prussian service were to wait upon him. This
does not at all surprise me ; but Mons. Valony, the
French minister, went likewise to make his compli-
ments at a country house, hired on purpose for this

1 S. P. Russia. No. 59.



'THE YOUNG VAGABOND' 59

young vagabond. This is all that I know as yet
of this affair in general, for the Chancellor has not
thought proper as yet to inform me of the particulars.
However, this public, incontestable proof of the little
friendship and regard the King of Prussia has for His
Majesty and His Eoyal Family, and for the whole
British nation, will, I hope, open the eyes of the
people who are blind to that Prince's monstrous
faults, if any such are still left amongst us, and I
doubt not but it will save His Majesty the trouble
of sending Sir C. Hanbury Williams or any other
minister to that perfidious Court.

' Hyxdford.'

This was all a mare's nest ; but Hyndford is for
kidnapping the Prince. He writes :

' Moscow : June 26, 1749.

'My Lord, — Since the 19th inst., which was the
date of my last letter to your Grace, I have been with
the Chancellor, who made his excuses that he had
not sooner communicated to me the intelligence which
Mr. Gross, the Eussian minister at Berlin, had sent
him concerning the Pretender's eldest son. The
Chancellor confirmed all that I wrote to your Grace
on the 19th upon that subject, and he told me that
he had received a second letter from Mr. Gross,
wherein that minister says that the Young Pretender
had left the country house where he was, in the
neighbourhood of Berlin, and had entirely disappeared,
without its being hitherto possible for him, Mr.



60 PICKLE THE SPY

Gross, or Count Clioteck, the Austrian minister, to
find out the route he has taken, although it is gener-
ally believed that he is gone into Poland ; and that
now the King of Prussia and his ministers deny that
ever the Pretender's son was there, and take it
mightily amiss of anybody that pretends to affirm it.
I am sorry that the Eussian troops are not now in
Poland, for otherwise I believe it would have been
an easy matter to prevail upon this Court to catch
this young knight errant and to send him to Siberia,
where he would not have been any more heard of ;
and if the Court of Dresden will enter heartily into
such a scheme, it will not be impossible yet to appre-
hend him, and as it is very probable that the King of
Prussia has sent him into Poland to make a party and
breed confusion, it appears to be King Augustus's
interest to secure him.

' Hyxdfoed.'

Many months later, on Feb. 2, 1749-1750, Lord
Hyndford, writing from Hanover, retracted. The
rumour of Charles's presence at Berlin, he found,
was started by Count de Clioteck, the Austrian
ambassador. In fact, Clioteck used to meet a fair
lady secretly in a garden near Berlin, and near the
house of Pield-Marshal Keith and his brother, Lord
Marischal. Hard by was an inn, where a stranger
lodged, a rich and handsome youth, whom Clioteck,
meeting, took for Prince Charles. He was really a
young Polish gentleman, into whose reasons for
retirement we need not examine.



FREDERICK'S MIRTH Gl

Frederick, in his mischievous way, wrote about
all this from Potsdam, on June 24, 1749 :

' We have played a trick on Choteck ; he spends
much on spies, and, to prove that he is well served,
he has taken it into his head that young Edouard,
really at Venice, is at Berlin. He has been very
busy over this, and no doubt has informed his Court.'

On July 7, 1749, Frederick, in a letter to his
minister at Moscow, said that only dense ignorance
could credit the Berlin legend. 1

These documents certainly demonstrate that the
Prince fluttered the Courts, and that the Jacobite
belief in English schemes to kidnap or murder him
was not a mere mythical delusion. Only an oppor-
tunity was wanted. He had spared the Duke of
Cumberland's life, even after the horrors of Culloden.
But Hanbury Williams knows a Pole who will waylay
him ; Hyndford wants to carry him off to Siberia.
It was not once only, on the other hand, but twice
at least, that Charles protected the Butcher, Cumber-
land. In 1746 he saved his enemy from Loch^arry's
open attempt. In 1747 (May 4), a certain Father
Myles Macdonnell wrote from St. Germain to James
in Pome. He dwells on the jealousies anions the
Jacobites, and particularly denounces Kelly, then a
trusted intimate of Charles. Kelly, he says, is a
drunkard, and worse ! It was probably he who
raised ' a scruple ' against a scheme relating to
' Cumberland's hateful person.' ' Honest warrantable

1 Pol. Con:, vi. 572, vii. 23.



62 PICKLE THE SPY

people from London' came to Paris and offered
'without either fee or reward' to do the business.
What was the ' business,' what measures were to be
taken against ' Cumberland's hateful person ' ? Father
Myles Macdonnell, writing to James, a Catholic
priest to a Catholic King, does not speak of assassina-
tion. He talks of ' the scruple raised against securing
Cumberland's person.' ' I suspect Parson Kelly of
making a scruple of an action the most meritorious
that could possibly be committed,' writes Father
Myles. 1 The talk of kidnapping, in such cases as
those of Cumberland and Prince Charles — men of
spirit and armed — is a mere blind. Murder is
meant ! Father Myles's letter proves that (unknown
to James in Eome) there was a London conspiracy to
kill the Butcher, but Prince Charles again rejected
the proposal. He was less ungenerous than Hynd-
ford and Hanbury Williams. The amusing thing is
that the English Government knew, quite as well as
Father Macdonnell or James, all about the conspiracy
to slay the Duke of Cumberland. Here is the in-
formation, which reached Mann through Eome. 2

From Mr. Thomas Chamberlayne to Sir II. Mann.

' Capranica : November 18, 1747.

' . . . The family at Eome . . . was informed,
by one who arrived there last October from London,
that there are twelve persons, whose names I could

1 Browne. Stuart Papers, iii. 502.

2 S. P. Tuscany. No. 54.



BLOODY BUTCHER CLUB 63

not learn, but none of distinction, that are formed in
a club or society, and meet at the Nag's Head in
East Street, Holborn. They have bound themselves
under most solemn oaths that this winter they will
post themselves in different parts of the City of
London mostly frequented by His Eoyal Highness,
the Duke of Cumberland, in his night visits [to
whom?], and are resolved to lay violent hands on his
royal person. The parole among the different parties
in their respective posts is The Bloody Butcher.
They are all resolute fellows, who first declared at
their entering in this conspiracy to despise death or
torture. This motive is worthy of your care, so I
am certain you'll make proper use of it. . . .

' Thomas Chamberlay.xe.'

If Charles afterwards attempted to repay in kind
the attentions of his royal cousins, or of their minis-
ters, this can hardly be reckoned inhuman. If he
was flattering the Courts, they — Prussia, Russia,
France, Poland — were leading him the life of a
tracked beast. They were determined to drive him
into the Papal domains ; even in Venice lie was
harried by spies. 1 On May 30, to retrace our steps,
Mann, from Florence, reports that Charles has arrived
at the Papal Nuncio's in Venice, attended by one
servant in the livery of the Duke of Modena. Walton
adds that he has not a penny (June G). Walton
(July 11) writes from Florence that the Prince is
reported from Venice to have paid assiduous court

1 Hanbury Williams. From Dresden, July 2, 1749.



64 PICKLE THE SPY

to the second daughter of the Duke of Modena, a
needy potentate, but that he suddenly disappeared. 1
On Sept. 5, 1749, Walton says he is in France. On
Sept, 2G, Walton writes that he is offering his sword
to the Czarina, who declines. He is at Liibeck, or
(Oct. 3) at Avignon. On Oct, 20, Mann writes that,
from Liibeck, Charles has asked the Imperial ambas-
sador at Paris to implore the Kaiser to give him an
asylum in his States. On Oct. 31, Mann only knows
that the Pope and James ' reciprocally ask each
other news about' the Prince. On Jan. 23, 1750,
poor Mann is ' quite at a loss.' James receives
letters from the Prince, but never with date of place,
otherwise Mann would have been better informed.
Walton hears that James believes Charles to be
imprisoned in a French fortress. From Paris,
Jan. 17, 1750, Albemarle wrote that he heard the
Prince was in Berlin. The Prince later told Pickle
that he had been in Berlin more than once, and, as
we shall see, Frederick amused him with hopes of
assistance. Kelly has left Charles's followers in
distress at Avignon. Kelly, in fact, received his
conge ; he was distrusted by the Earl Marischal, and
Carte, the historian. On Jan. 28, Albemarle hears
that Charles has been in Paris ' under the habit of


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