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a Capuchine Fn^ar,' and this was a disguise of his,
according to Pickle.

Meanwhile the French Government kept pro-

1 James had previously wished Charles to marry a Princess of
Modena.



A STRIKE 65

testing their total ignorance. On April 3, 1750,
Walton announces that James has had a long letter
from Charles containing his plans and those of his
adherents, for which he demands the Eoyal approval.
James has sent a long letter to Charles by the
courier of the Due de Nivernais, the French
ambassador in Eome. By the middle of June, James
is reported by Walton to be full of hope, and to
have heard excellent news. But these expectations
were partly founded on a real scheme of Charles,
partly on a strike of colliers at Newcastle. A mob
orator there proclaimed the Prince, and the Jacobites
in Eome thought that His Eoval Highness was head-
ino- the strike ! l In July, the same illusions were
entertained. On August 12, Albemarle, from Paris,
reports the Prince to be dangerously ill, probably
not far from the French capital. He was really
preparing to embark for England. Albemarle, by
way of trap, circulated in the English press a forged
news-letter from Nancy in Lorraine, dated August 24,
1750. It announced Charles's death of pneumonia,
in hopes of drawing forth a Jacobite denial. This
stratagem failed. On August 4, James, though
piqued by being kept in the dark, sent Charles a
fresh commission of regency. 2 Of the Prince's Eng-
lish expedition of September 1750, the Government
of George II. knew nothing:. Pickle was in Eome at
the moment, not with Charles ; what Pickle knew the

1 Mann. Tune 19, 1750.

2 Stuart Papers. Browne, ii. 73.



66 PICKLE THE SPY

English ministers knew, but there is a difficulty in
dating his letters before 1752, and I am not aware
that any despatches of his from Rome are extant.

We have now brought the history to a point
(September 1750) where the Prince, for a moment,
emerges from fairyland, and where we are not left to
the perplexing conjectures of diplomatists in Paris,
Dresden, Florence, Hanover, and St. Petersburg. In
September 1750, Charles certainly visited London.
There is a point of light. We now give an account
•of his actual movements in 1749-1750.



67



CHAPTEE IV

THE PRINCE IN FAIRYLAND. II. — WHAT ACTUALLY

OCCURRED

Charles mystifies Europe — Montesquieu knows his secret — Sources of
information — The Stuart manuscripts — Charles's letters from Avi-
gnon — A proposal of marriage — Kennedy and the hidden treasure
— Where to look for Charles — Clierchez lafemme ! — Hidden in Lor-
raine — Plans for entering Paris — Letter to Mrs. Drummond— To
the Earl Marischal — Starts for Venice — At Strasbourg — Unhappy
Harrington — Letter to James —Leaves Venice — ' A bird without a
nest ' — Goes to Paris — The Prince's secret revealed — The convent
of St. Joseph — Curious letter as Cartouche — Madame de Routh
— Cartouche again— Goring sent to England — A cypher — Portrait of
Madame de Talmond — Portrait of Madame d'Aiguillon —Intellectual
society — Mademoiselle Luci — ' Dener Bash ' — The secret hoard —
Results of Goring's English mission — Timidity of English Jacobites
— Supply of money — Charles a bibliophile — 'My big muff' — A
patron of art — Quarrels with Madame de Talmond — Arms for a
rising — Newton on Cluny — Kindness to Monsieur Le Coq — Madame
de Talmond weary of Charles — Letters to her — Charles reads Field-
ing's novels — Determines to go to England — Large order of arms
— Reproached by James — Intagli of James — En route for London
— September 1750.

The reader has had an opportunit} r of observing the
success of Charles in mystifying Europe. Diploma-
tists, ambassadors, and wits would have been sur-
prised, indeed, had they known that one of the most
famous men of the age possessed the secret for which
they were seeking. The author of 'L'Esprit des Lois '
could have enlightened them, for Charles's mystery

v 2



68 PICKLE THE SPY

was no mystery to Montesquieu, who was friendly
with Scottish and English Jacobites. The French
Ministers, truly or falsely, always professed entire
ignorance. They promised to arrest the Prince
wherever he might be found on French soil, and
transport him to sea by Civita Vecchia. 1 It will be
shown later that, at least in the autumn of 1749, this
ignorance was probably feigned.

What is really known of the movements of the
Prince in 1749 ? Curiously enough, Mr. Ewald does
not seem to have consulted the ' Stuart Papers ' at
Windsor, while the extracts in Browne's ' History of
the Highland Clans' are meagre. To these papers
then we turn for information. The most useful por-
tions are not Charles's letters to James. These are
brief and scanty. Thus he writes from Avignon
(January 15, 1749), ' We are enjoying here the finest
weather ever was seen.' He always remarks that his
health ' is perfect.' He orders patterns for his
servants' liveries and a button, blue and yellow, still
remains in a letter from Edgar ! The button outlasts
the dynasty. Our intelligence must be extracted
from ill-spelled, closely scrawled, and much erased
sheets of brown paper, on which Charles has scribbled
drafts for letters to his household, to Waters, his
banker in Paris, to adherents in Paris or London, and
to ladies. The notes are almost, and in places are

1 Correspondence of the Duke of Bedford, ii. 69. Bedford to
Albemarle. Also op. cit. ii. 15. March 13, 1749. Bedford to Colonel
Yorke.



KENNEDY 69

quite, illegible. The Prince practised a disguised
hand, and used pseudonyms instead of names. Many
letters have been written in sympathetic ink, and then
exposed to fire or the action of acids. However,
something can be made out, but not why he con-
cealed his movements even from his banker, even from
his household, Oxburgh, Kelly, Harrington, and
Graeme. It is certain that he started, with a marriao-e
in his eye, from Avignon on February 28, 1749, ac-
companied by Henry Goring, of the Austrian service.
There had already been a correspondence, vaguely
hinted at by James's secretary, Edgar, between
Charles and the Duke and a Princess of Hesse-Darm-
stadt. On February 24, 1749, Charles drafted, at
Avignon, a proposal for the hand of the Duke's
daughter. He also drafted (undated) a request to
the King of Poland for leave to bring his wife, the
Princess of Hesse-Darmstadt, into Polish territory. 1
We may imagine His Polish Majesty's answer. Of
course, the marriage did not take place.

Charles had other secrets. On February 3, 1749,
he wrote to Waters about the care to be taken with
certain letters. These were a correspondence with
' Thomas Newton ' (Major Kennedy), at Mr. Alexander
Macarty's, in Gray's Inn, London. Newton was in
relations with Cluny Macpherson, through a friend in
Northumberland. Cluny, skulking on his Highland
estates, was transmitting or was desired to transmit a
part of the treasure of 40,000 louis d'or, buried soon

1 Browne, iv. 57, 63.



70 PICKLE THE SPY

after Culloden at the head of Loch Arkaisf. 1 Of this
fatal treasure we shall hear much. A percentage of
the coin was found to be false money, a very charac-
teristic circumstance. Moreover, Cluny seems to have
held out hopes, always deferred, of a rising in the High-
lands. Charles had to be ready in secrecy, to put him-
self at the head of this movement. There was also to
be an English movement, which was frowned on by
official Jacobitism. On February 3, 1749, Charles
writes from Avignon to ' Thomas Newton ' (Kennedy)
about the money sent south by Cluny. He repeated
his remarks on March 6, giving no place of residence.
But probably he was approaching Paris, dangerous as
such a visit was, for in a note of March 6 to Waters,
he says that he will ' soon call for letters.' 2 His noms
de guerre at this time were ' Williams ' and ' Benn ' ;
later he chose ' John Douglas.' He was also Smith,
Mildmay, Burton, and so forth.

There should have been no difficulty in discovering
Charles. Modern police, in search of a person who
is ' wanted,' spy on his mistress. Now the Princesse
de Talmond, when out of favour at Versailles, went
to certain lands in Lorraine, near her exiled king,
Stanislas. In Lorraine, therefore, at Luneville, the
Court of the ex-king of Poland, or at Commerc}^, Bar-
le-Duc, or wherever the Princesse de Talmond might
be, Charles was sure to be heard of by an intelligent

1 In the Gask Papers it is said that 5,0007. was sent by Cluny to
Major Kennedy. Kennedy himself buried the money.

2 All these facts are taken from the Stuart Papers, in manuscript
at Windsor Castle.



STEANGE PROJECT 71

spy, if permitted to enter the country. Consequently,
we are not surprised to find Charles drafting on
April 3, at Luneville (where he resided at the house of
one Mittie, physician of the ex-king of Poland), a
' Project for My arrival in Paris. Mr. Benn [himself]
must go straight to Dijon, and his companion, Mr.
Smith [Goring], to Paris. Mr. Smith will need a
chaise, which he must buy at Luneville. Next he
will take up the servant of C. P. [Prince Charles] at
Ligny, but on leaving that place Mr. Smith must
ride on horseback, and the chaise can go there as if
for his return to Paris ; the person in it seeming to
profit by this opportunity. Mr. Benn [the Prince]
must remain for some da} 7 s, as if he wanted to buy a
trunk, and will give his own as if in friendship to Mr.
Smith ; all this seeming mere chance work. Next,
Mr. Smith will go his way and his friend will go his,
after waiting a few days, and on arriving at Dijon

must write to nobody, except the letter to W

[Waters]. The Chevalier Graeme, whom he must see
(and to whom he may mention having been at Dijon
on the Prince's business, without naming his com-
panion, but as if alone), knows nothing, and Graeme
must be left in the dark as if he (Mr. Smith) [Goring]
were in the same case, and were waiting new orders
in total ignorance, not having seen me for a longtime.' *

1 ' Le 3. A. 1749. Projet pour mon arrive a Paris, et Le Conduit
de Mr. Benn. Mr. Benn doit s'en aller droit a Dijon et son Compa-
gnion Mr. Smith a Paris ; II faudra pour Mr. Smith une Chese [chaise]
qu'il acheterra a Luneville, ensuite il prendra Le Domestique du C. P.
a Ligny, inais en partent d'icy il faudra que le Sieur Smith mont a



72 PICKLE THE SPY

There follow a few private addresses in Paris ;
and the name, to be remarked, of 'Mademoiselle
Ferrand.'

All this is very puzzling ; we only make out
that, by some confusion of the personalities of ' Benn '
(the Prince) and ' Mr. Smith ' (Goring), Charles hoped
to enter Paris undetected. Yet he ivas seen ' entering
a gate of Paris in disguise.' Doubtless he had lady
allies, but a certain Mademoiselle Ferrand, to whom
he wrote, he seems not to have known personally.
We shall find that she was later of use to him, and
indeed his most valuable friend and ally.

Next, we find this letter of April 10 to Madame
Henrietta Drummond, doubtless of the family of
Macgregor, called Drummond, of Balhaldie. Charles
appears to have had enough of Paris, and is going to
Venice. He is anxious to meet the Earl Marischal.

' April 10, 1749.

' I have been very impatient to be able to give
you nuse of me as I am fully persuaded of yr Friend-

Chevall et La Chese pourra y alter come pour son Eetour a Paris. La
personne dedans parraitrait profiter de cette occasion. Le Sieur Benn
doit rester quelqe jours come desiran acheter tine Cofre et remettra La
Sienne come par arnitie au Sr. Smith, tout cecy paroissant d'hazard.
Ensuite Le Sr. Smith continuera au Plustot son Chernin, et son Ami
ira Le Sien en attendant tin peu de jours et a son arrive a Dij. il doit
Ecrive a Personne qu'il soite excepte La Lettre au — W. Le Ch. Gre.
qtt'il doit voire (et a qui il petit dire d'avoire ete a Di — Charge par Le
P., sans meme Nomer son Camerademais come tout seule) ne sachant
rien davantage, et le laissant dans l'ohscurite, comme s'il Etoit dansle
meme Cas, attendant des Nouvelles Ordres, sans rien outre savoire
ou pottvoire penetre Etant deja Longtems sans me voire.' Holograph
of P. Charles.



CHARLES TO THE EARL MARISCHAL <3

ship, and concern for everything that regards me ; I
send you here enclosed a Letter for Ld Marishal, be
pleased to enclose it, and forward it without loss of
time ; the Bearer (he is neither known by you or me),
is charged to receive at any time what Letters you
want to send me, and you may be shure of their
arriving safe. Iff Lord Marishal agrees with my
Desier when you give his Packet to yr Bearer, you
must put over it en Dilligenee, iff otherwise, direct by
my Name as I sign it here. I flatter myself of the
Continuation of your Friendship, as I hope you will
never doubt of mine which shall be constant. I
remain yr moste obedient humble Servant

' John Douglas.

' P.S. — Tell ye Bearer when to comback for the
answer of ye enclosed or any other Letters you want
to send me.

' P.S. to Lord Marischal. — Whatever party you
take, be pleased to keep my writing secret, and
address to me at Venise to the Sig. Ignazio Testori
to Mr. de Villelongue under cover to a Banquier of
that town, and it will come safe to me.

' To Md. Henrietta Drummoncl.'

Charles, on April 20, wrote another letter to the
Lord Marischal, imploring for an interview, at some
place to be fixed. But the old Lord was not likely
to go from Berlin to Venice, whither Charles was
hastening.

It is perfectly plain that, leaving Avignon on



74 PICKLE THE SPY

February 28, Charles was making for Paris on
March 6 by a circuitous route through Lorraine
(where he doubtless met Madame de Talmond), and
a double back on Burgundy. What he did or desired
in Paris we do not know. He is said to have visited
Lally Tollendal, and he must have seen Waters, his
banker. By April 10 he is starting for Venice,
where he had, as a boy, been royally received. But,
in 1744, the Eepublic of Venice had resumed rela-
tions with England, interrupted by Charles's too kind
reception in 1737. The whole romance, therefore,
of Henry Goring's letter, and all the voyages to
Stockholm, Berlin, Lithuania, and so forth, are visions.
Charles probably saw some friends in Paris, was
tolerated in Lorraine (where his father was protected
before 1715), and he vainly looked for a home in
any secular State of Europe. This was all, or nearly
all, that occurred between March and May 1749.
Europe was fluttered, secret service money was
poured out like water, diplomatists caballed and
scribbled despatches, all for very little. The best
place to have hunted for Charles was really at
Luneville, near the gay Court of his kinsman, the
Duke Stanislas Leczinski, the father of the Queen
of France. There Charles's sometime admirer,
Voltaire, was a welcome guest ; thither too (as we
saw) went his elderly cousin, people said his mis-
tress, the Princesse de Talmond. But the English
diplomatists appear to have neglected Luneville.
D'Argenson was better informed.



WANDERINGS To

On April 26 Charles was at Strasbourg. Here,
D'Argenson says, he was seen, and warned to go, by
an ecuyer of the late Cardinal Eohan. Hence he
wrote aofain to the Earl Marischal at Berlin. From
this note it is plain that he had sent Goring (' Mr.
Smith ') to the Earl ; Goring, indeed, had carried his
letters of April 10-20. He again proposes a meeting
with the Earl Marischal at Venice. He will ' answer
for the expenses,' and apologises for ' such a long
and fatiguing journey.' He wrote to Waters, ' You
may let Mr. Newton know that whenever he has
thorory finished his Business, Mr. Williams [the
Prince] will make him very wellcum in all his
Cuntrihouses.'

The ' business ' of ' Mr. Newton ' was to collect
remittances from Cluny.

On April 30, the Prince, as 'Mr. Williams,'
expresses ' his surprise and impatience for the delay
of the horses [money] and other goods promised
bv Mr. Newton.'

On May 3, Charles wrote, without address, to
Goring, ' I go strete to Venice, and would willingly
avoid your Garrison Towns, as much as possible :
id est, of France. I believe to compass that by goin
by Kuflfach to Pfirt: there to wate for me. The
Chese [chaise] you may either leve it in consine to
your post-master of Belfort, or, what is still better,
to give it to the bearer.'

Goring and Harrington were to meet the bearer
at Belfort, but Harrington seems to have been



76 PICKLE THE SPY

mystified, and to have failed in effecting a junction.
The poor gentleman, we learn, from letters of Stafford
and Sheridan, Charles's retainers at Avignon, could
scarcely raise money to leave that town. Sir James
Harrington was next to meet Charles at Venice. He
was to carrv a letter for Charles to a Venetian
banker. ' Nota bene, that same banquier, though he
will deliver to me your letter, knows nothing about
me, nor who I am. . . . Chenge your name, and, in
fine, keep as private as possible, till I tell you what
is to be done.' Harrington failed, and lay for
months in pawn at Venice, pouring out his griefs
in letters to Goring. He was a lachrymose con-
spirator.

These weary affairs are complicated by mysterious
letters to ladies : for example to Mademoiselle
Lalasse, ' Je vous prie, Mademoiselle, de rendre justice
a mon inviolable attachement . . .' (May 3). He
gives her examples of his natural and of his disguised
handwriting ; probably she helped him in forwarding
his correspondence. Charles's chief anxiety was to
secure the Lord Marischal. Bulkeley and the official
English Jacobites kept insisting that he should have
a man with him who was trusted by the party. Kelly
was distrusted, though Bulkeley defends him, and
was cashiered in autumn. Charles's friends also kept
urging that he must ' appear in public,' but where ?
Bulkeley suggested Bologna. The Earl Marischal,
later (July 5), was for Fribourg. No place was really
both convenient and possible. On May 17 Charles



CHASED FROM VENICE 77

wrote from Venice to the Earl Marischal, ' I am just
arrived, but will not be able for some days, to know
what reception to meet with.' He fears he ' may be
chased from hence,' and his fears were justified. On
the same day (May 17) he wrote to Edgar in Borne,
' Venice, next to France, is the best for my interest,
and the only one in Italy.'

Venice ejected the Prince. On May 26 he wrote
to his father :

' Sir, — I received last night from ye Nuntio a de-
finitive answer about my project, which is quite con-
trary to my expectation ; as I have nothing further
to do here, and would not run the least risk of beino-
found out, I depart this very evening, having left a
direction to the said Nuntio how to forward my
letters for me.' On the same day he wrote to Choiseul
de Stainville, the minister at Versailles of the Empress,
' Could an anonymous exiled Prince be received by
the Kaiser and the Queen of Hungary ? He would
remain incognito.'

On June 3 Charles wrote to James, without
address or news, and to Bulkeley. ' Now my friend
must skulk to the perfect dishonour and glory of his
worthy relations, until he finds a reception fitting
at home or abroad.' On the back of the draft he
writes :

' What can a bird do that has not found a right
nest ? He must z.l from bough to bough — ainsi use
les Irondel.

Probably Charles, after a visit, perhaps, to Ferrara,



78 PICKLE THE SPY

returned to Paris and his Princess. We find a draft
thus conceived and spelled :

' Arrengement.

' Goring to come here immediately, he to know
nothing but that I am just arrived. I am not to go
to Paris, but at the end of the month, as sooner no
answer can be had, moreover perhaps obliged to
wait another, which would oblige me to remain to long
in P.' He also (June 3) wrote to Montesquieu, from
whom (I think) there is an unsigned friendly letter.
He sent compliments to the Duchesse d'Aiguillon, a
lady much attached to Montesquieu. An unsigned
English letter (June 5) advised him to appear
publicly. People are coming to inquire into reports
about his character, ' after which it is possible some
proposals may be made to you.' The writer will say
more when ' in a safer place.'

Newton (Kennedy), meanwhile, had been impris-
oned and examined in London, but had been released,
and was at Paris. He bought for the Prince ' a fine
case of double barrill pistols, made by Barber,' and
much admired ' on this side.' Charles expresses
gratitude for the gift. Newton had been examined by
the Duke of Newcastle about the 40,000 louis d'or
buried at Loch Arkaig in 1746, but had given no infor-
mation. On June 26 Charles again asks Bulkeley,
' What can a bird do that has found no right nest ? '

On June 30 the Prince was probably in Paris,
whither we have seen that he meant to ero. He



MADEMOISELLE FERRAKD 79

had ' found a right nest,' and a very curious nest he
had found. The secret of the Prince's retreat became
known, many years later, to Grimm, the Paris corre-
spondent of Catherine the Great. Charles's biographers
have overlooked or distrusted Grimm's gossip, but
it is confirmed by Charles's accidentally writing two
real names, in place of pseudonyms, in his corre-
spondence. The history of his ' nest ' was this.
After her reign as favourite of Louis XIV., Madame
de Montespan founded a convent of St. Joseph, in the
Eue St. Dominique, in the Faubourg St. Germain.
Attached to the convent were rooms in which ladies
of rank might make a retreat, or practically occupy
chambers. 1

About this convent and its inmates, Grimm writes
as follows :

' The unfortunate Prince Charles, after leaving
the Bastille [really Vincennes] lay hidden for three
vears in Paris, in the rooms of Madame de Vasse,
who then resided with her friend, the celebrated
Mademoiselle Ferrand, at the convent of St. Joseph.
To Mademoiselle de Ferrand the Abbe Condillac
owed the ingenious idea of the statue, which he has

1 Under the late Empire (1863) the convent was the hotel of the
Minister of War. Hither, about 1748, came Madame du Deffand,
later the superannuated adorer of the hard-hearted Horace Walpole,
and here was her famous salon moire jaune, aux nceuds couleur de
feu. Here she entertained the President Henault, Bulkeley, Montes-
quieu (whose own house was in the same street), Lord Bath, and all
the pMlosophes, giving regular suppers on Mondays. In the same
conventual chambers resided, in 1749, Madame de Talmond, Madame
de Vasse, and her friend Mademoiselle Ferrand, whose address Charles
wrote, as we saw, in his note-book (March 1749).



SO PICKLE THE SPY

developed so well in his treatise on " The Sensations."
The Princesse de Talmond, with whom Prince Charles
was always much in love, inhabited the same house.
All day he was shut up in a little garderobe of
Madame de Vasse's, whence, by a secret staircase,
he made his way at night to the chambers of the
Princesse. In the evening he lurked behind an
alcove in the rooms of Mademoiselle Ferrand. Thus,
unseen and unknown, he enjoyed every day the con-
versation of the most distinguished society, and
heard much good and much evil spoken of himself.

' The existence of the Prince in this retreat, and
the profound mystery which so long hid him from
the knowledge of the world, by a secret which three
women shared, and in a house where the flower of
the city and the Court used to meet, seems almost
miraculous. M. de Choiseul, who heard the story
several years after the departure of the Prince, could
not believe it. When Minister of Foreign Affairs he
wrote to Madame de Vasse and asked her for the
particulars of the adventure. She told him all, and
did not conceal the fact that she had been obliged
to get rid of the Prince, because of the too lively
scenes between him and Madame de Talmond. They
began in tender effusions, and often ended in a
quarrel, or even in blows. This fact we learn from
an intimate friend of Madame de Vasse.' 1

There is exaggeration here. The Prince was not
living a life ' fugitive and cloistered ' for three whole
unbroken years. But the convent of St. Joseph was

1 Grimm, ii. p. 183.



THE SECRET OUT 81

one of his hiding-places from 1749 to 1752. Of
Madame de Vasse I have been unable to learn much :
a lady of that name was presented at Court in
1745, and the Due de Luynes describes her as ' conve-
niently handsome.' She is always alluded to as ' La
Grandemain ' in Charles's correspondence, but once
he lets her real name slip out in a memorandum.
Mademoiselle Ferrand's father is apparently described
by d'Hozier as ' Ferrand, Ecuyer, Sieur des Marres et


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