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Prince Charles Edward Stuart, the young chevalier online

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PRINCE
CHARLES EDWARD STUART



I



BY THE SAME AUTHOR.



PICKLE THE SPY; or, the Incognito of Prince
Charles. 8vo. [Out of print.

THE COMPANIONS OF PICKLE : being a Sequel
to 'Pickle the Spy.' 8vo. 16.?.

THE MYSTERY OF MARY STUART. 8vo.

i8j. net.

JAMES THE SIXTH AND THE GOWRIE

MYSTERY. 8vo. 12s. 6d. net.



LONGMANS, GREEN, & CO., 39 Paternoster Row, London,
New York and Bombay.




Prince Charles Edward



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Prince
Charles Edward Stuart



THE YOUNG CHEVALIER



BY

ANDREW LANG

AUTHOR OF ' THE MYSTERY OF MARY STUART ' ETC.



NEW EDITION



LONGMANS, GREEN, AND CO.

39 PATERNOSTER ROW, LONDON

NEW YORK AND BOMBAY

1903

All riylits reserved



First published by Messrs. Goupil & Co. in August
1900, with numerous Illustrations.

New Edition March 1903.



hs LI



rr* n LIBRARY "***»

SANTA B :A



TO

ELSPETH ANGELA CAMPBELL



Tha bradan tarra-gheal 's a choire gharblaich,
Tha tigh 'n o'n fharige bu ghailbeach tonn,
Le luinneis mheamnach a' ceapadh mheanbhchuileag,
Gu neo-chearbach le cham-<jhob crom.



PREFACE



The following Life of Prince Charles is longer than
other biographies prepared for the same series. The
Author's excuse must be that in this book, for the
first time, by the gracious permission of her late
Majesty, Queen Victoria, it has been possible to use
the whole Correspondence (1720- 1786) and other
MSS. of the exiled House of Stuart, now at Windsor
Castle. Some of the Cumberland MSS., too, were
consulted.

The State Papers in the Record Office have also
been used.

I have to thank the Marquis d'Eguilles for pro-
curing a transcript of the ' Memoires ' of his ancestor,
who represented the French Government in the
Prince's camp (1745 -1746). M. d'figuilles also drew
my attention to a tract on the mission of his ancestor,
by M. Lefevre-Portalis, a most valuable essay based



viii PRINCE CHARLES EDWARD

on French State Papers. Some transcripts from
these Papers were made for me in Paris.

These are the chief sources in manuscript, though
various private collections of contemporary letters
have been perused. Other documents I have read,
for example, in a collection of printed family papers
by the Duke of Atholl, which his Grace kindly per-
mitted me to study for my book ' The Companions
of Pickle.' The l Memorials of Murray of Broughton '
(edited by Mr. Fitzroy Bell for the Scottish History
Society), and ' The Lyon in Mourning,' printed for
the same Society, have been most serviceable. To
Mr. Blaikic's admirable ' Itinerary of Prince Charles,'
published by the same Society, I am especially
indebted. Other useful papers are given in the last
edition of the ' Histoire de Charles-Edouard ' (1845—
1846), by M. Amedee Pichot

To Mr. D. Stewart 1 owe permission to read a
curious Manuscript Diary of 1745- 1746, by a Pro-
fessor in the University of Edinburgh. The learned
Professor, however, rather heard of, than looked on,
events of importance.

In contemporary printed books, I have read,
I think, most that has been published ; the names
oi the works are cited in the course of the narrative.



PREFACE ix

Considerable study of the pamphlets of the period
was rewarded by little of value. These tracts are
usually ignorant, or mendacious, or satirical. The
1 Scots Magazine,' which summarised the newspapers,
and was conducted with laudable impartiality, has
been of service.

After the illustrated edition of this book had been
printed, I became aware, through the kindness of
Mr. F. H. B. Daniell, that certain bundles of undated
Stuart Papers had escaped my notice at Windsor
Castle. Some of them deal with the Prince's ob-
scure years, between 1749 and 1752. These letters do
not add much to what is here stated in Chapter V..
and with more detail in ' Pickle the Spy.' One
note signed ' T.' (Madame de Talmond) and un-
dated, introduces Mademoiselle Luci, and accounts for
that cypher-name. The writer speaks of a Madame
de Morslains, or Monstains, who seems to have been
one of Charles's Parisian friends. She is now married
again, and is Madame de Luci. In writing to her the
Prince may address her ' chez une femme qui fait
mes commissions . . . cette femme se nome M dUe
La Marre.' Cctte femme is clearly Mademoiselle
Ferrand des Marres, the friend of Madame de Vass6,
and to her, as a cypher-name, is transferred that of



x PRINCE CHARLES EDWARD

1 Luci.' Her address, as given by T., is chez M.
Lecuyer, Tapissier, Grande Rue Garonne, Faubourg
Saint- Germain. To this address Charles wrote to
Mademoiselle Luci, on October 20, 1750 ('Pickle,'

P. 113).

He had noted the address of Mademoiselle

Ferrand as early as March 1749 : the confusion

between Ferrand, La Marre, and Des Marres is

puzzling, but these names all appear to refer to the

lady who is generally styled ' Mademoiselle Luci.'

I think that the undated note is of March 1749.

Goring calls her ' Mademoiselle Lucy.' The

following letter of Goring's to Charles is in the

undated parcel, and may be of 1750 :

Goring to Charles.
[undated.]

S r . . . . I find by ye Ladies here and what they hear
from L. S-dw-h (Sandwich) that Monsr de Ville has a
great mind to see you and by all appearance is in some
impatience for it. . . .

I was told yesterday by Mad lle Lucy that a foreign
Minister named the place you are in actually, in a publick
assembly, after which you are best judge if you should
continue there or remove. You are offer'd by ye Ladies
the chateau you know of, which by the description is a lonely
solitary place, if you think it safe to make the journey : for
if it should ever become publick where you are, or if it were



PREFACE xi

suspected, it would be almost impossible to remove and at
the same time dangerous to stay.

. . . Lally has entertained L (! Bath and by indirect
discourse and grimace gives to understand he knows where
you are, and that he has great share in all your proceed-
ings, not to say more. He has not been at Rome but made
a private journey to ye End that people might think he went
to meet you in secret. . . . The Ladies by way of discourse
asked me if you was in want of money, upon which I replied
I was not enough acquainted with your affairs to know how
that matter was, but I did not believe you were in distress,
they told me that when you were with them they had often
a mind to speak to you on that subject, but were affraid you
would take it ill, to whom they sayd they could speak with
more liberty, to propose it to you, I told them it was an
affair too delicate for me to medle in without your orders,
I thought however it was my duty to acquaint you with the
generous sentiments and ye noble friendship of the two
Heroines for such they are. . . .

P.S. — If I dare be so bold I would beg my respects
to ye Goddess of ye residence. {Perhaps Madame de
Talmond.)

It is probable enough that the two heroines
(Madame de Vasse and Mademoiselle Ferrand) did
lend money to Charles. Another bitter letter of
Goring's is concerned with his refusal to take part in
conducting Miss Walkinshaw to the Prince, whose
conduct he severely criticises. ' I will not act a low
part in your pleasures. My desire of not living with
you, when accompanied by my utter dishonour, is



xii PRINCE CHARLES EDWARD

not what you can in justice condemn.' Many Jacobite
papers, I learn through Monsieur Kerallain, are pre-
served in the archives of the town of Ouimper ; they
are the documents of Warren, who carried the Prince
to France in 1746.

Information has been kindly given by the
Duchesse d'Albe et de Berwick, by Lord Braye,
and by the Baron Tanneguy de Wogan ; while
Mr. Harold Tinson has obliged me by carefully-
reading and correcting the proof sheets of the first
edition. 1

Finally, I have to express my vast debt of grati-
tude to Miss Violet Simpson, who aided me in
making researches and transcripts at Windsor Castle,
at the Record Office, and at the British Museum ;
and my thanks to the Due de la Tremoille, who pre-
sented me with the printed Jacobite correspondence
of the Walsh family, and to Mr. Hussey Walsh, who
kindly sent me a transcript of the cypher key to
that correspondence, found at Windsor Castle by
Mr. F. H. B. Daniell.

ANDREW LANG.

1 Messrs. Goupil & Co. 1900.



CONTENTS



CHAP. PAGE

I. THE PRINCE BEFORE 1745 *

II. FROM MOIDART TO PRESTONPANS . . . . 86

III. FROM PRESTONPANS TO CULLODEN . . . . 172

IV. IN THE HEATHER 285

V. HOPE AND DESPAIR (1746-1766) 320

VI. CHARLES III 403

INDEX 453



PRINCE CHARLES EDWARD

CHAPTER I

THE PRINCE BEFORE 1745

A wonderful star broke forth,
New-born, in the skies of the North,

To shine on an Old Year's Night.
And a bud on the dear White Rose
Flowered, in the season of snows,

To bloom for an hour's delight.
Lost is the Star from the night,
And the Rose of an hour's delight

Went — where the roses go ;
But the fragrance and light from afar,
Born of the Rose and the Star,

Live through the years and the snow.

The eighteenth century, in its moments of self-con-
sciousness, wrote itself down unromantic. It was the
age of good sense, of moderation, of the estimably
commonplace ; not conversant, not anxious to be
conversant, with great adventures. Looking back,
we see it with other eyes as an age, like all ages
that have been and shall be, not destitute of forlorn
hopes, and desperate enterprises, and high devotions.

B



2 PRINCE CHARLES EDWARD

Among all these enterprises, none was so gallant in
defiance of time, and chance, and force as the adven-
ture of Prince Charles Edward Stuart. The last of a
princely lineage whose annals are a world's wonder
for pity, and crime, and sorrow, Prince Charles has
excelled them all, save Queen Mary, in his share of
the confessed yet mysterious charm of his House.
He is the best remembered, next t'o the Queen, of his
Royal line : as each generation grows up, he takes
young readers captive : no hero has been celebrated in
songs so many, so spirited, and so tender. Yet Charles
had not the intellect of the first James, the poet and
statesman. His was not the unflinching courage of
the fourth James, who died far in front of the fighting
line at Flodden, within a lance's length of the English
commander, Surrey. In domestic conduct and
loyalty to a creed he does not compare well with
Charles I. He had not the brilliant wit of the second
Charles ; nor that geniality of his which covered so
many sins. Far from him was the literary skill of
James II. : and the keen sense of honour, the undeni-
able dignity, and the Christian stoicism, of his own
melancholy father, James III., ' The Chevalier de St.
George.' Of Mary Stuart he lacked the redeeming
steadfastness to loyal friends ; but he somehow rivals
Mary Stuart in his'inexplicable hold on the sentiment
of his adorers.

Old men, known to Sir Walter Scott, had seen



THE PRINCE BEFORE 1745 3

the Prince, and could not speak of him without tears ;
and Scott tells us that Donald Macleod, Charles's
pilot in the stormy western seas, never mentioned
him without tender emotion. After years of bitter
quarrels, and many more years of separation and
silence, the Princesse de Talmond still acknowledged
her affection for the Prince. Even to-day hearts
are stirred when the band plays ' Will ye no come
back again ? ' in assemblies of the Kirk at Holyrood ;
parties held in that long bare hall where Charles lived
his little hour of royalty. Like his fair unhappy
ancestress, who sinned with such a heavy heart,
Prince Charles has his devotees. ' If he came again,
I would go with him,' enthusiasts say, even to this
hour. Why would they go with him, why is his
memory loved ? Unhappily it is not possible for any
writer who places historical truth above sentiment to
represent Charles as ' a very perfect gentle knight.'
His figure is beheld in a lustre not its own : in the
splendour of the love and loyalty that gave themselves
ungrudgingly for him and for his cause, that cherished
his memory, and even now hold it a kind of treason
to tell the truth as far as the truth can be known.
We are unable to find in Prince Charles the shining
figure that bewitches our fancy in our childhood.
But we can at least discern, clearly enough, the cir-
cumstances which made the Prince other than we
would believe him, we can estimate his temptations

E 2



4 PRINCE CHARLES EDWARD

and unravel the complex net of events, trials, betrayals ;
disappointments, and insoluble perplexities, which
thwarted, blinded, perverted, and finally ruined a
gallant heart, and a nature kindly but never strong.
We are compelled to judge him, though, as Monsieur
Coppee says :

L'Ecosse ne peut pas te juger, elle t'aime.

Scott speaks of a gentleman of the name of Stuart
who, in 1788, was seen in mourning, and was asked
for what relation he wore it. ' For my poor Chief,'
he answered ; and it is in the spirit of this reply, and
with this pardoning pity, that all who have a heart to
care for a ruined cause, and a brave man undone,
must think of the Prince. He failed utterly, failed
before God and man and his own soul, but, if he
failed greatly, he had greatly endeavoured. Charles
is loved for his forlorn hope : for his desperate
resolve : for the reckless daring, the winning charm
that once were his : for bright hair, and brown eyes ;
above all, as the centre and inspirer of old chivalrous
loyalty, as one who would have brought back a lost
age, an impossible realm of dreams.

Romance was in Charles's blood. ' His kingdom
also,' said a French lady, speaking to Madame
d'Aiguillon (who wore Charles's miniature, with that
of Christ, in a bracelet), ' is not of this world.' Of
this world his kingdom never was, and could not be ;



THE PRINCE BEFORE 1745 5

but he was and is lord of the region of dreams and
desires. He was born of desire and dream : of high
hopes unfulfilled. His father, the unhappy White
Rose Prince of Wales of 1688, was a character with
much less of appeal to the imagination than himself.
But James, in youth, had been brave and eager, had
charged the English lines, again and again, with the
Maison du Roi, at Malplaquet : and James had
boldly passed, disguised and unhurt, through the
armed myrmidons of Stair. From the ' Jamie the
Rover ' of the old song, Charles inherited his passion
for wanderings that were distasteful, at last, to the
elder and wiser exile.

From his mother, Maria Clementina Sobieska,
Charles drew the fitful energy which, in the famous
John Sobieski, the deliverer of Christendom from the
Turks, had leaped into a light that dazzled Europe.
Adventure had been the Prince's mother's portion in
her girlhood : she had run strange risks for the
dazzle of an airy crown. In 17 18 the Chevalier
(James III.), a man of thirty, an exile in Italy, found
it desirable to wed. The enterprise of 171 5 had
failed utterly, but George I. was hardly yet secure on
his throne. Atterbury, Oxford, Lansdowne, Orrery,
and others were conspiring : Ormond was young, and
ready, with his fellow exiles, Keith, later Frederick's
field-marshal, and his brother, the Earl Marischal, to
lead in a new exploit. Spain, under Alberoni ;



6 PRINCE CHARLES EDWARD

Sweden, under Charles XII., were friendly to the
cause : in brief there were hopes, to be shattered by
the death of Charles XII., and by ' the Protestant
wind,' that ruined the Spanish fleet and the attempt
of 1719.

Therefore, lest his line should fail, James must
take a wife. The Duke of Ormond and Charles
Wogan of Rathcoffey, early in 17 18, were sent to sue
for the hand of a Russian princess. The mission of
Ormond failed ; but Wogan went round the Courts of
Europe looking for a lady to be Queen of England, —
over the water. He was a man of ancient family :
the Wogans went, with Maurice Fitzgerald, from
Pembroke to Ireland in 1169. In 1295, under
Edward I., John Wogan was Justiciary of Ireland.
' Mr. Thomas Wogan, 1 a very beautiful person of the
age of three or four and twenty ' (says Clarendon),
was the hero who led a loyal troop of cavalry from
Dover to the Highlands, where he died of a wound,
in 1655. Charles Wogan, the early friend of Pope,
and the correspondent of Swift, had lived, like Pope,
in the little Catholic colony of Windsor Forest ; till
with his brother Nicholas, a boy of fifteen, he took an
energetic part in the rising of 1715. 2 Nicholas was

1 Edward, not Thomas, seems to have been the real name of this
gentleman.

2 Charles himself, according to the dates in the French History of
the Wogans, was very young ; only about nineteen in 1715.



THE PRINCE BEFORE 1745 7

captured and pardoned for his gallantry in rescuing
a wounded Hanoverian officer out of a cross-fire at
Preston. There was no pardon for Charles, but he
made a romantic escape from Newgate, and entered
Dillon's regiment in French service. He was very
accomplished, and wrote English, French, and Latin
(verse and prose) with equal fluency and felicity.
Such a wooer, gay, witty, brave, and handsome,
might well have made love for himself, as King
Mark's envoy, Tristram, did to Iseult ; but Wogan
sought a heart for his master. Conceivably he was
not so remote from the fortunes of Sir Tristram.
Half a generation later, when Clementina had died
after an unhappy wedded life, James reviewed the
past, and suddenly conceived the idea (he expresses
it in a letter) that Charles Wogan, innocently and
unintentionally, had been the earliest cause of the
disunion between his bride and himself. Accustomed
to the gay and resourceful chivalry of Wogan, good
at need, Clementina may have been disappointed in
her grave, patient, and laborious lord.

Of all this Wogan could not dream, when, visiting
Prince James Sobieski in the course of his matri-
monial mission, he found the usual three daughters
of fairy tale ; Casimire, ' bristling with etiquette, and
astonishingly solemn ; ' Charlotte, ' beyond all mea-
sure gay, free, and familiar ; ' and the youngest, the
fairest, Maria Clementina, ' sweet, amiable, of an even



* PRINCE CHARLES EDWARD

temper, and gay only in season.' Alas, the even
temper was to become petulant and sullen ; the
round glad girlish face was to be drawn and melan-
choly, peaked and wan, yet resigned and sweet, before
all was done.

Wogan chose Clementina as the best bride for the
mournful King.

He then returned from Silesia, to Urbino, where
James was captivated by his account of the chosen
bride, and wished to send the Irish envoy back to com-
plete the arrangement. But instantly arose, as it rose
daily, the spectre of Jacobite disunion. More than
once James might have ' sat in Geordie's chair,' if he
would have abjured his religion. On this point he
was honourably firm, which made it certain that
there could never be a Stuart Restoration. But, as if
this bar were not enough, those about James took
every opportunity to quarrel among themselves.
There were Scottish, English, Irish, Protestant, and
Catholic parties in the faction of the Jacobites, at
home and abroad. So James was not allowed to
send Wogan back to finish the marriage negotiations.

Wogan was, like the bride, a Catholic, also he was
Irish. This was enough to rouse the hostility of
James's chief minister, that Earl (or, by James's
patent, Duke) of Mar, whose incapacity had ruined
the Rising of 17 15, and whose treachery or folly
later secured the condemnation of Atterbury. In



THE PRINCE BEFORE 1745 9

place of Wogan, Murray, son of a Jacobite mother,
a Scot and Protestant, was sent to Prince Sobieski.
This was the beginning of evils. Murray was brother
to Lord Mansfield, later so well known, and he
came to be distrusted and disliked by almost the
whole Jacobite party. Except the Earl Marischal
they would probably have disliked and distrusted
any minister whom their King preferred. In later
days, Clementina herself hated both Murray and his
brother-in-law, Hay, brother of Lord Kinnoull, and
on these reefs the domestic happiness of the father
and mother of Prince Charles was shattered. For
the moment, probably not by Murray's fault (though
of course he was blamed), the marriage scheme
was ruined. The secret had leaked out : England
threatened the Emperor (the cousin of Clementina)
with a breach of the Quadruple Alliance, and it
was plain that Clementina would not be allowed to
travel from Silesia to Italy through the Imperial
territory.

Knowing nothing of this, James sent Hay to
escort Clementina, but she, with her mother, was
arrested by Imperial decree, at Innsbruck in the Tyrol
(September 17 18). Hay returned to James at
Bologna, and Wogan found himself fitted with an
adventure to his taste. He determined that he would
rescue his future Queen. He hurried from Urbino
to seek James, who had gone to Rome, and received



io PRINCE CHARLES EDWARD

full powers to treat with the father of Clementina. 1
If he failed in his forlorn hope, an Austrian prison or
an English scaffold would be his reward. Disguised as
a travelling merchant he made his way to Clementina
and her mother at Innsbruck : who welcomed his
romantic resolve. Then he sought Prince Sobieski at
Ohlau in Silesia, who at first laughed at his ' Quixo-
tade,' but was won over, by the gallantry of Wogan,
and came into the plot. After delays many, Wogan
early in 17 19, visited Dillon's Irish regiment, at
Schelestadt, near Strasbourg, and enlisted his Three
Musketeers, Gaydon, Misset, and the huge blue-eyed
O'Toole, the Porthos of the party. Mrs. Misset,
though soon about to be brought to bed, and her
maid, Jeanneton, were to act, the first as chaperon,
the second as substitute for Clementina. Meanwhile
James was in Spain, in connection with the enter-
prise ruined at Glenshiel. But, on April 26, the
venturous little party crossed the Rhine, ' and declared
war on the Emperor.'

The plan was to smuggle Jeanneton into Clemen-
tina's house ; to take forth Clementina, disguised as
the maid, while the maid, as Clementina, should keep
her bed under pretence of illness. Jeanneton was
with difficulty brought to accept her role, but finally
all succeeded to a wish. From the hotel at Innsbruck,

1 The romance of Clementina, by Mr. A. E. W. Mason, adheres
closely to actual history.



THE PRINCE BEFORE 1745 "

in a fearful night of snow and rain, Wogan led
Jeanneton to Clementina's house (it still exists) and
came forth with Clementina dressed as Jeanneton.
The Princess began by falling into a gutter, and
time was wasted in getting her dry clothes. Her
only baggage was an apron with pockets full of books,
and a black parcel containing James's present ; no
less than the crown jewels of England ! The parcel,
as the party set forth from the inn, was casually left
behind, Clementina and her friends drove off in a
berline : • Where are my jewels ? ' she asked, and
O'Toole had to ride back, force the hotel gate by
sheer strength, find, and restore the jewels. Never
was a worse quarter of an hour of anxiety, for the
jewels, if discovered by the people of the hotel, would
reveal the plot. But O'Toole was lucky, and the
long drive over the Brenner began. Till they crossed
the frontier they lived in terrors. The Princess was
gay, laughing like the lively child she was, at the
precipices, the breakdowns, the fears of Mrs. Misset
and her own fall into a flooded stream. Almost
without food, except for a few eggs, and tea made in
a vessel that had been used to store oil in, the
Princess kept up her heart, ' sleeping like an angel '
in garrets of bad inns, or in the jolting country cart
that replaced the broken-down berline. They were
delayed by the Princess of Baden, who was travelling
in front, and had secured all the post horses. Mean-



12 PRINCE CHARLES EDWARD

while, at Innsbruck, Jeanneton lay abed, and declined,
in the character of Clementina, to see the magistrate
on his daily visit. This device saved twenty-four
hours, and when a hurrying courier was at last sent,
O'Toole waylaid and entertained him at an inn,
leaving him dead-drunk under the table. The flying
party reached Bologna, where the bride visited the
Palazzo Caprara. Her purpose was to see the
portrait of a young lady of the House, who had been
' talked about ' with James. On beholding the
portrait she ' flushed vermilion,' says Gaydon, in
his account of this exploit. Apparently she was
of rather a jealous temper. On May 8 Murray



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